Open main menu

Changes

241 bytes removed ,  miaka 2 iliyopita
no edit summary
[[Picha:Pressure_exerted_by_collisions.svg|alt=A figure showing pressure exerted by particle collisions inside a closed container. The collisions that exert the pressure are highlighted in red.|right|thumb|250x250px|Shinikizo kutoka migongano ya chembe ndani ya chombo kilichofungwa]]
'''Shinikizo''' ni kiasi cha kani inayotumika kutoka juu moja (kwa moja[[Kiingereza]] kwenye uso wa kitu kwa kipimo cha eneo."pressure"; Ishara[[ishara]] yake ni ''p'' au ''P''.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Giancoli|year=2004|first=DouglasMatumizi G.|title=Physics:ya principles''P'' withau applications|publisher=Pearson''p'' Education|location=Upperinategemea Saddletasnia River,au Ntaaluma.J.|isbn=0-13-060620-0}}</ref>  Mapendekezo ya IUPAC  ya kuonyesha shinikizo ni ya herufi 'p' ndogo.<ref name="IUPACGoldPressure">{{Cite book|last=McNaught, A. D.|year=2014|url=http://goldbook.iupac.org/E02281.html|title=IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book").|series=2.3.3|publisher=Blackwell Scientific Publications|location=Oxford|doi=10.1351/goldbook.P04819|isbn=0-9678550-9-8}}</ref> Hata hivyo, herufi ''P'' kubwa hutumika sana.) ni [[kani]] inayotumika kutoka juu moja kwa moja kwenye uso wa [[kitu]] kwenye [[eneo]] kani hiyo imesambaziwa<ref>{{Cite book|last=Giancoli|year=2004|first=Douglas G.|title=Physics: principles with applications|publisher=Pearson Education|location=Upper Saddle River, N.J.|isbn=0-13-060620-0}}</ref>
'''Shinikizo''' (ishara: ''p'' au ''P'') ni [[kani]] inayotumika kutoka juu moja kwa moja kwenye uso wa kitu kwenye [[eneo]] kani hiyo imesambaziwa.
 
==Vipimo==
Vipimo mbalimbali hutumika kuonyesha shinikizo. Baadhi yake hutokana na kipimo cha kani kugawanywa na kipimo cha eneo hilo; kipimo cha [[Vipimo sanifu vya kimataifa|SI]] cha shinikizo, [[Paskali|pascal]] (Pa), kwa mfano, ni moja [[nyutoni]] kwa kila [[mita ya mraba]]. Shinikizo inaweza pia kuonyeshwa kama shinikizo la anga la kawaida; anga (atm) ni sawa na shinikizo hili, na torr ni hufafanuliwa kama &#x20;{{frac|760}} ya hii. Vipimo ''manometric'' kama vile [[sentimita]] ya maji, [[milimita]] ya zebaki, na [[inchi]] ya zebaki hutumika kuelezea shinikizo kwa suala la urefu wa safu ya [[kiowevu]] fulani katika manometer.
[[Picha:Barometer_mercury_column_hg.jpg|right|thumb|Safu ya Zebaki.]]
Kipimo[[Vipimo]] mbalimbali hutumika kuonyesha shinikizo. Baadhi yake hutokana na kipimo cha kani kugawanywa na kipimo cha eneo hilo; kipimo cha [[Vipimo sanifu vya kimataifa|SI]]  cha shinikizo ni, [[Paskali|pascalPascal]] (Pa), ambachokwa nimfano, sawa nani [[nyutoni]]  [[moja ]] kwa kila [[mita ya mraba]]  (N/m<sup>2</sup>, au kilo·m<sup>-1</sup>·s<sup>-2</sup>). Jina la kipimo hiki liliongezewa mwaka 1971;<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.bipm.fr/en/convention/cgpm/14/pascal-siemens.html|title=14th Conference of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070630020548/http://www.bipm.fr/en/convention/cgpm/14/pascal-siemens.html|archivedate=2007-06-30|publisher=Bipm.fr|accessdate=2012-03-27}}</ref> mbeleni, shinikizo katika SI ilionyeshwa kama nyutoni kwa kila mita ya mraba..
 
Shinikizo inaweza pia kuonyeshwa kama shinikizo la anga la kawaida; anga (atm) ni sawa na shinikizo hili, na torr hufafanuliwa kama &#x20;{{frac|760}} ya hii.
== Ufafanuzi ==
'''Shinikizo''' ni kiasi cha kani inayotumika kutoka juu moja kwa moja kwenye uso wa kitu kwa kipimo cha eneo. Ishara yake ni ''p'' au ''P''.<ref>{{Cite book|last=Giancoli|year=2004|first=Douglas G.|title=Physics: principles with applications|publisher=Pearson Education|location=Upper Saddle River, N.J.|isbn=0-13-060620-0}}</ref> Mapendekezo ya IUPAC ya kuonyesha shinikizo ni ya herufi 'p' ndogo.<ref name="IUPACGoldPressure">{{Cite book|last=McNaught, A. D.|year=2014|url=http://goldbook.iupac.org/E02281.html|title=IUPAC. Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. (the "Gold Book").|series=2.3.3|publisher=Blackwell Scientific Publications|location=Oxford|doi=10.1351/goldbook.P04819|isbn=0-9678550-9-8}}</ref>
Hata hivyo, herufi ''P'' kubwa hutumika sana. Matumizi ya ''P'' au ''p'' inategemea tasnia au taaluma.
 
Vipimo ''manometric'' kama vile [[sentimita]] ya [[maji]], [[milimita]] ya zebaki, na [[inchi]] ya [[zebaki]] hutumika kuelezea shinikizo kwa suala la [[urefu]] wa safu ya [[kiowevu]] fulani katika manometer.
=== Fomyula ===
 
== Fomula ==
[[Picha:Pressure_force_area.svg|right|200x200px]]
Kihisabati:
: <math>A</math> ni eneo la uso juu ya kugusana.
 
=== VipimoInapotumika ===
[[Picha:Barometer_mercury_column_hg.jpg|right|thumb|Safu ya Zebaki]]
Kipimo cha [[Vipimo sanifu vya kimataifa|SI]] cha shinikizo ni [[Paskali|pascal]] (Pa), ambacho ni sawa na [[nyutoni]]  moja kwa kila [[mita ya mraba]] (N/m<sup>2</sup>, au kilo·m<sup>-1</sup>·s<sup>-2</sup>). Jina la kipimo hiki liliongezewa mwaka 1971;<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.bipm.fr/en/convention/cgpm/14/pascal-siemens.html|title=14th Conference of the International Bureau of Weights and Measures|archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070630020548/http://www.bipm.fr/en/convention/cgpm/14/pascal-siemens.html|archivedate=2007-06-30|publisher=Bipm.fr|accessdate=2012-03-27}}</ref> mbeleni, shinikizo katika SI ilionyeshwa kama nyutoni kwa kila mita ya mraba.
 
 
 
==== Inapotumika ====
* Majimaji ya [[breki]]
* [[Shinikizo la juu la damu|Shinikizo la damu]]
* Nguvu za seli za mimea
 
== MarejeleoMarejeo ==
{{reflist|30em}}
 
{{mbegu-fizikia}}
 
[[Jamii:Fizikia]]