Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mlima Kenya"

1,233 bytes removed ,  miaka 3 iliyopita
no edit summary
|archivedate= 2006-12-30
}}</ref> [[Hifadhi]] inapokea wageni juu ya 15,000 kwa mwaka.<ref name="development" />
 
==Mount Kenya National Park==
{{main|Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya}}
Mount Kenya National Park, imara katika [[1949]], hulinda kanda yanayozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa hifadhi ya misitu kabla ya kutangazWa kama Hifadhi ya Taifa.<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
|url= http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
|title= Mount Kenya National Park
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
|author= Kenya Wildlife Service
|authorlink= Kenya Wildlife Service
|year= 2007
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070622045208/http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
|archivedate= 2007-06-22
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama [[UNESCO Biosphere Reserve]].<ref name="unep">{{cite web
|url= http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
|title= Protected Areas and World Heritage
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
|author= United Nations Environment Programme
|authorlink= United Nations Environment Programme
|year= 1998
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070212211303/http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
|archivedate= 2007-02-12
}}</ref>
 
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kujenga Hifadhi ya Taifa juu na kuzunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]] wa ndani na wa kitaifa, kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, ili kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani ya hifadhi, na kuhifadhi [[vyanzo vya maji]] yanayozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
| last = Gichuki
| first = Francis Ndegwa
| coauthors =
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
| journal = Ambio
| volume = 28
| issue = 5
| pages = 430–435
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
| doi =
| accessdate =
| format = subscription required}}
</ref>
 
==Historia==
George Kolb, [[daktari]] Mjerumani, alifanya safari mwaka 1894 na 1896 <ref name="mck" /> na alikuwa wa kwanza kufika moorlands upande wa mashariki ya mlima. Hata hivyo, mbali zaidi kupatikana mara baada ya utafutaji 1899 wakati [[reli]] kukamilika mbali kama tovuti ya Nairobi.<ref name="mck" /> Upatikanaji mlima alikuwa mbali kutoka hapa rahisi kuliko kutoka [[Mombasa]] juu ya pwani.<ref name="mackinder" />
 
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name="mackinder" /> [[Halford Yohana Mackinder]] aliongoza kundi la wapelelezi 6 kutoka [[Ulaya]], 66 kutoka [[Uswahilini]], [[Wamaasai]] 2 na Wakikuyu 96.<ref name="mackinder">{{cite journal
===Mackinder's Expedition===
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name="mackinder" /> Sir [[Halford Yohana Mackinder]] yaliyowekwa kutoka tovuti ya Nairobi juu ya Expedition mlima Kenya. Wanachama wa Expedition [[Ulaya]] bestod ya 6 ans, 66 [[Uswahilini]], 2 tall [[Wamaasai]] guides na 96 Kikuyu. Européerna walikuwa Campbell B. Hausberg, pili katika amri na [[mpiga picha]], Douglas Saunders, [[botanist]], CF Camburn, [[taxidermist]], Cesar Ollier, [[kuongoza]], na Josef Brocherel, kuongoza na mbeba mizigo.<ref name="mackinder">{{cite journal
| last=Mackinder | first = Halford John
| authorlink = Halford John Mackinder | year=1900 | month=Mei
| url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-7398%28190005%2915%3A5%3C453%3AAJTTSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y
| accessdate=2007-05-28}}</ref>
Walikutana na matatizo mengi njiani.<ref name="mackinder" /> Mackinder alisukuma juu mlimani, na kuanzisha kambi saa {{convert|3142|m|ft|-1}} <ref name="mackinder" /> katika Höhnel Valley. Yeye alifanyaAlifanya jaribio yake ya kwanza kwenye kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] kwa Brocherel up Ollier na kusini mashariki uso, lakini walikuwa na mafungo walipokuwa ndani {{convert|100|m|yd|-1}} wa mkutano wa Nelion kutokana na [[alasiri]].
Expedition tukakifanya mbali kama mlima, lakini wamekutana matatizo mengi njiani. Nchi wao kupita mara kamili ya [[tauni]] na [[njaa]]. Mabawabu Wakikuyu wengi walijaribu jangwa na wanawake kutoka vijiji, na wengine aliiba kutoka katika vijiji, ambayo [[waheshimiwa]] kiuadui sana kuelekea Expedition. Walipofika [[wigo kambi]] tarehe [[18 Agosti]],<ref name="mackinder" /> hawakuweza kupata chakula chochote, alikuwa wawili wa chama yao kuuawa na wenyeji, na hatimaye alikuwa kutuma Saunders ya [[Naivasha]] kupata msaada kutoka [[Kapteni Gorges]], Serikali Afisa kuna .<ref name="mackinder" />
 
Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel alifanyawalifanya mzunguko wa kuu wa peaks kutafuta njia rahisi yaila mkutano. Hawakuwezahawakuweza kupata mmoja. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel alifanyawalifanya ujio wa Darwin Glacier, lakini walilazimishwa mafungo kutokana na [[blizzard]].<ref name="mackinder" />
Mackinder alisukuma juu mlimani, na kuanzisha kambi saa {{convert|3142|m|ft|-1}} <ref name="mackinder" /> katika Höhnel Valley. Yeye alifanya jaribio yake ya kwanza kwenye kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] kwa Brocherel up Ollier na kusini mashariki uso, lakini walikuwa na mafungo walipokuwa ndani {{convert|100|m|yd|-1}} wa mkutano wa Nelion kutokana na [[alasiri]].
 
Wakati Saunders akarudi kutoka Naivasha na unafuu wa chama hicho, alikuwa Mackinder jaribio jingine katika mkutano na Ollier na Brocherel. Wao traversed ya Lewis Glacier na kusini mashariki ziliongezeka uso wa Nelion. Walitumia usiku karibu [[gendarme]], na traversed ya [[snowfield]] kichwani ya Darwin Glacier saa alfajiri kabla ya kukatwa hatua hadi Diamond Glacier. Wao fikawalifika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na alishuka kwa njia ile ileileile.<ref name="mackinder" />
Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel alifanya mzunguko wa kuu wa peaks kutafuta njia rahisi ya mkutano. Hawakuweza kupata mmoja. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel alifanya ujio wa Darwin Glacier, lakini walilazimishwa mafungo kutokana na [[blizzard]].<ref name="mackinder" />
 
Wakati Saunders akarudi kutoka Naivasha na unafuu wa chama hicho, alikuwa Mackinder jaribio jingine katika mkutano na Ollier na Brocherel. Wao traversed ya Lewis Glacier na kusini mashariki ziliongezeka uso wa Nelion. Walitumia usiku karibu [[gendarme]], na traversed ya [[snowfield]] kichwani ya Darwin Glacier saa alfajiri kabla ya kukatwa hatua hadi Diamond Glacier. Wao fika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na alishuka kwa njia ile ile.<ref name="mackinder" />
 
===1900-1930===
| author= | section=News | day_of_week=Sat | date=23 Januari 1943
| page_number=3 | issue=49451 | column=C}}</ref>
 
==Mount Kenya National Park==
{{main|Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya}}
Mount Kenya National Park, imarailiyoanzishwa katika [[1949]], hulinda kanda yanayozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa [[hifadhi ya misitu kabla ya kutangazWa kama Hifadhi ya Taifa]].<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
|url= http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
|title= Mount Kenya National Park
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
|author= Kenya Wildlife Service
|authorlink= Kenya Wildlife Service
|year= 2007
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070622045208/http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
|archivedate= 2007-06-22
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama [[UNESCO Biosphere Reserve]].<ref name="unep">{{cite web
|url= http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
|title= Protected Areas and World Heritage
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
|author= United Nations Environment Programme
|authorlink= United Nations Environment Programme
|year= 1998
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070212211303/http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
|archivedate= 2007-02-12
}}</ref>
 
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kujengakuanzisha Hifadhi ya Taifa juu na kuzunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]] wa ndani na wa kitaifanje, kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, ili kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani ya hifadhiyake, na kuhifadhi [[vyanzo vya maji]] yanayozungukavinavyozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
| last = Gichuki
| first = Francis Ndegwa
| coauthors =
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
| journal = Ambio
| volume = 28
| issue = 5
| pages = 430–435
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
| doi =
| accessdate =
| format = subscription required}}
</ref>
 
==Utamaduni==
[[File:Mount Kenya Population map-fr.svg|right|thumb|Mlima Kenya ni muhimu kwa makabila yote ya pembezoni hai.]]
Makabila kuumakuu wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ni [[KikuyuWakikuyu]], Ameru[[Wameru]], Embu[[Waembu]] na [[Wamaasai]]. WaoHao wote kuonahuona mlima huo kama kipengele muhimu cha [[tamaduni]] zao.
 
===KikuyuWakikuyu===
[[File:Batian and Nelion in the background cropped.JPG|right|thumb|Makabila kadhaa wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya wanaamini kuwa mlima takatifu. Walitumia kujenga nyumba zao zinazowakabili mlima, na milango upande karibu yake.]]
[[Wakikuyu]] wanaishi kusini na magharibi mwa mlima.<ref name="ecology" /><ref name="Explorers">{{cite book |title= East African Explorers|last= Richards|first= Charles|authorlink= |coauthors= James Place|year= 1960|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= London}}
Ni construed pia inaweza kumaanisha 'mwenye nuru / mwangaza' katika mwanga akimaanisha speglas kutoka glaciers nyeupe juu ya mlima.
 
===EmbuWaembu===
[[Waembu]] wanaishi kusini-mashariki mwa Mlima Kenya,<ref name="ecology" /> na kuamini kuwa mlima ni nyumba ya Mungu wao, ''Ngai'' au ''Mwene Njeru.'' Mlima ni takatifu, na wao kujenga nyumba zao na milango yanayowakabili kuelekea hiyo.<ref name="guide" /> Jina kwa ajili ya Embu Mlima Kenya ni ''kiri Njeru,'' ambayo ina maana ya mlima wa whiteness.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
Embu watu wa karibu kuhusiana na [[Kamba]] ya [[Mbeere]] watu. Wao ni walowezi wa windward upande wa mlima. Hii ni nusu rocky eneo kavu.
 
===Wamasai===
[[Wamasai]] ni wahamaji ambao kutumia ardhi kaskazini ya mlimani grazekuchunga mifugo yao. Wao wanaamini kuwa mababu zao ulioshukawalishuka kutoka mlima mwanzoni mwa wakati.<ref name="guide" /> WamasaiJina jina kwaLa Mlima Kenya kwa [[Kimasai]] ni ''Ol Donyo Keri'', ambayoambalo inamaanishalinamaanisha 'mlima wa bakora au wengirangi coloursnyingi' depictingkudokeza theluji, misitu na menginemengineyo kamavinavyoonekana alionakutoka vivulitambarare kutokaya surrounding tambararekandokando.<ref name="somjee">{{cite journal
| last=Somjee | first=Sultan | year=2000
| title = Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience
Mt. Kenya, like Mt. Kilimanjaro and multiply in number. |Collected by Francis Sakuda of Oloshoibor Peace Museum<ref name=somjee/>}}
 
===AmeruWameru===
[[AmeruWameru]] anashughulika yawako Mashariki na Kaskazini yamwa Mlima. Wao ni jumlamlima yawakishughulikia kilimo na mifugo nakatika piasehemu kushika anashughulika kile niiliyo miongoni mwa nchi yenye rutuba wenginyingi nchini Kenya. Jina kwa ajili ya Merula Mt. Kenya kwa [[Kimeru]] ni ''Kirimara'' (Hiyokutokana ambayo ina stuffna nyeupeweupe auwa theluji).<ref name="witchmen">{{cite book |title= When We Began There Were Witchmen|last= Fadiman|first= Jeffrey A.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1994|publisher= University of California Press|location= Berkeley|isbn= 0-520-08615-5|page= |pages= |url= http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/|accessdate= 2009-05-14}}
</ref>
</ref> Baadhi ya nyimbo Meru rejea ''Kirimara hakuna makengi'' (The mlima ni speckles wote.) Poem nyimbo nyingine kama kuashiria kwamba mlima ni ndogo makundi mbalimbali ya jamii. ''Murungu'' ya Meru Mungu mara kutoka mbinguni.
 
===Makabila mengine===
UlayaWazungu yawa kwanza kutembelea Mlima Kenya mara nyingi walileta wajumbe wa makabila mengine kama marafiki na mabawabu. Wengi wa watu hawa hawajawahi uzoefu wa baridi, au kuonekana theluji na barafu kabla. ReactionsMaitikio zaoyao mara nyingi walikuwazilikuwa za waogawoga na tuhuma.
 
{{Quote|
|J W Gregory|''The Great Rift Valley''<ref name=gregory/>}}
 
Mackinder's Expedition wa 1899 alikutana na baadhi ya wanaume kutoka kabila la [[Wadorobo]]. Wao walikuwa saa kuhusu {{convert|3600|m|ft|-2}} na ni mfano wa kabila kwamba matumizi ya kawaida ya mlima kwa makusudi.<ref name="ecology" />
 
==Jiolojia==
[[Jamii:Mlima Kenya]]
[[Jamii:Volkeno za Kenya]]
[[Jamii:Mahali pa Urithi wa Dunia katika Afrika]]
[[Jamii:Historia ya Kenya]]