Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mlima Kenya"

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Kubadilisha lugha
(Kubadilisha lugha)
{{tafsiri kompyuta}}
 
 
 
{{Infobox Mountain
 
| Name = Mount Kenya
 
| Photo = Pt Thomson Batian Nelion Mt Kenya.JPG
 
| Caption =
| Name            = Mount Kenya
| Elevation = {{convert|5199|m|ft|0}}
 
| Location = {{KEN}}
 
| Prominence = {{convert|3825|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} <small>[[List of peaks by prominence|Ranked 32nd]]</small>
 
| Photo           = Pt Thomson Batian Nelion Mt Kenya.JPG
 
 
 
| Caption         =
 
 
 
| Elevation       = {{convert|5199|m|ft|0}}
 
 
 
| Location        = {{KEN}}
 
 
 
| Prominence      = {{convert|3825|m|ft|0|abbr=on}} <small>[[List of peaks by prominence|Ranked 32nd]]</small>
 
 
 
| coordinates_ref=
 
 
 
| latd= 0|latm= 9|lats= 00|latNS=S
 
 
 
| longd= 37|longm= 18|longs= 00|longEW=E
 
| Coordinates = {{coord|0|9|S|37|18|E|type:mountain|display=inline,title}}
 
 
| Coordinates     = {{coord|0|9|S|37|18|E|type:mountain|display=inline,title}}
 
 
 
| Topographic map = Mt Kenya by Wielochowski and Savage<ref>[http://www.ewpnet.com/maps/mkinside.htm Mount Kenya Map Sample]</ref><ref name=map/>
 
| Type = [[Stratovolcano]] (extinct)
 
| Age =
 
| Last eruption = 2.6-3.1 [[Mya (unit)|MYA]]
| Type            = [[Stratovolcano]] (extinct)
| First ascent = 1899 by [[Halford John Mackinder|Halford Mackinder]]
 
| Easiest route = [[rock climbing|Rock climb]]
 
| Listing = [[Seven Second Summits]]<br>[[List of countries by highest point|Country high point]]<br> [[Ultra prominent peak|Ultra]]
 
| Age             =
 
 
 
| Last eruption   = 2.6-3.1 [[Mya (unit)|MYA]]
 
 
 
| First ascent    = 1899 by [[Halford John Mackinder|Halford Mackinder]]
 
 
 
| Easiest route   = [[rock climbing|Rock climb]]
 
 
 
| Listing         = [[Seven Second Summits]]<br>[[List of countries by highest point|Country high point]]<br>  [[Ultra prominent peak|Ultra]]
 
 
 
}}
 
[[File:Mount Kenya Region map-en.svg|right|thumb|300px|Mount Kenya ipo katika miinuko ya Kenya, [1] kaskazini kaskazini ya Nairobi, just kaskazini ya Nyeri. <ref Name=rough_guide/>]]
[[Picha:Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|300px|Mlima Kenya.]]
'''Mlima Kenya''' ndio mrefu kuliko yote nchini [[Kenya]]. Mlima huu, ambao wenyeji waliuita '''Kirinyaga''', una [[urefu]] wa [[mita]] 5,199. Mlima huu unatokana na [[volkeno]] iliyozimika ikikadiriwa ya kwamba [[mlipuko wa volkeno|mlipuko]] wake wa mwisho ulitokea mnamo miaka [[milioni]] 2.6 hadi 3.1 iliyopita.
 
'''Mlima Kenya''' ([[Kikuyu (lugha)|Kikuyu]]: ''Kĩrĩnyaga''; [[Kiembu]]: ''Kirenia''; [[Kimaasai]]: ''Ol Donyo Keri''; [[Kimeru (Kenya)|Kimeru]]: ''Kirimara'') ndio mrefu zaidi nchini [[Kenya]]. Mlima huu una [[urefu]] wa [[mita]] 5,199. Mlima huu unatokana na [[volkeno zimwe]] ikikadiriwa ya kwamba [[mlipuko wa volkeno|mlipuko]] wake wa mwisho ulitokea mnamo miaka [[milioni]] 2.6 hadi 3.1 iliyopita.
[[Kilele|Vilele]] vyake vya juu vinaitwa Batian (m 5,199), Nelion (m 5,188) na Lenana (m 4,985). Kuna [[barafuto]] [[nane]] mlimani lakini zinapungua kila [[mwaka]] kutokana na kupanda kwa [[halijoto]] [[duniani]] na kupungua kwa [[usimbishaji]] kwa sababu ya kukatwa kwa [[miti]] mingi.
 
[[Kilele|Vilele]] vyake vya juu vinaitwa Batian (m 5,199), Nelion (m 5,188) na Lenana (m 4,985). Kuna [[barafuto]] [[nane]] mlimani lakini zinapungua kila [[mwaka]] kutokana na kupanda kwa [[halijoto]] [[duniani]] na kupungua kwa [[usimbishaji]] kwa sababu ya kukatwa kwa [[miti]] mingi<ref>{{Citation|title=The vanishing snow of Mount Kenya|url=https://www.nation.co.ke/news/1056-824732-ikm5mjz/index.html|work=Daily Nation|language=en-UK|access-date=2018-09-13}}</ref><ref>{{Citation|title=The vanishing  glaciers of Mount Kenya|url=http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/magazine/The-vanishing--glaciers-of--Mount-Kenya--/434746-3516298-12ef2p/index.html|work=The East African|language=en-UK|access-date=2018-09-13}}</ref><ref name=":0">{{Citation|title=Dying gods: Mt Kenya's disappearing glaciers spread violence below|date=2017-08-02|url=http://www.climatechangenews.com/2017/08/02/dying-gods-mt-kenyas-disappearing-glaciers-spread-violence/|work=Climate Home News|language=en-GB|access-date=2018-09-13}}</ref>.
 
Mlima Kenya ni [[volkeno rusu]] iliyoumbwa takriban miaka milioni 3 baada ya kuumbika wa [[Bonde la Ufa]].<ref name="Rift">{{Cite web
 
 
 
Mlima Kenya ni [[stratovolcano]] umba miaka takriban milioni 3 baada ya ufunguzi wa [[Bonde la Ufa|ufa wa]] [[Afrika Mashariki]] .<ref name="Rift">{{Cite web
|url=http://tel.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/15/90/18/PDF/These_P.Nonnotte_web.pdf
 
 
 
|author=Philippe Nonnotte
|title= ''Étude volcano-tectonique de la zone de divergence Nord-Tanzanienne (terminaison sud du rift kenyan)'' - Caractérisation pétrologique et géochimique du volcanisme récent (8 Ma – Actuel) et du manteau source - Contraintes de mise en place thèse de doctorat de l'université de Bretagne occidentale, spécialité : géosciences marines}}</ref>
Ilikuwa na [[barafu]] kwa maelfu ya miaka. Hii imesababisha [[mmomonyoko]] mkubwa sana mteremko <ref name="gregory1894" /> na [[Bonde|mabonde]] mengi kutoka kituo hicho.<ref name="baker" /> Sasa kuna [[barafuto]] dogo 11. Mlima ni [[chanzo]] muhimu cha [[maji]] kwa Kenya.<ref name="development" />
 
Habari zake zilitolewa [[Ulaya]] mwaka [[1849]] na [[Ludwig Krapf]],<ref name="dutton" /> lakini [[jamii]] ya [[wanasayansi]] walibaki na wasiwasi kuhusu ripoti yake ya [[theluji]] na barafu karibu hivi na [[ikweta]].<ref name="gregory" /> Uwepo wa Mlima Kenya ulithibitishwa mwaka [[1883]] na [[1887]].<ref name="teleki" /> Ulipandwa na [[timu]] iliyoongozwa na [[Halford Yohana Mackinder]] katika [[1899]].<ref name="mackinder" /> Leo kuna watu wengi kutembea mlimani.<ref name="map" />
 
 
Kuna aina tofauti za [[mimea]] na [[wanyama]].<ref name="kirinyaga" /> Mteremko hufunikwa na aina tofauti ya [[misitu]]. [[Spishi]] nyingi ni wenyeji kama vile [[lobelias]], [[senecio]] na [[mwamba hyrax]].<ref name="ecology" /> Kwa sababu hii, eneo la [[km2]] 715 kuzunguka kituo cha mlima ni [[hifadhi ya taifa]] <ref name="uicn">{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/800.pdf
|title= ''Étude volcano-tectonique de la zone de divergence Nord-Tanzanienne (terminaison sud du rift kenyan)'' - Caractérisation pétrologique et géochimique du volcanisme récent (8 Ma – Actuel) et du manteau source - Contraintes de mise en place thèse de doctorat de l'université de Bretagne occidentale, spécialité : géosciences marines}}</ref> Umekuwa na [[theluji]] kwa maelfu ya miaka. Theluji hiyo hufanya kuwe na mmomonyoko unaosababishwa na barafuto na kutengeneza mabonde<ref name=":1">{{Cite journal|last=Gregory|first=J. W.|date=1894-02-01|title=Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.—Part I. The Glacial Geology of Mount Kenya|url=http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/content/50/1-4/515|journal=Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society|language=en|volume=50|issue=1-4|pages=515–530|doi=10.1144/GSL.JGS.1894.050.01-04.36|issn=0370-291X}}</ref>. Barafuto zimepungua kutoka 18 hadi 10<ref name=":0" />. Mlima huu ni [[chanzo]] muhimu cha [[maji]] kwa Kenya.<ref name="development" />
| title= World Heritage Nomination - IUCN Technical Evaluation Mount Kenya (Kenya)}}</ref>
 
na kuorodheshwa na [[UNESCO]] kama [[urithi wa dunia]] mwaka [[1997]].<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
Habari kuhusu mlima zilifikishwa [[Ulaya]] mwaka [[1849]] na [[Ludwig Krapf]],<ref name="dutton" /> lakini [[jamii]] ya [[wanasayansi]] walibaki na wasiwasi kuhusu ripoti kuwa kulikuwa na [[theluji]] karibu na [[ikweta]].<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://archive.org/details/greatriftvalleyb00greg|title=The Great Rift Valley : being the narrative of a journey to Mount Kenya and Lake Baringo : with some account of the geology, natural history, anthropology and future prospects of British East Africa|last=Gregory|first=J. W. (John Walter)|date=1896|publisher=London : J. Murray|others=Smithsonian Libraries}}</ref> Uwepo wa Mlima Kenya ulithibitishwa mwaka [[1883]] na [[1887]]<ref name=":2">{{Cite book|url=http://archive.org/details/discoveryoflakes02hhne|title=Discovery of lakes Rudolf and Stefanie; a narrative of Count Samuel Teleki's exploring & hunting expedition in eastern equatorial Africa in 1887 & 1888|last=Höhnel|first=Ludwig|last2=Teleki|first2=Samuel|last3=Bell|first3=Nancy R. E. Meugens|date=1894|publisher=London, Longmans, Green and Co.|others=Smithsonian Libraries}}</ref>. Ulipandwa na [[timu]] iliyoongozwa na [[Halford John Mackinder]], mwaka [[1899]]<ref name=":3">{{Cite journal|last=Mackinder|first=H. J.|date=1900|title=A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa|url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/1774261|journal=The Geographical Journal|volume=15|issue=5|pages=453–476|doi=10.2307/1774261}}</ref>. Leo Mlima Kenya hupandwa na watalii na wanaopenda kupanda milima na [[miamba]].<ref name="map">{{cite map|publisher=EWP|title=Mount Kenya Map and Guide|url=http://www.ewpnet.com/Kenyamap.htm|edition=4th|year=2007|cartography=EWP|scale=1:50,000 with 1:25,000 inset|series=EWP Map Guides|isbn=9780906227961}}</ref>
 
[[Mfumo wa ikolojia]] wa Mlima Kenya una aina tofauti za [[mimea]] na [[wanyama]].<ref name=":4">{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/37843815|title=Kirinyaga : a fable of Utopia|last=D.|first=Resnick, Michael|date=1998|publisher=Ballantine Pub. Group|isbn=0345417011|edition=1st ed|location=New York|oclc=37843815}}</ref> Mteremko hufunikwa na aina tofauti ya [[misitu]]. [[Spishi]] [[asilia]] ni kama vile [[Mwanzi (nyasi)|mianzi]], [[tai]] na [[pimbi]].<ref name="ecology" /> Kwa sababu hii, eneo la [[km2|<abbr>km<sup>2</sup></abbr>]] 715 linalozunguka mlima ni [[Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya|hifadhi ya taifa]] <ref name="uicn">{{cite web|url=http://whc.unesco.org/archive/advisory_body_evaluation/800.pdf
 
 
 
| title= World Heritage Nomination - IUCN Technical Evaluation Mount Kenya (Kenya)}}</ref> na liliorodheshwa na [[UNESCO]] kama [[urithi wa dunia]] mwaka [[1997]].<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
 
 
 
|url= http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=800
 
 
 
|title= Mount Kenya National Park/Natural Forest
 
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
 
 
|author= United Nations
 
 
 
|authorlink= United Nations
 
 
 
|year=2008
 
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20061230202343/http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=800
 
 
 
|archivedate= 2006-12-30
 
}}</ref> [[Hifadhi]] inapokea wageni juu ya 15,000 kwa mwaka.<ref name="development" />
 
 
}}</ref> [[Hifadhi (pori)|Hifadhi]] hupokea wageni zaidi ya 15,000 kwa mwaka.<ref name="development" />
==Etimolojia==
 
Neno Kenya linaweza kuwa lilitokana na majina ambayo makabila wenyeji waliupatia Mlima Kenya. Wakikuyu; ''Kirinyaga'', Waembu; ''Kirenyaa'' na Wakamba''; Kiinyaa.'' Ludwig Krapf aliliandika jina kama Kenia na Kegnia, maneno ambayo yanaaminika kutoholewa kutoka neno la [[Kikamba]].<ref name="krapf_452">{{cite journal|last=Krapf|first=Johann Ludwig|authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf|date=13 Mei 1850|title=Extract from Krapf's diary|journal=Church Missionary Intelligencer|volume=i|pages=452}}</ref><ref name="foottit">{{cite book|title=Kenya|last=Foottit|first=Claire|publisher=Bradt Travel Guides Ltd|year=2006|isbn=1-84162-066-1|series=The Brade Travel Guide|origyear=2004}}</ref><ref name="Krapf" />
 
===Majina ya vilele===
 
Vilele vya Batian, Nelion na Lenana vimepewa majina ya [[Laibon]] Mbatian na wanawe ambao walikuwa Wamasai..<ref name="dutton" /> Kilele cha Terere pia kilipatiwa jina la kiongozi Mmasai. Majina mengine yalitoka kwa majina ya wazungu wapelelezi, k.v. Shipton, Sommerfelt, Tilman, Dutton na Arthur. Kuna majina yaliyotoka kwa wakenya na walowezi maarufu. Majina ya [[Mtume|watume]] John na Peter yalitolewa na Arthur, aliyekuwa mmishonari.<ref name="mck">{{cite book|title=The Mountain Club of Kenya Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro|last=Allan|first=Iain|publisher=Mountain Club of Kenya|year=1981|isbn=978-9966985606|location=Nairobi}}</ref>
 
==Historia==
===Ugunduzi wa Wazungu===
[[File:Joseph Thomson.png|right|thumb|Joseph Thomson kufika chini ya Mlima Kenya na kuthibitishaalithibitisha  ugunduzi wa Krapf.]]
 
Mlima Kenya ulikuwa kati ya vilele vya juu vya [[Afrika]] kuonekana kwa mara ya kwanza kwa [[wapelelezi]] kutoka Ulaya. Wa kwanza kuuona alikuwa Johann Ludwig Krapf, [[mmisionari]] [[Mjerumani]]<ref name="Krapf">{{cite book
Mlima Kenya ulikuwa kati ya vilele virefu [[Afrika]] kuonekana kwa mara ya kwanza na [[Mpelelezi|wapelelezi]] kutoka Ulaya. Wa kwanza kuuona alikuwa [[Johann Ludwig Krapf]], [[mmisionari]] [[Mjerumani]]<ref name="Krapf">{{cite book
 
 
 
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
 
 
 
| title= Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa
 
 
 
| year=1860 | publisher=Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London
 
 
 
| isbn= }}</ref>, [[tarehe]] [[3 Desemba]] [[1849]]<ref name="dutton">{{cite book
 
 
 
| last=Dutton | first=E.A.T. | authorlink=
 
 
 
| title= Kenya Mountain |year=1929 |publisher=Jonathan Cape
 
| location= London}}</ref>, kutoka [[Kitui]], mji ulioko km 160 mbali kutoka mlima
 
<ref name="rough_guide">{{cite map
 
| location= London}}</ref>, kutoka [[Kitui]], mji ulio km 160 kutoka mlima<ref name="rough_guide">{{cite map
 
 
 
| publisher=Rough Guide | title= Rough Guide Map Kenya
 
 
 
| edition=9 | year=2006 | cartography=World Mapping Project
 
 
 
| scale=1:900,000 | series=Rough Guide Map |isbn=1-84353-359-6
}}</ref>, baada ya ugunduzi wa [[mlima Kilimanjaro]].
 
Krapf aliambiwa na [[watu]] wa [[kabila]] la [[Waembu]] kwamba waliishi kuzunguka mlima na kwamba hawakuwa wamepaa juu kwa sababu ya [[baridi]] na [[theluji]].<ref name="Krapf" /> [[Wakikuyu]] walithibitisha haya yametukia.
 
[[File:Samuel Teleki.jpg|thumb|left|Samuel Teleki Mzungu wa kwanza kuweka mguu juu ya Mlima Kenya.]]
Krapf pia alibainisha kwamba [[mito]] inapita kutoka Mlima Kenya, na mingine katika eneo la milima, ilikuwa daima inapita. Hii ilikuwa tofauti sana na mingine katika eneo, ambayo ilikauka baada ya [[msimu]] wa [[mvua]] kumalizika. Akajua kuwa lazima kuna chanzo cha maji mlimani, katika umbo la barafuto.<ref name="Krapf" /> Aliamini ni chanzo cha [[White Nile]].<ref>{{cite journal
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
| title = Extract from Krapf's diary | date=13 Mei 1850
| journal=Church Missionary Intelligencer
| volume=i | pages=345}}</ref>
 
}}</ref>, baada ya ugunduzi wa [[Mlima Kilimanjaro]].
Mwaka [[1851]] Krapf akarudi Kitui. Yeye alisafiri {{convert|65|km|mi|0}} karibu na mlima, lakini hakuweza kuuona tena. Mwaka 1877 Hildebrandt alikuwa katika eneo la Kitui na kusikia juu ya mlima, lakini pia hakuweza kuuona, hivyo watu walianza kumtuhumu Krapf.<ref name="gregory">
 
Krapf aliambiwa na [[watu]] wa [[kabila]] la [[Waembu]] kwamba walikuwa wakiuzunguka mlima lakini hawakuwa wamepaa juu kwa sababu ya [[baridi]] na  [[theluji]].<ref name="Krapf" /> [[Wakikuyu]] walithibitisha haya yametukia.[[File:Samuel Teleki.jpg|thumb|left|Samuel Teleki, Mzungu wa kwanza kuweka mguu juu ya Mlima Kenya.]]
 
 
 
Krapf pia alibainisha kwamba [[mito]] inayotoka Mlima Kenya, na mingine katika eneo la milima, ilikuwa mito ya kudumu. Akagundua kuwa lazima kuna chanzo cha maji mlimani, katika umbo la barafuto.<ref name="Krapf" /> Aliamini ni chanzo cha [[Mto Nili Nyeupe|Nili Nyeupe]].<ref>{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
 
 
 
| title = Extract from Krapf's diary | date=13 Mei 1850
 
 
 
| journal=Church Missionary Intelligencer
 
 
 
| volume=i | pages=345}}</ref>
 
Mwaka [[1851]] Krapf akarudi Kitui. Yeye alisafiri km 65 karibu na mlima, lakini hakuweza kuuona tena. Mwaka 1877 Hildebrandt alikuwa katika eneo la Kitui na kusikia juu ya mlima, lakini pia hakuweza kuuona, hivyo watu walianza kumtuhumu Krapf.<ref name="gregory">
 
 
 
{{cite book
 
 
 
| last=Gregory | first=John Walter |authorlink=John Walter Gregory
 
 
 
| title=The Great Rift Valley | origdate=1896 | year=1968
 
 
 
| publisher= Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London}}</ref>
 
Hatimaye, mwaka [[1883]], [[YusufuJoseph Thomson]] alipita upande wa magharibi wa mlima na Krapf alithibitisha madai yake.<ref name="thomson">{{cite book|title=Through Masai Land|last=Thomson|first=Joseph|publisher=Frank Cass & Co Ltd|year=1968|edition=3|location=London|authorlink=Joseph Thomson (explorer)|origdate=1885}}</ref> Hata hivyo, utafutajiupelelezi Ulayarasmi kweliwa kwanza ya mlimaulifanyika maramwaka 1887 kwa mafanikio katikana [[Count Samuel Teleki]] na [[Ludwig von Höhnel]]. YeyeWaliweza imewezakufika kuwafikiamita {{convert|4350|m|ft|-1}}4,350 kwenye mteremko wa kusini magharibi.<ref name="teleki:2" />{{cite. bookKatika safari ya upelelezi huo, waliamini kuwa walikuwa wamegundua volkeno.
 
| last=von Höhnel |first=Lieutenant Ludwig
Mwaka 1892, Teleki na von Höhnel walirudi upande wa mashariki, lakini hawakuweza kupitia msitu.<ref name="ecology">{{cite book
| authorlink= Ludwig von Höhnel | coauthors=Count Samuel Teleki
 
| title= Discovery of Lakes Rudolf and Stefanie
 
| year=1894 | publisher=Longmans | location=London}}</ref>
Expedition hii waliamini walikuwa akamkuta volkeno ya vilkano.
 
Mwaka 1892, Teleki na von Höhnel walirudi upande wa mashariki, lakini hawakuweza kupata kupitia msitu.<ref name="ecology">{{cite book
| last=Coe | first=Malcolm James
 
 
 
| title=The Ecology of the Alpine Zone of Mount Kenya
| year=1967 | publisher= Dr W. Junk | location=The Hague}}</ref>
 
Hatimaye, mwaka 1893 timu ilisafiri kutoka pwani ya [[Ziwa Baringo]] katika [[Bonde la Ufa]], ikiongozwa na [[Yohana W. Gregory]], [[mwanajiolojia]] [[Mwingereza]]. Wao kusimamiwa kupaa mlimani kuzunguka {{convert|4730|m|ft|-1}} na alitumia masaa kadhaa juu ya Lewis Glacier [[mwongozo]] wao. Aliporudi [[Uingereza]], Gregory alichapishwa [[majarida]] na [[hadithi]] ya mafanikio yake.<ref name="mck" />
 
George Kolb, [[daktari]] Mjerumani, alifanya safari mwaka 1894 na 1896 <ref name="mck" /> na alikuwa wa kwanza kufika moorlands upande wa mashariki ya mlima. Hata hivyo, mbali zaidi kupatikana mara baada ya utafutaji 1899 wakati [[reli]] kukamilika mbali kama tovuti ya Nairobi.<ref name="mck" /> Upatikanaji mlima alikuwa mbali kutoka hapa rahisi kuliko kutoka [[Mombasa]] juu ya pwani.<ref name="mackinder" />
 
| year=1967 | publisher= Dr W. Junk | location=The Hague}}</ref>
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name="mackinder" /> [[Halford Yohana Mackinder]] aliongoza kundi la wapelelezi 6 kutoka [[Ulaya]], 66 kutoka [[Uswahilini]], [[Wamaasai]] 2 na Wakikuyu 96.<ref name="mackinder">{{cite journal
| last=Mackinder | first = Halford John
| authorlink = Halford John Mackinder | year=1900 | month=Mei
| title=A Journey to the Summit of Mount Kenya, British East Africa
| journal=The Geographical Journal | volume=15
| issue=5 | pages=453–476 | doi=10.2307/1774261
| url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-7398%28190005%2915%3A5%3C453%3AAJTTSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2-Y
| accessdate=2007-05-28}}</ref>
Walikutana na matatizo mengi njiani.<ref name="mackinder" /> Mackinder alisukuma juu mlimani, na kuanzisha kambi saa {{convert|3142|m|ft|-1}} <ref name="mackinder" /> katika Höhnel Valley. Alifanya jaribio yake ya kwanza kwenye kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] kwa Brocherel up Ollier na kusini mashariki uso, lakini walikuwa na mafungo walipokuwa ndani {{convert|100|m|yd|-1}} wa mkutano wa Nelion kutokana na [[alasiri]].
 
Hatimaye, mwaka 1893 timu ilisafiri kutoka pwani hadi [[Ziwa Baringo]] katika [[Bonde la Ufa]], ikiongozwa na [[John W. Gregory]], [[mwanajiolojia]] [[Mwingereza]]. Walikwea mlima hadi mita 4,730 na wakakaa masaa kadhaa katika Barafuto ya Lewis. Aliporudi [[Uingereza]], Gregory alichapisha [[majarida]] na [[hadithi]] ya mafanikio yake.<ref name="mck" /> George Kolb, [[daktari]] Mjerumani, alifanya safari mwaka 1894 na 1896 <ref name="mck" /> na alikuwa wa kwanza kufika nyika ya mlima upande wa mashariki.
Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel walifanya mzunguko kutafuta njia rahisi ila hawakuweza kupata. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel walifanya ujio wa Darwin Glacier, lakini walilazimishwa mafungo kutokana na [[blizzard]].<ref name="mackinder" />
 
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name=":3" /> Halford John Mackinder aliongoza kundi la wapelelezi 6 kutoka [[Ulaya]], 66 kutoka [[Uswahilini]], [[Wamaasai]] 2 na Wakikuyu 96<ref name=":3" />. Walipatana na matatizo mengi njiani<ref name=":3" />. Mackinder aliendelea kupanda mlima. Alikita kambi m 3,142<ref name=":3" />  katika Bonde la Höhnel. Alifanya jaribio la kwanza kufikia kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] pamoja na Brocherel na Ollier kupitia upande wa mashariki, lakini wakabakisha kupanda m 100 kutoka Kilele cha Nelion. Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel walifanya mzunguko kutafuta njia rahisi ila hawakuweza kupata. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel walipanda Barafuto ya Darwin, lakini walilazimishwa kukatiza safari kutokana na [[dhoruba ya theluji]]<ref name=":3" />.
Wakati Saunders akarudi kutoka Naivasha na unafuu wa chama hicho, alikuwa Mackinder jaribio jingine katika mkutano na Ollier na Brocherel. Wao traversed ya Lewis Glacier na kusini mashariki ziliongezeka uso wa Nelion. Walitumia usiku karibu [[gendarme]], na traversed ya [[snowfield]] kichwani ya Darwin Glacier saa alfajiri kabla ya kukatwa hatua hadi Diamond Glacier. Wao walifika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na alishuka kwa njia ileile.<ref name="mackinder" />
 
Wakati Saunders alirudi kutoka Naivasha timu okozi, Mackinder, Ollier na Brocherel walijaribu kupanda kilele tena. Walifika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na walishuka kutumia njia ileile<ref name=":3" />.
===1900-1930===
Baada ya ukweaji wa kwanza, hakukuwa na safari nyingi za kukwea mlima. Upelelezi kabla ya [[Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia|Vita ya Kwanza ya Dunia]] ulikuwa ukifanywa na [[walowezi]] nchini Kenya, ambao hawakufanya upelelezi wa kisayansi. Misheni ya Kanisa la Uskoti ilipofunguliwa Chogoria[[Chogoria,|,]] wamishonari kadhaa walikwea mlima lakini hakuna aliyefanikiwa kufikia vilele vya Batian au Nelion.<ref name="mck" />
[[File:Mt kenya point john showing couloir.jpg|thumb|right|Shipton na Russell alifanya ujio wa kwanza Pt Yohana hadi kusini-mashariki gully mwaka 1929]]
 
Baada ya ujio wa kwanza wa Mt Kenya kulikuwa EXPEDITIONS wachache huko kwa muda. Wengi wa utafutaji mpaka baada ya [[Vita]] ya [[Kwanza]] ya [[Dunia]] ilikuwa na [[settler]] s nchini Kenya, ambao walikuwa siyo kisayansi EXPEDITIONS. A [[utume wa Kanisa la Scotland]] ilianzishwa mwaka [[Chogoria,]] na wamisionari [[Scottish]] kadhaa kupanda kwa peaks, pamoja LJ Dr [[JW Arthur]], G. Dennis na AR Barlow. Kuna wengine walikuwa ascents, lakini hakuna kufanikiwa katika summitting Batian au Nelion.<ref name="mck" />
Miti ya misitu ilikatwa ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia vilele. Mwaka 1920, Arthur Fowell Buxton alijaribu kutengeneza njia kutoka kusini, na njia nyingine walikuja kutoka [[Nanyuki]] kaskazini, lakini njia iliyotumiwa zaidi ni ile ya Chogoria, kutoka mashariki, iliyotengenezwa na Ernest Carr.<ref name="mck" />
 
Mwishoni mwa Julai 1930, Shipton na Bill Tilman walikwea vilele vyote. Katika safari hii, Shipton na Tilman walijaribu kukwea vilele vingine, ikiwa ni pamoja na Petro, Dutton, Midget , Pigott na aidha Terere au Sendeyo.<ref name="cordee">{{cite book
 
Mbinu mpya ya njia walikuwa akalipa kupitia misitu, ambayo kufikia eneo peaks mbali rahisi. Mwaka 1920, na Sir Arthur Fowell Buxton alijaribu kukata en route katika kutoka kusini, na njia nyingine walikuja kutoka [[Nanyuki]] katika kaskazini, lakini kwa kawaida hutumiwa mara nyingi njia kutoka Chogoria utume katika mashariki, kujengwa na Ernest Carr. Carr credited pia ni pamoja na kujenga Urumandi na Juu HUTS.<ref name="mck" />
 
Tarehe 6 Januari 1929 ya kwanza ya ujio wa Nelion lilifanywa na [[Percy Wyn-Harris]] na [[Eric Shipton]]. Wao ziliongezeka ya Normal Route, basi, alishuka na Gate ya UKUNGU kabla wakipanda Batian. Juu ya [[8 Januari]] wao reascended, wakati huu kwa GA Sommerfelt, na katika Shipton alifanya mwingine Desemba kupaa kwa REG Russell. Wao pia alifanya ujio wa kwanza Point Yohana. Katika mwaka huu [[Mountain Club ya Afrika Mashariki]] iliundwa.<ref name="mck" />
 
Mwishoni mwa Julai 1930, Shipton na Bill Tilman alifanya traverse kwanza ya peaks. Wao kupanda kwa Ridge ya Batian Magharibi, mlango wa traversed UKUNGU kwa Nelion, na alishuka ya Normal Route. Katika safari hii, Shipton na Tilman alifanya ascents kwanza peaks nyingine kadhaa, ikiwa ni pamoja Point Petro, Point Dutton, Midget Peak, Point Pigott na aidha Terere au Sendeyo.<ref name="cordee">{{cite book
|last= Burns
 
 
 
|first= Cameron
 
 
 
|title= Kilimanjaro & Mount Kenya; A Climbing and Trekking Guide
 
 
 
|year= 1998
 
 
 
|publisher= Cordee
 
 
 
|location= Leicester
|isbn= 1-871890-98-5}}</ref>
 
 
 
|isbn= 1-871890-98-5}}</ref>
===1931 hadi leo===
1930sKatika mapemamiaka katikaya 1930 ziara kulikuwazilifanyika nazaidi moorlandskatika kuzungukanyika Mlimaya Kenya, pamoja na wachache mbali kama peaksmlima. Raymond Hook na Humphrey Slade ramaniwalikwea yaili kupandawachore mlima, na kujaa kadhaaramani ya vijitomlima na trout.wakapeleka By 1938 kuna amekuwa ascents kadhaa zaidi ya Nelionsamaki. Februari Missmwaka 1938, C Carol na Mtu Muthara akawawakawa mwanamke wa kwanza na [[Afrika]]Mwafrika nwa kwanza mtiririkomtawalia kupaa Nelion, katika Expeditionziara na Noel Symington, mwandishi wa ''The Night Climbers waof [[Cambridge]],''  na tarehe [[5 Machi]] Miss Una Cameron akawa mwanamke wa kwanza kupaa Batian.<ref name="mck" />
 
Wakati wa [[Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia]] ziara za kukwea mlima zilididimia zaidi. Watu maarufu waliokwea katika wakati huo walikuwa wafungwa wa vitani Waitaliano, ambao walikuwa wamefungwa jela Nanyuki. Walitoroka na kupanda mlima kabla ya kurejea kambini.<ref name="picnic">{{cite book
 
 
 
Wakati wa [[Vita Kuu]] ya [[Pili]] ya [[Dunia]] kulikuwa tone mwingine katika ascents wa mlima. Pengine wengi mashuhuri wa kipindi hiki ni ile ya tatu [[Kiitaliano Wafungwa wa Vita]], ambao walikuwa utakaofanyika katika Nanyuki, na kutoroka kupanda mlima kabla ya kurejea kambini na "kukimbia" back in ''[[Hakuna picnic juu ya Mlima Kenya]]'' anaelezea hadithi ya wafungwa 'kunyonya.<ref name="picnic">{{cite book
| last= Benuzzi | first= Felice | authorlink=
 
 
 
| title=No Picnic on Mount Kenya: A Daring Escape, a Perilous Climb
 
 
 
| origdate=1953 | year=2005 | publisher=The Lyons Press
| location= | isbn=978-1592287246}}</ref>
 
Mwaka wa 1949 [[Mlima Club ya Kenya]] kupasuliwa kutoka Mlima Club ya Afrika Mashariki, na eneo juu {{convert|3400|m|ft|-1}} alikuwa mteule wa National Park.<ref name="mck" /> A barabara ilijengwa kutoka [[Naro Moru]] kwa kuruhusu moorlands rahisi kufikia.
 
Routes walikuwa wengi wapya ziliongezeka tarehe Batian na Nelion katika miongo mitatu ijayo, na katika Oktoba 1959 Mlima Club ya Kenya zinazozalishwa yao ya kwanza ya mwongozo wa Mlima Kenya na Kilimanjaro.<ref name="cordee" /> Tarehe ya uhuru wa Kenya mwaka 1963 Kisoi Munayo alimfufua bendera ya Kenya katika juu ya mlima. Yeye alikufa mwaka 2007 na alipewa heroic walihudhuria mazishi na rais wa Kenya [[Mwai Kibaki]] <ref>Kenya Broadcasting Corporation, 11 Aprili 2007: [http://www.kbc.co.ke/story.asp?ID=42031 An shujaa ni alikanusha]</ref> Katika miaka ya 1970 mlima Kenya National Park [[Mountain Rescue Team]] iliundwa, na mwisho wa miaka ya 1970 kila njia kuu ya peaks amekuwa ziliongezeka.<ref name="cordee" />
 
| location=  | isbn=978-1592287246}}</ref>
Mwaka 1997 mlima Kenya ulikuwa mteule wa UNESCO World Heritage Site.<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
 
Mwaka 1949 eneo kupita m 3,400 lilifanywa [[Hifadhi ya taifa|hifadhi ya kitaifa]].<ref name="mck" /> Barabara ilijengwa kutoka [[Naro Moru]] ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia nika ya mlima.
 
Mwaka 1963, katika siku ya uhuru wa Kenya, Kisoi Munayo alikita bendera ya Kenya juu ya mlima. Mwaka 1997, mlima Kenya uliteuliwa kuwa eneo la urithi wa dunia na UNESCO.<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
 
 
 
| url= http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=800
 
 
 
| title= UNESCO World Heritage Site | author=UNESCO
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref>
 
Mnamo 19 Julai 2003, Afrika Kusini registered ndege, kubeba abiria 12 na ndege mbili, kugonga Mount Kenya saa Point Lenana: hakuna alinusurika.<ref>''Mkataba ndege shambulio ndani Kenya's Mount Kenya.,'' Airline Industry Information, 21 Julai 2003</ref><ref>''Rescue timu resume juhudi kuokoa miili ya wale waliouawa katika katiba ya ndege crash,'' Airline Industry Information, 23 Julai 2003</ref> Hii haikuwa ndege ya kwanza waliopotea mlimani; pia kuna wreckage angalau helikopta moja kwamba kugonga kabla ya 1972.<ref>{{Cite newspaper The Times
| articlename=Aircraft flown off Mount Kenya
| author= | section=News | day_of_week=Sat | date=23 Januari 1943
| page_number=3 | issue=49451 | column=C}}</ref>
 
 
==Mount Kenya National Park==
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref>
==Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya==
{{main|Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya}}
 
Mount Kenya National Park, iliyoanzishwa katika [[1949]], hulinda kanda yanayozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa [[hifadhi ya misitu]].<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya, ilianzishwa mwaka [[1949]]. Inahifadhi eneo linalozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa [[hifadhi ya misitu]].<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
 
 
 
|url= http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
 
 
|title= Mount Kenya National Park
 
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
 
 
|author= Kenya Wildlife Service
 
 
 
|authorlink= Kenya Wildlife Service
 
 
 
|year= 2007
 
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070622045208/http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
 
 
|archivedate= 2007-06-22
 
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama [[UNESCO Biosphere Reserve]].<ref name="unep">{{cite web
 
 
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama Hifadhi ya Mazingira ya dunia UNESCO .<ref name="unep">{{cite web
 
 
 
|url= http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
 
 
|title= Protected Areas and World Heritage
 
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
 
 
|author= United Nations Environment Programme
 
 
 
|authorlink= United Nations Environment Programme
 
 
 
|year= 1998
 
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070212211303/http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
 
 
|archivedate= 2007-02-12
}}</ref>
 
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kuanzisha Hifadhi ya Taifa juu kuzunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]] wa ndani na wa nje, kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani yake, na kuhifadhi [[vyanzo vya maji]] vinavyozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
| last = Gichuki
| first = Francis Ndegwa
| coauthors =
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
| journal = Ambio
| volume = 28
| issue = 5
| pages = 430–435
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
| doi =
| accessdate =
| format = subscription required}}
</ref>
 
 
}}</ref>
 
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kuanzisha Hifadhi ya Taifa inayozunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]], kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani yake, na kuhifadhi [[Chanzo cha maji|vyanzo vya maji]] vinavyozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Gichuki
 
 
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
 
 
| coauthors =
 
 
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Ambio
 
 
 
| volume = 28
 
 
 
| issue = 5
 
 
 
| pages = 430–435
 
 
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
 
 
 
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
 
 
 
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
 
 
 
| doi =
 
 
 
| accessdate =
 
 
 
| format = subscription required}}
 
 
 
</ref>
==Utamaduni==
[[File:Mount Kenya Population map-fr.svg|right|thumb|Mlima Kenya ni muhimu kwa makabila yote ya pembezoni hai.]]
 
Makabila makuu wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ni [[Wakikuyu]], [[Wameru]], [[Waembu]] na [[Wamaasai]]. Hao wote huona mlima huo kama kipengele muhimu cha [[tamaduni]] zao.
 
===Wakikuyu===
[[File:Batian and Nelion in the background cropped.JPG|right|thumb|Makabila kadhaa wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya wanaamini kuwa mlima takatifu. Walitumia kujenga nyumba zao zinazowakabili mlima, na milango upande karibu yake.|alt=|left]]
 
[[Wakikuyu]] wanaishi kusini na magharibi mwa mlima.<ref name="ecology" /><ref name="Explorers">{{cite book |title= East African Explorers|last= Richards|first= Charles|authorlink= |coauthors= James Place|year= 1960|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= London}}
</ref> Wao ni [[wakulima]] na kufanya matumizi ya udongo wenye rutuba ya volkeno kwenye mteremko chini. Wakikuyu waamini kwamba Mungu wao, ''Ngai'' aliishi juu ya Mlima Kenya alipo ulioshuka kutoka mbinguni.<ref name="facingmtkenya" /> Wao wanaamini kuwa mlima ni kiti cha enzi cha Ngai duniani. Ni mahali ambapo Kikuyu, baba wa kabila, alitumia kukutana na Mungu wao, Ngai.<ref name="facingmtkenya">{{cite book
| last=Kenyatta | first=Jomo | authorlink=Jomo Kenyatta
| title= Facing Mount Kenya | year=1961
| publisher= Secker and Warburg | location=London}}</ref>
Walitumia kujenga nyumba zao na milango yanayowakabili mlima.<ref name="guide" /> Jina kwa ajili ya Kikuyu Mlima Kenya ni ''kiri Nyaga'' ([[Kirinyaga]]), ambayo literally hutafsiriwa kwa 'mwangaza mlima'. Jina la Mungu katika Kikuyu ''Mwene Nyaga'' pia ni maana ya 'mmiliki wa ostriches'.
Ni construed pia inaweza kumaanisha 'mwenye nuru / mwangaza' katika mwanga akimaanisha speglas kutoka glaciers nyeupe juu ya mlima.
 
</ref> Wao ni [[wakulima]] na hulima katika udongo mwekundu wa volkeno. Wakikuyu waamini kwamba Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  aliishi juu ya Mlima Kenya aliposhuka kutoka mbinguni.<ref name=":5">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=pPBtzgAACAAJ&dq=facing+mount+kenya&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwithfbKqbjdAhUD1BoKHWuEDS4Q6AEIJzAA|title=Facing Mount Kenya|last=Kenyatta|first=Jomo|date=2011-04-05|publisher=Penguin Random House|isbn=9781846555527|language=en}}</ref> Wao wanaamini kuwa mlima ni kiti cha enzi cha Ngai duniani. Ni mahali ambapo Gikuyu, baba wa kabila, alitumia kukutana na Mungu wao, Ngai.<ref name=":5" /><ref name="guide">{{cite|author=Kenya Wildlife Service|title=Mount Kenya Official Guidebook|publisher=Kenya Wildlife Service|year=2006|date=2006}}</ref> Jina kwa ajili ya Kikuyu Mlima Kenya ni ''Kĩrĩnyaga''  ([[Kirinyaga]]), tafsiri yake ikiwa ni mlima mweupe. Linatokana na weupe wa theluji<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Karangi|first=Matthew|date=2013-01-01|title=The gĩkũyũ religion and philosophy: A tool for understanding the current religio-political debates in Kenya|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291902121_The_gikuyu_religion_and_philosophy_A_tool_for_understanding_the_current_religio-political_debates_in_Kenya|volume=108|pages=612–622}}</ref>.
===Waembu===
[[Waembu]] wanaishi kusini-mashariki mwa Mlima Kenya,<ref name="ecology" /> na kuamini kuwa mlima ni nyumba ya Mungu wao, ''Ngai'' au ''Mwene Njeru.'' Mlima ni takatifu, na wao kujenga nyumba zao na milango yanayowakabili kuelekea hiyo.<ref name="guide" /> Jina kwa ajili ya Embu Mlima Kenya ni ''kiri Njeru,'' ambayo ina maana ya mlima wa whiteness.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
Embu watu wa karibu kuhusiana na [[Kamba]] ya [[Mbeere]] watu. Wao ni walowezi wa windward upande wa mlima. Hii ni nusu rocky eneo kavu.
 
===Waembu===
[[Waembu]] wanaishi kusini-mashariki mwa Mlima Kenya,<ref name="ecology" /> na kuamini kuwa mlima ni nyumba ya Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  au ''Mwene Njeru.'' Mlima ni takatifu, na walikuwa wakijenga nyumba zikiwa na milango iliyokuwa ikitazama mlima.<ref name="guide" /> Waembu wanauita ''kiri Njeru'', maana yake, mlima mweupe.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
===Wamasai===
[[Wamasai]] ni wahamaji[[wahamahamaji]] ambao kutumiawalitumia ardhi kaskazini ya mlimanimlima kuchungakulisha mifugo yaowao. Wao wanaaminiWanaamini kuwa mababu zao walishuka kutoka mlima mwanzoni mwa wakati.<ref name="guide" /> Jina La Mlima Kenya kwa [[Kimasai]]Wamasai niwaliuita ''Ol Donyo Keri'', ambalo linamaanisha 'mlima wa bakora au rangi nyingi' kudokeza theluji, misitu na mengineyo vinavyoonekana kutoka tambarare ya kandokando.<ref name="somjee">{{cite journal
 
| last=Somjee | first=Sultan | year=2000
 
| title = Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience
 
| journal= Research in African Literatures
| volumelast=31Somjee | issuefirst=4Sultan | pages year= 97–1032000
 
| url = http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/research_in_african_literatures/v031/31.4somjee.html
 
| accessdate=2008-02-21 | doi = 10.2979/RAL.2000.31.4.97
 
| title = Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience
 
 
 
| journal= Research in African Literatures
 
 
 
| volume=31 | issue=4 | pages = 97–103
 
 
 
| url = http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/research_in_african_literatures/v031/31.4somjee.html
 
 
 
| accessdate=2008-02-21 | doi = 10.2979/RAL.2000.31.4.97
 
 
 
}}</ref> Angalau moja sala Wamaasai inahusu mlima wa Kenya:
{{Quote|God bless our children, let them be like the<br />
olive tree of Morintat, let them grow and<br />
expand, let them be like Ngong Hills like<br />
Mt. Kenya, like Mt. Kilimanjaro and multiply in number. |Collected by Francis Sakuda of Oloshoibor Peace Museum<ref name=somjee/>}}
 
 
 
{{Quote|Mungu bariki watoto wetu, wawe kama mkuyu wa Morintat, wakue na wapanuke, wawe kama Vilima vya Ngong, kama Mlima Kenya, kama Mlima Kilimanjaro na waongezeke. (tafsiri)|Ilikusanywa na Francis Sakuda wa Makumbusho ya Amani ya Oloshoibor<ref name=somjee/>}}
===Wameru===
[[Wameru]] wakowanaishi Mashariki na Kaskazini mwa mlima. wakishughulikia kilimoWalilima na mifugo[[Ufugaji|kufuga]] katika sehemu iliyo miongoni mwa nchi yenye rutuba nyingi nchini Kenya. Jina la Mt. Kenya kwa [[Kimeru]] ni ''Kirimara'' (kutokana na weupe wa theluji).<ref name="witchmen">{{cite book |title= When We Began There Were Witchmen|last= Fadiman|first= Jeffrey A.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1994|publisher= University of California Press|location= Berkeley|isbn= 0-520-08615-5|page= |pages= |url= http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/|accessdate= 2009-05-14}}
</ref>
 
 
 
</ref>
===Makabila mengine===
Wazungu wa kwanza kutembelea Mlima Kenya mara nyingi walileta wajumbe wa makabila mengine kama marafiki na mabawabu. Wengi wao hawakuwa na uzoefu wa baridi, au kuwahi kuona theluji. Maitikio yao mara nyingi zilikuwa za woga na tuhuma.{{Quote|Sifa nyingine ya wazanzibari ilionekana katika kambi ile ile. Asubuhi ilipofika, waume walikuja kuniarifu kwamba maji yale waliokuwa wamewacha ndani ya vyungu yalikuwa yamerogwa. Walisema kuwa ni meupe, na hayatikisiki; Fundi, aliyejulikana kuwa mwenye kuthubutu, alikuwa ameyagonga kwa kijiti na hayakutoka. Walinirai niyaangalie, nikawaambia wayaniletee. Wakakataa, hata hivyo, ili kuyagusa, wakanirai niende yalipokuwa. Kwa kweli, maji yalikuwa yameganda. Niliweka chungu juu ya jiko, nikatabiri kuwa yangegeuka kuwa maji tena. Tuliokuwa nao wakakaa karibu na kuyatazama; yalipoyeyuka, waliniambia kwa furaha kuwa shetani alikuwa amefukuzwa, na nikawaambia kuwa wangeweza kuyatumia maji tena; lakini punde nilipogeuka, waliyamwaga na kuchota mengine kutoka mto uliokuwa karibu. (tafsiri)|J W Gregory|''The Great Rift Valley''<ref name=gregory/>}}
Wazungu wa kwanza kutembelea Mlima Kenya mara nyingi walileta wajumbe wa makabila mengine kama marafiki na mabawabu. Wengi wa watu hawa hawajawahi uzoefu wa baridi, au kuonekana theluji na barafu kabla. Maitikio yao mara nyingi zilikuwa za woga na tuhuma.
 
 
{{Quote|
Another trait of the [[Zanzibar]]i character was shown at the same camp. In the morning the men came to tell me that the water they had left in the cooking-pots was all bewitched. They said it was white, and would not shake; the adventurous Fundi had even hit it with a stick, which would not go in. They begged me to look at it, and I told them to bring it to me. They declined, however, to touch it, and implored me to go to it. The water of course had frozen solid. I put one of the pots on the fire, and predicted that it would soon turn again into water. The men sat round and anxiously watched it; when it had melted they joyfully told me that the demon was expelled, and I told them they could now use this water; but as soon as my back was turned they poured it away, and refilled their pots from an adjoining brook.
|J W Gregory|''The Great Rift Valley''<ref name=gregory/>}}
 
Mackinder's Expedition wa 1899 alikutana na baadhi ya wanaume kutoka kabila la [[Wadorobo]].<ref name="ecology" />
== Jiografia ==
===Jiolojia===
 
[[Picha:Batian and Nelion.JPG|thumb|Vilele vya Mlima kenya. Vinaaminika kuwepo baada ya mmomonyoko kwa njia ya barafuto.<ref name="geology">{{cite book|title=Geology of the Mount Kenya Area|last=Baker|first=B. H.|publisher=Ministry of Natural Resources|year=1967|isbn=|series=Geological Survey of Kenya|doi=|authorlink=}}</ref>]]
==Jiolojia==
[[File:Sunrise over Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|Peaks kati ya mlima Kenya ni volkeno kuziba kwamba ana kuipinga glacial mmomonyoko. <ref Name=baker>[112]</ref>]]
[[File:FujiSunriseKawaguchiko2025WP.jpg|thumb|Mount Kenya ilikuwa stratovolcano na pengine na hii inaonekana sawa mbele ya glaciations. Mteremko chini bado ni sura hii, ambayo ni jinsi inakadiriwa urefu uliopita.]]
Mlima Kenya ni [[stratovolcano]] kwamba alikuwa hai katika [[Plio-Pleistocene]]. Crater ya awali ilikuwa pengine juu {{convert|6000|m|ft|-2}} high; juu kuliko [[Kilimanjaro]]. Tangu ile haiko ikawa kumekuwa kuu mbili vipindi [[glaciation]], ambazo umeonyesha kuu mbili pete ya [[moraine]] s chini ya glaciers. Moraine chini hupatikana karibu {{convert|3300|m|ft|-2}} <ref name="geology" /> Leo hakuna glaciers kufikia chini kuliko {{convert|4650|m|ft|-1}} <ref name="map" /> Baada ya kusoma moraines, Gregory kuweka mbele nadharia kwamba wakati mmoja kilele nzima mara ya mlima imefunikwa na [[barafu cap]] an, na ilikuwa hii [[eroded]] ya peaks jinsi wao ni leo.<ref name="gregory1894">
{{cite journal
| last= Gregory
| first= J. W.
| authorlink = John Walter Gregory
| year=1894
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.-Part I. The Glacial Geology of Mount Kenya
| journal= Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
| volume=50
| issue=
| pages = 515–530
| url =
<!-- | accessdate=4th June 2007
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1894.050.01-04.36 -->
}}
</ref>
 
Mlima Kenya ni [[volkeno rusu]] iliyokuwa hai kati ya miaka milioni 2.6 na 3.1 iliyopita. Kasoko ya awali ilikuwa pengine katika urefu wa m 6,000; juu kuliko [[Kilimanjaro]]. Tangu izimike, kumekuwa na [[Kipindi cha barafu|vipindi viwili vya barafu]]. Barafuto za leo hazipiti m 4,650 <ref name="map" />.
Chini mteremko wa mlima hawajawahi glaciated. Wao ni sasa hasa inalimwa na misitu. Wao wanajulikana kwa mwinuko-SIDED V-umbo mabonde na tributaries wengi. Juu mlimani, katika eneo ambalo sasa moorland, mabonde kuwa U-umbo na shallower na flatter bottoms. Hawa walikuwa umba glaciation.<ref name="geology" />
 
Miteremko ya kitako cha mlima haijawahi kuwa na barafuto. Ni misitu na baadhi ya sehemu zikalimwa. Miteremko hiyo ina mabonde yenye umbo la V na [[Kijito|vijito]] vingi. Juu mlimani, katika eneo ambalo ni nyika, mabonde yenye umbo la U na vina vifupi. Mabonde hayo yaliumbwa na barafuto.<ref name="geology" />
 
Wakati Mlima Kenya ulikuwa hai, shughuli za kivolkeno mbali kiasi na mlima. Kaskazini mashariki, kando ya mlima kuna vizibo vingi vya volkeno na [[kreta]]. Kreta ya Ithanguni ndio kubwa zaidi. Inadhaniwa kuwa ilikuwa na theluji wakati huo. Hii inaweza kuonekana kwa kuwa kilele kimelainika. Vilima vidogo huonekana hapo kama ishara kuwa vilikuwa vizibo.<ref name="geology" />
 
Miamba inayounda Mlima kenya ni pamoja na [[basalt]], [[rhomb porphyrite]], [[phonolite]], [[kenyte]] na [[trachyte]].<ref name="geology" /> Kenyte iliripotiwa kuonekana mara ya kwanza mwaka 1900 na Gregory katika utafiti wake wa [[jiolojia]] ya Mlima Kenya.<ref name="gregory1900">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last= Gregory
 
 
 
| first= J. W.
 
 
 
| authorlink = John Walter Gregory
 
 
 
| year=1900
 
 
 
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.-Part II. The Geology of Mount Kenya
 
 
 
| journal= Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
 
 
 
| volume=56
 
 
 
| issue=
 
 
 
| pages = 205–222
 
 
 
| url =
 
 
 
<!--  | accessdate=4th June 2007
 
 
 
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1900.056.01-04.12 -->
 
Wakati Mt Kenya ilikuwa [[aktiv]] kulikuwa baadhi satellite shughuli. Kaskazini-mashariki kando ya mlima ina volkeno nyingi Plugs na umri craters. Kubwa zaidi ya hawa, Ithanguni, hata alikuwa cap barafu yake mwenyewe wakati omfattades peaks kuu katika barafu. Hii inaweza kuonekana kwa Smoothed mkutano wa kilele. Mviringo na mwinuko wa milima pande pia mara kwa mara katika eneo hili, ambazo pengine inabakia plugged ndogo [[vent]] s. Hata hivyo, kama mlima iliyobaki ni mellan [[symmetrical]], wengi wa shughuli lazima lilitendeka katika kuziba kuu.<ref name="geology" />
 
Miamba kwamba fomu Mt Kenya ni hasa [[basalt]] s, [[rhomb porphyrites]], [[phonolite]]s, [[kenyte]] s na [[trachyte]] s.<ref name="geology" /> Kenyte mara ya kwanza ilivyoripotiwa 1900 zifuatazo Gregory katika utafiti wake wa geologi wa Mlima Kenya.<ref name="gregory1900">{{cite journal
| last= Gregory
| first= J. W.
| authorlink = John Walter Gregory
| year=1900
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.-Part II. The Geology of Mount Kenya
| journal= Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
| volume=56
| issue=
| pages = 205–222
| url =
<!-- | accessdate=4th June 2007
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1900.056.01-04.12 -->
}}</ref>
 
The [[geologi]] wa eneo la Mlima Kenya kwa mara ya kwanza kufikiriwa na [[Joseph Thomson]] mwaka 1883. Aliona mlima kutoka [[Laikipia Plateau]] jirani na aliandika kwamba ilikuwa ni [[ile haiko vilkano]] na [[kuziba]] wazi.<ref name="thomson" /> Hata hivyo, kama alivyokuwa amemwona mlima tu mbali maelezo yake haikuwa sana waliamini, hasa baada ya 1887 wakati [[Teleki]] na [[von Höhnel]] kupanda mlima na ilivyoelezwa wanayo kufikiriwa kuwa [[volkeno]].<ref name="gregory" /> Mwaka 1893 [[Gregory's]] Expedition fika Lewis Glacier saa {{convert|5000|m|ft|-1}} Yeye alithibitisha kwamba vilkano mara ile haiko na kwamba kulikuwa glaciers sasa.<ref name="gregory" /><ref name="gregory1900" /> Utafiti grundlig ya kwanza hakuwa kuratibiwa hadi 1966.<ref name="geology">{{cite book
| last = Baker
| first = B. H.
| authorlink =
| title = Geology of the Mount Kenya Area
| publisher = Ministry of Natural Resources
| series = Geological Survey of Kenya
| year = 1967
| doi =
| isbn =
}}</ref>
 
[[Joseph Thompson]] alipendekeza utafiti ufanyiwe Mlima Kenya mara ya kwanza mwaka 1883. Aliona mlima kutoka [[Tambarare ya Laikipia]] na akaandika kuwa ilikuwa volkeno zimwe, kizibo kikionekana.<ref name="thomson" /> Hata hivyo, maoni yake hayakuaminika na wanasayansi wa magharibi, hasa baada ya mwaka 1887 wakati [[Teleki]] na [[von Höhnel]] walikwea mlima na kueleza walichokatia kauli kuwa kreta.<ref name="gregory" /> Mwaka 1893 msafara wa Gregory ulifika Barafuto ya Lewis, m 5,000. Alithibitisha kuwa volkeno ilikuwa imezimwa na kuwa kulikuwa na barafuto.<ref name="gregory" /><ref name="gregory1900" />
==Vilele==
===Vilele===
[[File:Mount Kenya Summit photomap-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Peaks kuu na glaciers wa Mlima Kenya ni karibu na kituo cha mlima.]]
[[File:Mount Kenya Summit photomap-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Vilele vikuu na barafuto kati mwa mlima.]]
The peaks wa Mlima Kenya ni karibu wote kutoka volkeno asili. Wengi wa peaks ziko karibu na kituo cha mlima. Hawa wana [[Alpine]] peaks kuonekana kutokana na maumbile yao craggy. Kawaida ya Alpine Mandhari, juu [[gendarme]] s peaks na kutokea katika intersection ya ridges.<ref name="baker" /> Peaks kuu machache tu [[moss]] es, [[lichen]] s Alpine wadogo na mimea kukua katika mwamba crevices.<ref name="ecology" /> Zaidi mbali peaks kuu, ya volkeno Plugs ni [[volkeno]] kufunikwa katika [[majivu]] na mchanga.<ref name="speck">{{cite journal
 
Asili ya vilele vingi ni shughuli za volkeno. Vilele vingi vimekaribia kati mwa mlima. Vinafanana na vilele vya [[Alpi]] kwa sababu ya mikunjo.<ref name="baker">[112]</ref> Kuvu, kuvumwani na mimea midogo ya milimani humea katika vilele vya kati.<ref name="ecology" /> Vizibo vya volkeno vimefunikwa kwa majivu ya volkeno na udongo.<ref name="speck">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Speck
 
 
 
| first = Heinrich
 
 
 
| coauthors =
 
 
 
| title = Soils of the Mount Kenya Area: Their formation, ecology, and agricultural significance
 
 
 
| journal = Mountain Research and Development
 
 
 
| volume = 2
 
 
 
| issue = 2
 
 
 
| pages = 201–221
 
 
 
| publisher =
 
 
 
| date = 1982
 
 
 
| url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0276-4741(198205)2%3A2%3C201%3ASOTMKA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8
 
 
 
| doi = 10.2307/3672965
 
 
 
| accessdate = 2007-06-21
 
 
 
| year = 1982
}}</ref> Mimea kukua peaks hizi ni mfano kwa mimea bendi wao ni ndani
 
Juu peaks ni Batian {{convert|5199|m|ft|0}} Nelion {{convert|5188|m|ft|0}} na Pt Lenana {{convert|4985|m|ft|0}} Batian na Nelion tu {{convert|250|m|yd|-1}} mbali lakini waliojitenga na ''Gates wa Mist'' pengo, ambayo ni sawa kirefu.<ref name="map" /> Coryndon Peak {{convert|4960|m|ft|0}} ni kubwa ijayo, lakini tofauti na zamani haina peaks fomu sehemu ya kuziba kuu.<ref name="baker" />
 
Other peaks kote kuu ni pamoja na kuziba Pt Piggot {{convert|4957|m|ft|0}} Pt Dutton {{convert|4885|m|ft|0}} Pt Yohana {{convert|4883|m|ft|0}} Pt Yohana Ndogo {{convert|4875|m|ft|0}} Krapf Rognon {{convert|4800|m|ft|0}} Pt Petro {{convert|4757|m|ft|0}} Pt Slade {{convert|4750|m|ft|0}} na Midget Peak {{convert|4700|m|ft|0}} Wote hao wana [[pyramidal]] mwinuko fomu.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" />
 
}}</ref>
Adhimu craggy outlying peaks pamoja Terere {{convert|4714|m|ft|0}} na Sendeyo {{convert|4704|m|ft|0}} ambayo kuunda jozi ya mapacha peaks kaskazini ya kuziba kuu. Pamoja, wao fomu vimelea kubwa kuziba. Mengine mashuhuri ni pamoja peaks Hat {{convert|4639|m|ft|0}} Delamere Peak, Macmillan Aina na [[Rotundu]].<ref name="map" />
 
<center>
Vilele virefu zaidi ni Batian (m 5,199), Nelion (m 5,188) na Lenana (m 4,985).<ref name="map" />
 
Vilele na vizibo vingine ni pamoja na Piggot (m 4,957), Dutton (m 4,885), John (m 4,883), John Minor (m 4,875), Krapf Rognon (m 4,800), Peter (m 4,757), Slade (m 4,750) na Midget (m 4,700). Vyote vina miinuko inayotengeneza umbo kama la piramidi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" />
 
Vilele maarufu vilivyo katika viunga vya mlima ni Terere (m 4,714) and Sendeyo (m 4,704).<ref name="map" /><center>
 
 
 
<gallery>
File:Batian Nelion and pt Slade in the foreground Mt Kenya.JPG|Batian juu ya kushoto, Nelion juu ya haki, na Slade katika foreground
File:Pt_Lenana_Mt_Kenya.JPG|Lenana, kilele cha juu zaidi ya tatu, ni kupanda zaidi.
File:Krapf rognon and glacier after snowstorm.jpg|Krapf Rognon ([157]) na Krapf Glacier
File:Hut_tarn_4500m_and_Midget_Peak_Mt_Kenya.JPG|Midget kilele inaweza ziliongezeka katika siku. [158]
File:Terere and Sendeyo.jpg|Terere na Sendeyo mbili craggy outlying peaks
File:Mugi_hill_and_giants_billards_table.jpg|Mugi kilima na Giant's billards Jedwali inatoa baadhi ya hillwalking bora nchini Kenya. [159]
</gallery>
</center>
 
Picha:Batian Nelion and pt Slade in the foreground Mt Kenya.JPG|Batian (kushoto), Nelion (kulia), na Slade katika mandharimbele
==Barafuto==
 
[[File:MtKenya gletscher.jpg|thumb|200px|The Lewis Glacier ni kubwa zaidi juu ya Mlima Kenya]]
Picha:Pt Lenana Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha lenana ndicho kimeinuka zaidi
The [[Glacier]] s juu ya Mlima Kenya ni retreating haraka. Mlima Club ya Kenya Nairobi ina kuonyesha picha mlima wakati ziliongezeka mara ya kwanza mwaka 1899, na tena hivi karibuni zaidi, na mafungo ya glaciers ni dhahiri sana.<ref name="web">{{cite web
 
Picha:Krapf rognon and glacier after snowstorm.jpg|Krapf Rognon (m 4800) na Barafuto ya Krapf
 
Picha:Hut tarn 4500m and Midget Peak Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha Midget kinaweza kukwewa kwa siku moja
 
Picha:Terere and Sendeyo.jpg|Vilele vya Terere na Sendeyo viko katika kiunga cha mlima
 
</gallery></center>
===Barafuto===
[[File:MtKenya gletscher.jpg|thumb|200px|Barafuto ya Lewis ndio kubwa zaidi.]]
 
Barafuto zinazidi kudidimia kila mwaka.<ref name="web">{{cite web
 
 
 
| url= http://www.mck.or.ke/ | author=Mountain Club
 
 
 
| title= Mountain Club of Kenya Homepage
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref><ref name="glafot">''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html Recession ya Ikweta Glaciers.]'' ''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html A Photo Documentation,]'' Hastenrath, S., 2008, Sundog Publishing, Madison, WI, ISBN 978-0-9729033-3-2, 144 pp.
</ref> Maelezo ya ascents kadhaa ya peaks ushauri juu ya matumizi ya crampons, lakini sasa hakuna barafu kwa kupatikana. Hakuna theluji mpya kuweza kupatikana, hata juu ya Lewis Glacier (mkubwa wao) katika majira ya baridi, hivyo hakuna barafu mpya itakuwa sumu. Ni ametabiri kuwa chini ya miaka 30 kabla kutakuwa tena kuwa barafu juu ya Mlima Kenya.<ref name="guide" />. Glacial mafungo na upotevu inaweza kuwa unasababishwa na mwelekeo wa mabadiliko ya joto, au kwa mabadiliko katika mwenendo Usimbishaji.<ref name="benn">{{cite book
|last = Benn
|first = Doug
|last1 = David
|first1 = Evans
|title = Glaciers and Glaciation
|publisher = Arnold
|year = 1997
|isbn = 978-0340584316}}</ref>
 
Majina ya Glacier (clockwise kutoka kaskazini):
 
:
:* Northey, Krapf, Gregory, Lewis, Diamond, Darwin, Forel, Heim, Tyndall, Cesar, Josef.
 
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref><ref name="glafot">''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html Recession ya Ikweta Glaciers.]'' ''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html A Photo Documentation,]''  Hastenrath, S., 2008, Sundog Publishing, Madison, WI, ISBN 978-0-9729033-3-2, 144 pp.
[[File:Frost upheaval.jpg|thumb|left|Theluji husababisha patterned heaving ardhini chini Mugi Hill.]]
</ref> Kila mwaka, theluji inayolimbikika katika [[majira ya baridi]] ni kidogo kuliko inayoyeyuka katika [[majira ya joto]]. Inabashiriwa kuwa hali ikiendelea hivyo, Mlima Kenya hautakuwa na theluji miaka 30 itakayokuja<ref name=":0" /><ref name="guide" />. Kupungua kwa barafuto kunasababishwa na kuongezeka kwa halijoto au kubadilika kwa tabia ya usimbishaji.<ref name="benn">{{cite book
Eneo la mlimani glaciers kupimwa mara katika miaka ya 1980, na kumbukumbu kama kuhusu {{convert|0.7|km2|sqmi|2}} <ref name="glacierfluctuations">
 
{{cite journal
 
| last = Karlén | first = Wibjörn
 
| coauthors = James L Fastook, Karin Holmgren, Maria Malmström, John A Matthews, Eric Odada, Jan Risberg, Gunhild Rosqvist, Per Sandgren, Aldo Shemesh and Lars-Ove Westerberg
|last = Benn
| title = Glacier Fluctuations on Mount Kenya since ~6000 Cal. Years BP: Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa
 
| journal=Ambio | volume=28 | issue=5 | pages=409–418
 
 
|first = Doug
 
 
 
|last1 = David
 
 
 
|first1 = Evans
 
 
 
|title = Glaciers and Glaciation
 
 
 
|publisher = Arnold
 
 
 
|year = 1997
 
 
 
|isbn = 978-0340584316}}</ref> Eneo la barafuto lilipimwa rasmi mara ya kwanza mwaka 1980 na kubainika kuwa ni 0.7 km<sup>2</sup> <ref name="glacierfluctuations">
{{cite journal|last=Karlén|first=Wibjörn|year=1999|title=Glacier Fluctuations on Mount Kenya since ~6000 Cal. Years BP: Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa|url=http://www.ambio.kva.se|journal=Ambio|publisher=Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|volume=28|issue=5|pages=409–418|coauthors=James L Fastook, Karin Holmgren, Maria Malmström, John A Matthews, Eric Odada, Jan Risberg, Gunhild Rosqvist, Per Sandgren, Aldo Shemesh and Lars-Ove Westerberg|month=Agosti}}
</ref>.
 
Majina ya barafuto za Mlima Kenya kwa mzunguko wa akrabu kutoka kaskazini ni ni:
 
# Northey
 
# Krapf
 
# Gregory
 
# Lewis
 
# Diamond
 
# Darwin
 
# Forel
 
# Heim
 
# Tyndall
 
# Cesar
 
# Josef
 
===Miundo ya kingo za barafuto===
Jalidi usiku hufanya kuwe na miundo ya kingo za kingo za barafuto. Kuna sentimita chache ardhi jalidi chini ya uso wa ardhi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" /> Kupanuka na kupunguka kwa ardhi kwa sababu ya halijoto, hufanya mimea isiweze kumea katika kingo.<ref name="mck" />
===Mito===
Mlima Kenya ni eneo kuu la vyanzo vya maji vya mito miwili mikubwa nchini Kenya; [[Mto Tana]] na Mto Ewaso Ngiro Kaskazini.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Gichuki
 
 
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
 
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Ambio
 
 
 
| volume = 28
 
 
 
| issue = 5
 
 
 
| pages = 430–435
 
 
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
| month=Agosti | year=1999 | url=http://www.ambio.kva.se}}
</ref> Hii ni mbali kidogo kuliko uchunguzi wa kwanza, alifanya katika 1890s.
 
===Periglacial landforms===
Ingawa Mlima Kenya ni juu ya [[ikweta]] joto ya kufungia nightly kusababisha [[periglacial]] landforms. Kuna sentimita chache [[permafrost]] (inches) chini ya uso. [[Patterned ardhini]] ni leo saa {{convert|3400|m|ft|0}} magharibi ya Mugi Hill.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" /> Mounds hizi kukua kwa sababu ya unaorudiwa thawing frysning na kuchora ya ardhi zaidi katika maji. Kuna [[blockfields]] sasa kuzunguka {{convert|4000|m|ft|0}} ambapo ardhini has cracked kuunda hexagons. Solifluction hutokea wakati usiku joto frysa udongo kabla thaws tena katika asubuhi. Hii kila siku na upanuzi wa udongo Contraction kuzuia uanzishwaji wa mimea.<ref name="mck" />
 
==Mito==
[[File:The gates waterfall mount kenya.jpg|thumb|right|Runoff kutoka Mlima Kenya hutoa maji kwa zaidi ya watu milioni 2. <ref Name=development/>]]
Mlima Kenya ni eneo kuu vyanzo vya maji ya mito miwili mikubwa nchini Kenya; ya [[Tana]], mto mkubwa nchini Kenya, na Ewaso Ng'iso Kaskazini.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
| last = Gichuki
| first = Francis Ndegwa
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
| journal = Ambio
| volume = 28
| issue = 5
| pages = 430–435
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
| date = Agosti 1999
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se}}
</ref> Mlima Kenya mazingira hutoa maji moja kwa moja kwa zaidi ya watu milioni 2.<ref name="development" /> Mito juu ya Mlima Kenya wamekuwa aitwaye baada ya vijiji kwenye mteremko wa mlima kuwa karibu kati yake. The Thuchi mto ni mpaka kati ya wilaya ya Meru na Embu. Mlima Kenya ni mnara mkubwa wa maji kwa mto Tana ambayo mwaka 1988 levereras 80% ya [[Kenya's]] umeme kwa kutumia mlolongo wa saba hydroelectric powerstations na mabwawa.<ref name="Ojany 1993 305–309">{{cite journal
| last = Ojany
| first = Francis F.
| title = Mount Kenya and its environs: A review of the interaction between mountain and people in an equatorial setting
| journal = Mount Research and Development
| volume = 13
| issue = 3
| pages = 305–309
| publisher = International Mountain Society and United Nations University
| date = 1993
| doi = 10.2307/3673659
}}</ref>
 
| date = Agosti 1999
The wiani wa vijito ni juu sana, hasa kwenye mteremko chini ambao hawajawahi glaciated. The [[ice cap]] ambayo hutumiwa kufunika mlima wa [[Pliocene]] ya eroded [[U-umbo]] kubwa mabonde ambayo huvaa moja kubwa tu mkondo.<ref name="baker" />
 
Ambapo awali sura ya [[uso vilkano]] bado ni kulinda, kumekuwa na mamilioni ya miaka kwa vijito na erode ya kilima. Eneo hili ni sifa hiyo mara kwa mara kirefu [[fluvial V-umbo]] mabonde.<ref name="baker_map">{{cite map
 
 
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se}}
 
</ref> Mfumo wa ikolojia wa Mlima Kenya hupatia watu zaidi ya milioni 2 maji.<ref name="development" /> Wiani wa vijito ni kubwa hasa katika miteremko ambayo haijawahi kuwa na barafuto.<ref name="baker_map">{{cite map
 
 
 
| publisher =Edward Stanford Ltd
 
 
 
| title =Geological Map of the Mount Kenya Area
 
 
 
| url = http://eusoils.jrc.it/ESDB_Archive/EuDASM/Africa/maps/afr_kegmmka.htm
 
 
 
| edition =1st
 
 
 
| year =1966
 
 
 
| cartography =B. H. Baker, Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
 
| scale =1:125000
 
 
 
| series =Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
 
| accessdate =
 
 
 
| accessmonth =
 
 
 
| accessyear =
}}</ref>
 
The gradvis mpito kutoka bonde glaciated kwa fluvial inaweza wazi aliona.<ref name="mapandguide">
{{cite map
| publisher =Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage
| title =Mt Kenya 1:50000 Map and Guide
| edition =1
| year =1991
| cartography =West Col Productions
| scale =1:50000 with 1:25000 inset
| isbn =0-906227-39-9
}}</ref>
 
Mito ambayo kuanza juu ya Mlima Kenya ni kubwa mbili [[tributaries]] Kenya mito ya [[Tana]] na [[Ewaso Ng'iro]] mito. A lot of Mount Kenya mito kati yake ndani ya Sagana ambayo yenyewe ni ya tributary Tana, ambayo ni lawama katika Reservoir Masinga. Mito katika sehemu ya kaskazini ya mlima, kama vile Burguret, Naro Moro, Nanyuki, Liki, Sirimon kati yake ndani ya Ewaso Ng'iro. Ya mito kwa kusini-magharibi, kama vile Keringa na [[Nairobi]] kati yake ndani ya Sagana na kisha ndani ya Tana. Mito iliyobaki ya kusini na mashariki, kama vile Mutonga, Nithi, Thuchi na Nyamindi, kati yake moja kwa moja ndani ya Tana.<ref name="baker_map" /><ref name="mapandguide" />
 
}}</ref> Vijito na mito inayoanza Mlima Kenya humwaga maji ndani ya Mto Sagana, Mto Tana na Mto Ewaso Ngiso Kaskazini moja kwa moja au kupitia mito mingine. <ref name="baker_map" /><ref name="mapandguide">
==Ecology==
Mlima Kenya ina maeneo kadhaa ya kiikolojia tofauti, kati ya savanna yanayozunguka mlima kwa nival eneo kwa glaciers. Kila eneo lina dominerande aina ya mimea. Wengi wa miti hupatikana juu mlimani ni endemic, aidha Mlima Kenya au Afrika Mashariki, na ni maalum sana.<ref name="ecology" />
 
{{cite map|publisher=Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage|title=Mt Kenya 1:50000 Map and Guide|edition=1|year=1991|cartography=West Col Productions|scale=1:50000 with 1:25000 inset|isbn=0-906227-39-9}}</ref>
Pia kuna tofauti kati ya kanda, kutegemea upande wa mlima na kipengele cha slope. Kusini-mashariki ni mengi kuliko wetter kaskazini,<ref name="glacierfluctuations" /> hivyo wanategemea miti zaidi unyevu kuweza kukua. Baadhi ya aina kama mianzi, ni mdogo kwa baadhi ya vipengele vya mlima kwa sababu ya kiasi cha unyevu.<ref name="map" />
===Ikolojia===
Eneo la Mlima Kenya lina kanda tofauti za kiikolojia. Kila ukanda una sifa zake na spishi kuu ya mimea. Spishi nyingi zinazopatikana katika sehemu zilizo juu ya mlima zinapatikana pia katika maeneo mengine ya mlima na Afrika Mashariki.<ref name="ecology" />
 
Pia kuna tofauti kati ya kanda, kutegemea upande wa mlima na ukali wa mteremko. Kusini mashariki pa mlima ni sehemu nyevu kuliko kaskazini<ref name="glacierfluctuations" /> kwa hivyo, spishi nyingi za sehemu hiyo hutegemea unyevu kukua. Baadhi ya spishi, k.v. [[mianzi]], haziwezi kukua katika pande zote za mlima kwa sababu za tofauti za unyevu.<ref name="map" />
===Zones===
====Kanda====
[[File:Mount Kenya Vegetation map en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Kuna kanda tofauti mimea kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ambayo inatofautiana kulingana na urefu na kipengele.]]
Hali ya hewa ya Mount Kenya mabadiliko betydligt yenye urefu. Kuzunguka wigo wa mlima ni rutuba ya mashamba. Makabila wanaoishi kuzunguka mlima kuwa inalimwa hili eneo cool relativt unyevu kwa karne <ref name="castro" />
 
Tabianchi hubadilika kulingana na mwinuko. Katika kitako cha mlima, udongo una rutuba na hivyo ni mzuri kwa ukulima. Ukulima ulikuwa ukifanyika hapo kwa miaka.<ref name="castro" />
Mlima Kenya ni nimezungukwa na misitu. Mimea katika misitu wanategemea mvua, na aina tofauti sana sasa kati ya kaskazini na kusini mwa mteremko.<ref name="dutton" /> Muda kama amepita miti tarehe makali ya watumiaji wa misitu wamekuwa na mashamba ina zaidi up encroached rutuba ya mteremko wa mlima.<ref name="castro" />
 
Mlima Kenya umezungukwa na misitu. [[Uoto asilia|Uoto]] katika misitu unategemea kiwango cha mvua, na spishi hutofautiana zaidi kusini na kaskazini mwa mteremko.<ref name="dutton" /> Misitu katika kitako cha mlima hutishiwa na binadamu wanaokata miti ili watengeneze mbao na wanyakuzi ardhi.<ref name="castro" />
Juu ya misitu ni ukanda wa mianzi. Eneo hili ni karibu inaendelea, lakini hawawezi kukua katika kaskazini kwa sababu hakuna mvua za kutosha. Ya mianzi ni kawaida kabisa,<ref name="mck" /> na kuzuia wanyama wengi kutoka hai zaidi juu ya mlima. Tracks ni ya kawaida kwa njia ya mianzi. Wao ni kubwa zilizofanywa na wanyama kama tembo na buffalo walipo kupambana na njia zao juu zaidi. Wao hawatumii muda mrefu ndani ya mianzi, kama ni wote ila kwa zabuni inedible akamtandika mpya. Mianzi suppresses mimea mingine, kwa hivyo ni kupata uncommon miti au mimea mingine hapa.<ref name="map" />
 
Juu ya misitu ni ukanda wa mianzi asilia. Ukanda huu huzunguka mlima isipokuwa sehemu ya kaskazini ambapo kuna upungufu wa mvua<ref name="mck" />. Ni vigumu kupata spishi nyingine za mimea hapo kwa sababu uoto wa mianzi ni mzito na huzuia mimea mingine kumea.<ref name="map" />[[File:Timberline forest with lichens.jpg|thumb|left|Msitu wa mpaka wamiti.]]
[[File:Timberline forest with lichens.jpg|thumb|left|Timberline misitu ni ya kawaida katika wingu. Relativt miti ni ndogo na kufunikwa katika lichens.]]
 
Juu ya mianzi ni timberline misitu. Miti hapa mara nyingi ni ndogo kuliko miti katika misitu ya chini chini ya mlima.<ref name="zonation">
 
 
Juu ya ukanda wa mianzi ni ukanda wa mpaka wa miti. Miti hapa mara nyingi ni midogo kuliko miti katika misitu ya kitako cha mlima.<ref name="zonation">
{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Niemelä
 
 
 
| first = Tuomo
 
 
 
| coauthors = Petri Pellikka
 
 
 
| title = Zonation and characteristics of the vegetation of Mt. Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Expedition reports of the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki
 
 
 
| volume = 40
 
 
 
| issue =
 
 
 
| pages = 14–20
 
 
 
| publisher =
 
 
 
| date =
 
 
 
| year = 2004
 
 
 
| ISBN = 952-10-2077-6
 
 
 
}}
</ref>
 
WakatiMahali miti hawawezihaiwezi tenakuota mimeani kukuanyika mabadilikoya ndanimlima, heathlandm na chaparral3,000. HeathlandMimea ya jenasi ''[[Erica]]'' hupatikana katika maeneosehemu wetter, upande waya magharibi waambayo Mlimahuwa Kenya,nyevu. na ni inaongozwaVichaka na giant heathers. Chaparralnyasi hupatikana katika maeneo na sehemu kame nyasiambayo nihushuhudia zaidimoto yawa kawaidapori.<ref name="mck" /> Ardhini hapa ni waterlogged mara nyingi, lakini bado kijiti moto mara kwa mara.<ref name="castro" />
 
Kimo kinapoongezeka, halijoto hupungua zaidi na hewa hupungua, katika ukanda unaojulikana kama Alpi ya Kiafrika. Mazingira ya ukanda huo yanafanana tu na yale ya [[Aberdare|Safu ya Aberdare]]. <ref name="ecology" /> Mimea mingi ya ukanda huo imejirekebisha ili kuweza kukabili halihewa.<ref name="rosette">{{cite journal
 
 
 
Kama urefu huongeza joto Fluktuationer kuwa uliokithiri na hewa inakuwa wakondefu na sehemu kame. Kanda hii inajulikana kama Afro-Alpine zone. Mazingira hapa ni isolerade sana, kwa eneo karibu sawa tu kuwa Aberdares, ambayo ni {{convert|80|km|mi|0}} mbali <ref name="ecology" /> Wengi wa miti hapa ni endemic, pamoja anpassning fluctuating ya baridi na joto.<ref name="rosette">{{cite journal
| last = Beck
 
 
 
| first = Erwin
 
 
 
| coauthors = Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Margot Senser and Renate Scheibe
 
 
 
| title = Equilibrium freezing of leaf water and extracellular ice formation in Afroalpine 'giant rosette' plants
 
 
 
| journal = Planta
 
 
 
| volume = 162
 
 
 
| issue =
 
 
 
| pages = 276–282
 
 
 
| publisher =
 
 
 
| date = 1984
 
 
 
| url =
 
 
 
| doi = 10.1007/BF00397450
| accessdate = }}</ref> Typical mimea hapa ni pamoja giant groundsels (senecios) na giant lobelias.<ref name="ecology" />
 
Kanda ambapo hivi karibuni glaciers ni retreated kutoka nival zone. Ni eneo ambalo mimea bado kunnat colonise. Juu ya Mlima Kenya ukanda huu si endelevu kama glaciers tena kuendelea.<ref name="ecology" />
 
===Flora===
[[File:Senecio keniodendron2.jpg|thumb|right|Mimea kwamba wengi wanaishi juu ya Mlima Kenya, kama hili Senecio keniodendron, kuwa ilichukuliwa na hasa katika extremes joto.]]
The flora found on Mount Kenya inatofautiana yenye urefu, kipengele na mfiduo, lakini kidogo sana na majira.<ref name="tropicalalpine" /> Chini chini ya mlima wa hewa ina unyevu zaidi na oksijeni, na joto ni ya joto mwaka wote. Huongezeka kama urefu, mimea kuwa specialiserade zaidi, pamoja na anpassningar kwa nguvu solljus, kidogo kufungia usiku oksijeni na joto.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="zonation" />
 
| accessdate = }}</ref>
Mimea katika eneo Afro-Alpine nimeushinda matatizo haya katika njia kadhaa. Marekebisho ni moja inayojulikana kama giant rosette, ambayo ni kubwa exhibited by senecio, lobelia na giant thistle [[(Carduus).|''(Carduus).'']] Mimea na wataalamu hawa njia ya kubakiza maji katika kavu hewa, vilevile kuzuia maji kufungia usiku kucha.<ref name="rosette" /> Wao pia kutumia majani au nywele wafu kulinda kutoka frysning buds zao. Marekebisho mwingine ni ua samtidigt. Mimea katika joto wala baridi kukua kwa kasi, hivyo ni vigumu ua kila mwaka. By synchronising yao wao maua kuongeza nafasi yao ya mbelewele.<ref name="senecio">{{cite journal
 
Ukanda ulio juu ni ambapo barafuto zimedidimia. Mimea bado haijaweza kuota hapo.<ref name="ecology" />
====Flora====
[[File:Senecio keniodendron2.jpg|thumb|right|Mimea kama ''[[Dendrosenecio keniodendron]]'' hufanya marekebisho ili iweze kuota.]]
 
Mimea ya mlima hutofautiana na mwinuko na mwelekeo wa mlima.<ref name="tropicalalpine" /> Mwinuko unapoongezeka, mimea huwa na marekebisho spesheli ili kuhimili [[jalidi]] na miale ya [[urujuanimno]].<ref name="mck" /><ref name="zonation" /> Kwa mfano, mimea ya jenasi ''[[Carduus]]'', katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika, hutumia majani kulinda jicho la ua kutokana na jalidi.<ref name="senecio">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Young
 
 
 
| first = Truman P.
 
 
 
| coauthors = Mary M. Peacock
 
 
 
| title = Giant senecios and alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Journal of Ecology
 
 
 
| volume = 80
 
 
 
| issue =
 
 
 
| pages = 141–148
 
 
 
| publisher =
 
 
 
| date = 1992
 
 
 
| url =
 
 
 
| doi =
| accessdate = }}
</ref>
 
Wengi mimea katika Afro-Alpine eneo la Mlima Kenya zinaelekea kuwa kubwa. Hii ni kukabiliana dhidi ya baridi. Hata hivyo, karibu na eneo nival mimea upungufu katika kawaida tena, kama kuna rasilimali za kutosha, pamoja na joto, kuwaruhusu kukua yoyote kubwa <ref name="ecology" />
 
[[File:Cape Hyrax Mt Kenya 1.JPG|left|thumb|Hyrax kuweza kukabiliana na hali ya hewa uliokithiri na zaidi zinapatikana hadi juu mimea.]]
 
| accessdate = }}
===Fauna===
</ref><ref name="rosette" />[[File:Cape Hyrax Mt Kenya 1.JPG|left|thumb|[[Pimbi]] huweza kuishi katika maeneo yenye halihewa kali.]]
[[File:Safari ants.jpg|right|thumb|Safari Ants swarm kuzunguka misitu katika nguzo mrefu. Wao ni rahisi kuona walipo kuvuka tracks.]]
 
Wengi wa wanyama kuishi chini chini kwenye mteremko wa mlima Kenya. Hapa kuna mimea zaidi na hali ya hewa ni chini uliokithiri. Aina mbalimbali ya monkeys, antelopes kadhaa, mti hyrax, na baadhi kubwa porcupines wanyama kama tembo na buffalo wote wanaishi katika misitu.<ref name="map" /> Predator kupatikana hapa ni pamoja na fisi na chui, na mara chache simba <ref name="map" />
====Fauna====
Wanyama wengi hukaa katika kitako cha mlima penye halianga nzuri kidogo. Spishi za nyani, pimbi wa mitini, ndovu, nungunungu, nyati, fisi, mbuni, duma na simba huishi hapo.<ref name="map" />  Wanyama mamalia wachache, k.v. ''Sylvicapra grimmia'' na pimbi wa miamba wanaweza kuishi katika miinuko ya juu kidogo.<ref name="senecio" /><ref name="ecology" />
 
Spishi za ndege, k.v. chozi, kwenzi, tai na tumbusi hupatikana katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika. Ndege ni muhimu katika mfumo wa ikolojia hiyo kwa kuwa wao husaidia katika mchavusho.<ref name="tropicalalpine">{{cite journal
 
Hakuna wanyama kuishi kudumu katika eneo mianzi, ingawa ni msalaba kadhaa kupata kanda juu ya mlima.<ref name="ecology" />
 
Kuna mamalia wachache kupatikana ukanda wa juu juu ya Mlima Kenya. Mlima Kenya [[hyrax]] na [[duiker kawaida]] wanaweza kuishi hapa, na ni muhimu sana kwa mazingira. Baadhi ya mamalia wadogo, kama vile [[Groove-toothed panya]], anaweza kuishi hapa kwa burrowing ndani ya giant senecios na kutumia shina nene zao waliokufa majani kama isolera.<ref name="ecology" /> Mamalia kubwa chache kutembelea mara kwa mara hizi muinuko. Chui mara nyingine skeletons found saa urefu, na nyingine ni sightings kukumbukwa katika majina kama Simba Tarn (Simba ina maana [[simba]] katika [[Kiswahili).]] <ref name="mck" /> Hata hivyo, kuna mawindo kutosha kuruhusu wanyama hawa kuishi hapa permanent.
 
Ndege ni ya kawaida zaidi kuliko mamalia katika Afro-Alpine eneo, pamoja na aina ya [[Sunbird]] wengi s, [[Alpine chat]] s na [[Starling]] s mkazi hapa kama vile baadhi ya wanyama wanaokula wenzao yao; ya [[auger buzzard]], [[lammergeier]] na [[Verreaux tai]]. Ndege ni muhimu katika mazingira kama wao wengi pollinate mimea <ref name="tropicalalpine">{{cite journal
| last = Smith
 
 
 
| first = Alan P.
 
 
 
| coauthors = Truman P. Young
 
 
 
| title = Tropical Alpine Plant Ecology
 
 
 
| journal = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
 
 
 
| volume = 18
 
 
 
| pages = 137–158
 
 
 
| date = 1987
 
 
 
| doi = 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001033}}</ref>
 
 
==Hali ya hewa==
 
[[Hali]] ya [[hewa]] ya Mount Kenya zimekuwa jukumu muhimu katika maendeleo ya mlima, kushawishi na ikolojia topography miongoni mwa mambo mengine. It has a typical [[ikweta mlima]] ial ambayo hali ya hewa ''baridi'' Hedberg hufafanuliwa kama ''kila usiku na majira kila siku.'' <ref name="hedberg1969">{{cite journal
==Tabianchi==
Tabianchi ya Mlima Kenya ni ya milima ya ikweta ambayo Hedberg alieleza kuwa ni 'majira ya baridi kila usiku, majira ya joto kila mchana'''.'' <ref name="hedberg1969">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last =Hedberg
 
 
 
| first =O.
 
 
 
| title = Evolution and speciation in a tropical high mountain flora
 
 
 
| journal = Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
 
 
 
| volume = 1
 
 
 
| pages = 135–148
 
 
 
| year = 1969
 
 
 
| doi =10.1111/j.1095-8312.1969.tb01816.x
 
}}</ref> Mlima Kenya ni nyumbani kwa mmoja wa [[Global anga Watch]] 's anga ufuatiliaji wa vituo.<ref name="globalatmospherestation">{{cite journal
 
 
}}</ref> Mlima Kenya mojawapo ya vituo vya uchunguzi wa angahewa vya Global Atmospheric Watch.<ref name="globalatmospherestation">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Henne
 
 
 
| first = Stephan
 
 
 
| coauthors = Wolfgang Junkermann, Josiah M. Kariuki, John Aseyo and Jörg Klausen
 
 
 
| title = Mount Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch Station (MKN): Installation and Meteorological Characterization
 
 
 
| journal = Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
 
 
 
| volume = 47
 
 
 
| issue = 11
 
 
 
| pages = 2946–2962
 
 
 
| publisher =
 
 
 
| date = Novemba 2008
 
 
 
| year =
 
 
 
}}</ref>
===Misimu===
[[File:Sunrise over Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|right|Katika msimu wa joto, asubuhi huwa baridi na bila mawingu. Adhuhuri inapofika, mawingu huziba vilele]]
 
Mlima Kenya hushuhudia misimu miwili tofauti, [[Msimu wa joto (tropiki)|misimu ya joto]] na [[Msimu wa mvua|misimu ya mvua]], kama maeneo mengine ya Kenya.<ref name="climate_article">{{cite journal
 
 
 
===Majira===
[[File:ITCZ january-july.png|thumb| Katika januari Convergence Intertropical Zone ni uliokithiri katika kusini wake juu ya Bahari ya Hindi. Mwezi Julai, ni juu yake uliokithiri kaskazini juu ya Tibet na Arabia. Kama swaps juu, Mount Kenya uzoefu a wet msimu. <ref Jina = camberlin2003>[224]</ref>]]
Mwaka imegawanywa katika [[msimu wet]] mbili tofauti na mbili tofauti s [[kiangazi]] s ambayo kioo wet na kavu katika misimu ya [[Kenya]] n tambarare.<ref name="climate_article">{{cite journal
| last =Thompson
 
 
 
| first = B. W.
 
 
 
| title = The mean annual rainfall of Mount Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Weather
 
 
 
| volume = 21
 
 
 
| pages = 48–49
 
 
 
| date = 1966
 
}}</ref> Kama Mlima Kenya dryers urefu kutoka {{convert|1374|m|ft|0}} na {{convert|5199|m|ft|0}} ya hali ya hewa unatofautiana juu ya mlima na ina kanda mbalimbali ya ushawishi. Ya chini, kusini mashariki ni mteremko wettest kama [[mfumo wa hali ya hewa]] predominant huja kutoka [[bahari ya Hindi.]] Hii inasababisha dense sana misitu montane mteremko haya. Juu katika mlima wengi wa [[Usimbishaji]] falls kama [[theluji]], lakini muhimu zaidi ni chanzo cha maji [[ya barafu]].<ref name="spink">{{cite journal
 
 
}}</ref> Miteremko ya mashariki kaskazini hupata mvua kubwa zaidi kwa kuwa uko katika [[Upande wa upepo|upande wa pepo]] za [[matlai]] ambazo huleta mvua kutoka [[Bahari ya Hindi|Bahari Hindi]]. Mvua hii huwezesha msitu uliosongamana katika upande huo. Katika miinuko ya juu, [[usimbishaji]] hufanyika kama theluji na kutengeneza barafuto.<ref name="spink">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last = Spink
 
 
 
| first = Lieut.-Commander P. C.
 
 
 
| title = Further Notes on the Kibo Inner Crater and Glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya
 
 
 
| journal = Geographical Journal
 
 
 
| volume = 106
 
 
 
| issue = 5/6
 
 
 
| pages = 210–216
 
 
 
| publisher = The Royal Geographical Society
 
 
 
| date = 1945
 
 
 
| doi =
 
 
 
}}
</ref>
</ref> Buku, hizi vyanzo vya maji kulisha 11 [[glaciers]].
 
Misimu ya Mlima Kenya ni kama ifuatavyo<ref name="castro">{{cite book
Ya sasa ya hali ya hewa katika mlima Kenya ni wet, lakini sehemu kame kuliko imekuwa huko nyuma. Span ya joto anuwai, ambayo diminishes yenye urefu. Katika eneo chini Alpine wao hawaendi kawaida chini {{convert|12|°C|°F|0}} <ref name="rossette">{{cite journal
| last = Beck
| first = Erwin
| coauthors = Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Margot Senser and Renate Scheibe
| title = Equilibrium freezing of leaf water and extracellular ice formation in Afroalpine 'giant rosette' plants
| journal = Planta
| volume = 162
| pages = 276–282
| publisher = Springer-Verlag
| date = 1984
}}</ref> Theluji na mvua ni ya kawaida Machi hadi Desemba, lakini hasa katika misimu miwili wet. Misimu ya wet akaunti kwa pamoja 5 / 6 ya mwaka Usimbishaji. The [[Monsoon]], ambayo udhibiti wa wet na misimu kavu, ina maana kwamba wengi wa mwaka kuna kusini-Easterly upepo, lakini wakati wa Januari na Februari mwelekeo wa upepo ni kubwa kaskazini-Easterly.
 
Mount Kenya, kama maeneo mengi katika nchi za hari, ana wet misimu miwili na misimu miwili kavu kama matokeo ya Monsoon. Kutoka katikati Machi-Juni mazito msimu wa mvua, unaojulikana kama ''mvua za muda mrefu,'' huleta takriban nusu ya mvua mlimani.<ref name="castro">{{cite book
| last = Castro
| first = Alfonso Peter
| title = Facing Kirinyaga
| year = 1995
| publisher = Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
| location = London
| isbn = 1-85339-253-7
}}</ref> Hii ni ikifuatiwa na wetter kavu ya misimu miwili ambayo unadumu hadi Septemba. Oktoba-Desemba ni wakati ''wa mvua fupi'' mlima inapokea takriban theluthi ya mvua wake jumla. Hatimaye kuanzia Desemba hadi katikati ya Machi ni kavu, kiangazi wakati mlima uzoefu mdogo mvua.
 
Mount Kenya straddles ikweta. Hii ina maana wakati wa majira ya kaskazini ulimwengu wa jua ni wa kaskazini wa mlima. Ya urefu na kipengele cha peaks kuu [[na maji]] na matokeo katika upande wa kaskazini wa mlima juu kuwa katika hali ya majira ya joto. Sambamba, upande wa kusini inakabiliwa na hali ya baridi. Mara ya kusini ni summer ulimwengu, hali reverses.<ref name="mck" />
 
| last = Castro
===Ruwaza ya kila siku===
Wakati wa kiangazi karibu mlima huo daima ifuatavyo ruwaza ya hewa kila siku. Fluktuationer joto kubwa kila siku ambao ulisababisha Hedberg kutokea kwa Exclaim ''baridi kila usiku na majira kila siku.'' <ref name="hedberg1969" /> Kuna tofauti katika joto na kiwango cha chini siku hadi siku, lakini [[kiwango kupotoka mean]] Titans ya ruwaza ni ndogo.
 
[[File:Sunrise over Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|right|Katika msimu kavu, asubuhi ni kawaida ya wazi na ya baridi, lakini mlima ni siri katika wingu na katikati ya siku.]]
A typical siku ni wazi na poza asubuhi na Asili humidity. Mlima ni mionzi ya jua ambayo husababisha kuongezeka kwa joto haraka na joto warmest zinazotokea baina ya 9 na 12. Hii zinahusiana na maxima katika shinikizo, kwa kawaida karibu 10. Asili mlimani, kati ya {{convert|2400|m|ft|0}} na {{convert|3900|m|ft|0}} mawingu kuanza fomu juu ya misitu ya ukanda wa magharibi, kutokana na unyevu hewani kutoka [[Ziwa Victoria.]] <ref name="Ojany 1993 305–309" /> Upepo wa [[anabatic]] unasababishwa na kuongezeka kwa hewa ya joto pole kuleta mawingu haya kanda katika mkutano huo mchana. 3 kote kuna minimum katika jua na upeo katika unyevunyevu kusababisha halisi na alijua joto kwa tone. Saa 4 kuna minimum katika shinikizo. Cover kila siku hii ya wingu hulinda glaciers upande wa kusini-magharibi ya mlima ambayo vinginevyo kupata jua moja kwa moja kila siku, kukuza viumbe vya asili vitaunguzwa yao.<ref name="hastenrath">{{cite book
| last = Hastenrath
| first = Stefan
| title = The Glaciers of Equatorial East Africa
| year = 1984
| publisher = D. Reidel Publishing Company
| location = Dordrecht, Holland
| isbn = 90-277-1572-6
}}</ref> The upwelling wingu hatimaye itafikia Easterly hewa kavu dissipates vijito na kupelekea angani wazi na 5. Kuna mwingine maxima ya joto yanayohusiana na hayo.
 
Akiwa ni mlima Equatorial siku mwanga masaa ni saa kumi na daima kwa siku. Sunrise ni kuhusu 0530 kwa jua kuchwa ifikapo 1730. Juu ya kozi ya mwaka mmoja kuna tofauti kati ya dakika lägsta nivå na siku ndefu zaidi.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.dawnsun.net/astro/suncalc/ |title=Sunset & sunrise calculator (altitude not taken into account)|accessdate=2007-06-03}}</ref> Usiku, anga ni kawaida wazi na upepo unavuma [[katabatic]] chini mabonde. Juu ya chini kuna eneo Alpine kawaida barafu kila usiku.<ref name="rossette" />
 
| first = Alfonso Peter
==Kupanda mlima==
===Njia za kupanda===
[[File:Climbing on Point John.jpg|thumb|right|Kuna mambo mengi juu ya Mlima Kenya peaks ambayo yanahitaji mwamba kupanda.]]
Wengi wa peaks juu ya Mlima Kenya wamekuwa summited. Wengi wa hawa [[mwamba]] kuhusisha [[kupanda]] kama njia rahisi, ingawa baadhi tu ya uhitaji [[kinyang'anyiro]] au [[kutembea.]] Aina ya kiwango cha juu zaidi ambayo inaweza kupaa bila kupanda ni Point Lenana, {{convert|4985|m|ft|0}} <ref name="mck">{{cite book
| last= Allan | first= Iain
| title= The Mountain Club of Kenya Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro
| year= 1981 | publisher= Mountain Club of Kenya
| location= Nairobi | isbn= 978-9966985606}}</ref><ref name="cordee" /> Wengi wa wageni 15,000 Hifadhi ya Taifa kila mwaka kupanda kilele hii. Kwa kulinganisha, takriban watu 200 kilele Nelion na 50 kilele Batian, peaks kubwa mbili.<ref name="guide">{{cite | author= Kenya Wildlife Service
| title= Mount Kenya Official Guidebook | publisher= Kenya Wildlife Service
| year= 2006 | date=2006}}</ref>
 
Batian ni kawaida ziliongezeka via North Face Standard Route, [[UIAA daraja]] IV +. Ni mara ya kwanza alipanda tarehe 31 Julai 1944 na Firmin na Hicks.<ref>Alpine tidning, 1945</ref><ref name="eaimg">{{cite web
|url=http://www.ewpnet.com/eaimg/Mount_Kenya_climbs.htm
|title=Mount Kenya Online Climbing Guide
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20080214052053/http://www.ewpnet.com/eaimg/Mount_Kenya_climbs.htm
| archivedate = 2008-02-14
| accessdate = 2009-05-19
}}</ref> Ya misafara ni kawaida ziliongezeka katika siku mbili. Route ni ya kawaida ziliongezeka zaidi route up Nelion. Ni mara ya kwanza kwa Shipton ziliongezeka na Wyn-Harris tarehe 6 Januari 1929.<ref name="eaimg" /><ref>Alpine Journal Vol. 42</ref> Inawezekana traverse kati ya wawili peaks, via Gates wa Mist, lakini hii inahusisha matumizi ya kawaida usiku katika kibanda Howell juu Nelion. Kuna kushuka bolted abseil route off Nelion.<ref name="mck" />
 
Ya satellite peaks kuzunguka mlima pia kutoa climbs nzuri. Hizi zinaweza ziliongezeka katika [[Alpine]] inatofautiana katika [[mtindo]] na ugumu kutoka katika kinyang'anyiro ili kupanda daraja UIAA VI. Wao ni muhimu kwa acclimatisation kabla ya kupanda juu peaks na kama ascents katika haki zao wenyewe.<ref name="mck" />
 
| title = Facing Kirinyaga
===Kutembea njia===
[[File:Mount Kenya Climbing Routes and Huts photomap-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Ramani kuonyesha njia na kutembea HUTS kuzunguka Mlima Kenya]]
Kuna njia kutembea nane hadi peaks kuu. Clockwise mapya kutoka kaskazini hawa ni: [[Meru]], Chogoria, Kamweti, Naro Moru, Burguret, Sirimon na [[Timau]] NJIA.<ref name="map">{{cite map
|publisher = EWP | title = Mount Kenya Map and Guide
|url = http://www.ewpnet.com/Kenyamap.htm
|edition = 4th | year=2007 | cartography= EWP
|scale=1:50,000 with 1:25,000 inset | series=EWP Map Guides
|isbn = 9780906227961}}</ref>
Chogoria haya, Naro Moru na Sirimon na kutumika mara nyingi zaidi na hivyo kuwa na milango staffed. Zinahitaji njia nyingine ruhusa maalum kutoka [[Kenya Wildlife Service]] kutumia.<ref name="guide" /><ref name="eaimgw">{{cite web
| url=http://www.ewpnet.com/eaimg/Mount_Kenya_general.htm
| title=Mount Kenya Online Trekking Guide
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071217091034/http://www.ewpnet.com/eaimg/Mount_Kenya_general.htm
| archivedate = 2007-12-17
| accessdate = 2009-05-19
}}</ref>
 
Chogoria misafara ya [[Chogoria]] inaongoza kutoka mji hadi mzunguko peaks njia. Ni vichwa kupitia msitu wa kusini-mashariki wa mlima na moorland, pamoja na maoni juu ya maeneo kama vile Ithanguni na Giant's Billiards Jedwali kabla kufuatia Valley Gorges zamani Hekalu na hadi Simba Kanali chini Point Lenana.<ref name="map" /> Mlima Club ya Kenya madai kwamba Ithanguni na Giant's billards Jedwali kutoa baadhi ya [[hillwalking]] bora nchini Kenya.<ref name="mck" />
 
Naro Moru ya misafara ni zilizochukuliwa na wengi ambao trekkers kujaribu kufikia Point Lenana. Inaweza kupanda katika siku 3 tu na ina bunkhouses katika kila kambi. Njia anaanza [[Naro Moru]] mji wa magharibi wa mlima na climbs kuelekea Mackinder's Camp juu ya Aina Circuit Njia.<ref name="eaimgw" /> Ni kawaida ya Mandhari nzuri, ingawa sehemu moja inaitwa Vertical Bog.<ref name="mck" />
 
| year = 1995
Sirimon njia ya misafara ya Mlima Kenya kutoka kaskazini-magharibi.<ref name="map" /> Splits njia ya moorlands, kwa mara nyingi zaidi uma kutumika kufuatia Mackinder Valley na quieter route traversing ndani ya Liki Valley Kaskazini.<ref name="map" /> Ya mapito rejoin saa Shipton's pango tu chini Shipton's Camp juu ya Aina Circuit Njia.<ref name="mck" />
 
Njia ya Aina Circuit ni njia kuu peaks kote, pamoja na umbali wa juu {{convert|10|km|mi|0}} na urefu wa faida na hasara ya zaidi ya {{convert|2000|m|ft|-2}} <ref name="map" /> Inaweza kutembea katika siku moja, lakini zaidi kawaida huchukua mbili au tatu. Inaweza pia kutumika kujiunga na ukoo tofauti kupaa trafik. Njia hauhitaji kiufundi kupanda.<ref name="cordee" /><ref name="eaimgw" />
 
<center>
<gallery>
File:Mt kenya gorges valley chogoria route.jpg|The Gorges Valley ni kipengele kuu ya Chogoria Route.
File:Vertical Bog Mt Kenya.JPG|Vertical bog juu ya Mlima Kenya tarehe ya Naro Moru Route.
File:View into the Mackinder Valley 3900m.JPG|Looking kuelekea peaks upp Mackinder Valley kwenye Sirimon Route.
</gallery>
</center>
 
| publisher = Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
===Malazi===
Malazi juu ya Mlima Kenya dryers kutoka msingi sana kwa anasa. Lodges anasa zaidi zinapatikana kwenye mteremko chini, ndani na kuzunguka misitu.<ref name="castle_forest_lodge">{{cite web
| title = Castle Forest Lodge
| url = http://www.castleforestlodge.com/castle/index.html
| accessdate = 2009-05-19
}}
</ref> Hawa Lodges kuwa hoteli-style malazi, mara nyingi kwa logi moto na moto maji ya bomba.<ref name="serena">{{cite web
| title = Serena Mountain Lodge
| url = http://www.serenahotels.com/brochure/mountain-lodge.pdf
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071019073453/http://www.serenahotels.com/brochure/mountain-lodge.pdf
| archivedate = 2007-10-19
| accessdate = 2009-05-19
}}
</ref><ref name="rutundu">{{cite web
| title = Lake Rutundu Log Cabins on Mount Kenya
| url = http://www.lewa.org/rutundu.php
| archiveurl = http://web.archive.org/web/20071004123759/http://www.lewa.org/rutundu.php
| archivedate = 2007-10-04
| accessdate = 2009-05-19
}}
</ref> Wengi kutoa waongoa anatembea na shughuli nyingine kama vile [[uvuvi]] na [[birdwatching]].
HUTS juu ya mlimani ni msingi zaidi. Wengi [[bunkroom]] s kadhaa pamoja na vitanda, na pia kutoa mahali kupumzika, kupika na kula. Baadhi pia wana maji ya bomba. HUTS chache [[bothies]] msingi ni sadaka tu nafasi ya kulala kuwa ni mahali pa kuanzia hali ya hewa.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="reader">
{{cite book
| last = Reader
| first = John
| title = Mount Kenya
| year = 1989
| publisher = Elm Tree Books
| location = London
| ISBN = 0-241-12486-7
}}
</ref> Vitanda katika HUTS inaweza reserved katika Hifadhi ya milango.<ref name="guide" />
Camping ni kuruhusiwa popote katika [[Hifadhi]] ya [[Taifa,]] lakini ni wengi moyo kote HUTS kikomo athari ya mazingira. Inawezekana kwa kutumia campers liko chinichini katika jumuiya HUTS maana hakuna ziada ada.<ref name="guide" />
 
<center>
<gallery>
File:Mt kenya austrian hut with nelion.jpg|Austria Hut hupatikana karibu na Lewis Glacier kwenye mteremko wa Pt Lenana. The kibanda kulala watu 30, huku Juu Hut jirani kwa mabawabu. [288]
File:Mt kenya liki north hut.jpg|Hut ni Liki Kaskazini bothy ndogo katika Bonde Liki Kaskazini. [289] Ni hutoa malazi kidogo zaidi kutoka hali ya hewa.
File:Mt kenya shiptons camp with sendeyo.jpg|Shipton's Camp ni saa ya juu ya Sirimon Route. [290] Ni jumuiya ina eneo kubwa na kukimbia baridi maji.
File:Mount Kenya 14200ft camp.jpg|Camping ni kuruhusiwa popote ndani ya National Park. [291]
</gallery>
</center>
 
==Asili ya Jina==
Mlima Kenya ulipata majina tofauti: Ya [[Kikuyu]] kuiita ''Kirinyaga,'' ambayo inamaanisha "mlima mweupe au kung'aa". Kuyaita ya [[Embu]] ''Kirenia,'' au "mlima wa whiteness". [[Wamasai]] kuiita ''Ol Donyo Eibor'' au ''Ol Donyo Egere,'' ambayo inamaanisha "mlima mweupe" au "speckled mlima" mtiririko huo.<ref name="thomson">{{cite book
| last=Thomson | first=Joseph
| authorlink= Joseph Thomson (explorer) | origdate=1885
| edition=3 | title= Through Masai Land | year=1968
| publisher=Frank Cass & Co Ltd |location= London}}</ref>
[[Wakamba]] kuyaita ya ''Kiinyaa,'' au "mlima wa Ostrich". Ostrich wa kiume ana mkia speckled manyoya, ambayo kuangalia sawa na speckled mwamba na barafu mlimani.<ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
 
| location = London
Krapf alikuwa anakaa katika kijiji Wakamba alipo kwanza aliona mlima.<ref name="krapf_452">{{cite journal
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig
| authorlink = Johann Ludwig Krapf | date = 13 Mei 1850
| title = Extract from Krapf's diary
| journal = Church Missionary Intelligencer
| volume=i | pages=452}}</ref>
Krapf, hata hivyo, jina lake kama kumbukumbu zote ''Kenia'' na ''Kegnia.'' <ref name="Krapf" /><ref name="krapf_452" /> Kulingana na baadhi ya vyanzo, hii ni rushwa ya Wakamba ''Kiinyaa.'' <ref name="foottit">{{cite book
| last = Foottit | first = Claire | origyear=2004
| title = Kenya | series = The Brade Travel Guide
| year=2006 | publisher = Bradt Travel Guides Ltd
| isbn=1-84162-066-1}}</ref>
Hata hivyo wengine wanasema kwamba hii ilikuwa kinyume exakta sana uliotokea notation ya neno hutamkwa {{IPA|ˈkenia}}
<ref>{{cite journal
| url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0368-4016(194301)42%3A166%3C42%3A%22SOK%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P
| author=B. J. Ratcliffe | title=The Spelling of Kenya
| journal=Journal of the Royal African Society | pages=42–44
| volume= 42| issue = 166 | year=1943 | month=Januari}}</ref>
Hata hivyo, jina lake lilikuwa kawaida {{pronEng|ˈkiːnjə}} katika Kiingereza.<ref name="oed_kenya">{{OED|Kenya}}</ref>
 
Ni muhimu kukumbuka kwamba wakati inajulikana huu mlima bila kujumuisha ''mlima'' katika jina. Jina ya sasa ya ''Mount Kenya'' ilikuwa kutumiwa na baadhi mapema 1894,<ref name="gregory1894">{{cite journal
| last = Gregory | first = J. W. | authorlink = John Walter Gregory
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.--Part I. The Glacial Geology of Mount Kenya
| journal = Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
| volume=50 | pages=515–530
| publisher = Geological Society of London | year=1894
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1894.050.01-04.36 | accessdate=2007-06-04
| doi_brokendate = 2008-06-20
}}</ref> lakini hii haikuwa kawaida tukio mpaka 1920 wakati Kenya Colony ilianzishwa.<ref name="times_kenya_colony">{{Cite newspaper The Times
| articlename=British East Africa Annexed--"Kenya Colony"
| author=Reuter | section=News | day_of_week=Thursday
| date=8 Julai 1920 | page_number=13 | issue=42457 | column=C
}}</ref> Kabla ya mwaka wa 1920, eneo linaloitwa Kenya liliitwa Himaya ya Uingereza Afrika Mashariki, kwa hivyo hapakuwa na haja kutaja neno mlima uliporejelea mlima huo.' gtc:suffix=""&amp;gt;[15] ''Mount Kenya'' ilikuwa sio jina tu Kiingereza kwa ajili ya mlima kama inavyoonekana katika kitabu Dutton's 1929 [[Mlima Kenya.|''Mlima Kenya.'']] <ref name="dutton" /> 1930s ''Kenya'' kwa mara kuwa dominerande spelling, lakini mara kwa mara alikuwa ''Kenia'' kutumika.<ref name="times_names">{{Cite newspaper The Times
| articlename=The spelling of Kenya
| author=J.H. Reynolds, Secretary Permanent Committee on Geographical Names, [[Royal Geographical Society|RGS]]
| section=Letters to the editor
| day_of_week=Mon | date=8 Februari 1932 | page_number=8
| issue=46051 |column=B}}</ref>
Wakati huu wote wawili walikuwa bado hutamkwa {{IPA|ˈkiːnjə}} katika Kiingereza.<ref name="foottit" />
 
Kenya kupatikana uhuru mwaka 1963, na Jomo Kenyatta alichaguliwa kama rais wa kwanza.<ref name="castro">{{cite book
| last=Castro | first=Alfonso Peter | title=Facing Kirinyaga
| publisher = Intermediat Technology Publications Ltd.
| year=1995 | location=London | isbn=1-85339-253-7}}</ref>
Awali alikuwa alishika jina hili kutafakari ahadi yake ya kumkomboa nchi yake na matamshi yake ya jina lake ulisababisha katika matamshi ya Kenya katika Kiingereza kubadilisha nyuma ya makadirio ya awali uliotokea matamshi, sasa {{IPA|ˈkɛnjə}} <ref name="foottit" /> Hivyo nchi ilikuwa jina baada ya koloni, ambayo kwa upande mmoja aitwaye mara baada ya mlima kama ni muhimu sana kihistoria.<ref name="times_kenya_colony" /><ref>{{cite encyclopedia
| encyclopedia=Encyclopedia Britannica | edition=15
| title=East Africa: Kenya: History: Kenya Colony
| volume=17 | pages=801, 1b | year=2002 | id=ISBN 0-85229-787-4
}}</ref> Urahisi kutofautisha kati ya nchi na mlimani, mlima akawa anajulikana kama ''Mlima Kenya'' kwa sasa matamshi {{IPA|ˈkɛnjə}} <ref name="oed_kenya" /> Mlima Kenya ni featured kwenye [[Nembo ya Kenya.]]
 
| isbn = 1-85339-253-7
===Majina ya vilele===
[[File:Lenana maasai medicine man.jpeg|thumb|right|Lenana alikuwa Chief Madawa-Man wa Kimasai circa 1890. Pt Lenana mara baada yake kwa jina Halford Mackinder. Lenana alikuwa mwana wa Batian ambaye alikuwa Mkuu uliopita Madawa-Man. <ref Name=dutton/>]]
The peaks wa Mlima Kenya pewa majina kutoka vyanzo mbalimbali tatu. Kwanza, Wamaasai kadhaa wakubwa wamekuwa kuadhimisha, pamoja na majina kama Batian, Nelion na Lenana. Majina haya walikuwa alipendekeza kwa Mackinder, juu ya pendekezo wa [[Hinde,]] ambaye alikuwa afisa mkazi Maasailand wakati wa Mackinder's Expedition. Wao fira Mbatian, a Maasai [[Laibon]] (Medicine Man), Nelieng, ndugu yake, na Lenana na Sendeyo, wanawe.<ref name="dutton" /> Terere ni baada ya mwingine aitwaye Wamaasai headman.
 
Aina ya pili ya majina ya kuwa walipewa peaks ni baada climbers na Wapelelezi. Baadhi ya mifano ya hili ni Shipton, Sommerfelt, Tilman, Dutton na Arthur. Shipton alifanya Nelion ujio wa kwanza, na kusindikizwa Sommerfelt Shipton ya pili ya kupaa. Tilman alifanya mengi ya ascents kwanza Shipton katika peaks na 1930. Kugundua Dutton na Arthur mlima kati ya 1910 na 1930. Arthur Firmin, ambaye alifanya mengi ya kwanza ascents, imekuwa kukumbukwa katika Firmin's Kol Humphrey Slade, wa Pt Slade, Kugundua maeneo ya moorland ya mlima katika 1930s, na huenda alifanya Sendeyo ujio wa kwanza.<ref name="mck" />
 
Majina yaliyobaki baada linajulikana haiba ya Kenya, isipokuwa wa Yohana na Petro, ambayo ilikuwa jina kwa mmisionari Arthur baada ya [[wanafunzi]] wawili. Pigott alikuwa Kaimu Afisa Utawala wa [[Kifalme ya Kiingereza kwa Afrika ya Mashariki]] wakati wa Gregory's Expedition, na kuna kundi la peaks nne mashariki ya peaks kuu aitwaye baada ya magavana wa Kenya na mapema walowezi; Coryndon, Grigg, Delamere na McMillan.<ref name="mck" />
 
}}</ref>:
Wengi wa majina walipewa kwa Melhuish na Dutton, isipokuwa majina ya Wamaasai na Petro na Yohana. Linalovutia Pt Thomson si jina lake baada ya Joseph Thomson, ambaye alithibitisha mlima's kuwepo, lakini baada ya mwingine J Thomson ambaye alikuwa rasmi [[kijiografia Royal Society]] photographer.<ref name="mck" />
{| class="wikitable"
|+
!Msimu
!Wakati
|-
|Masika
|Aprili-Juni/Julai
|-
|Vuli
|Oktoba-Disemba
|-
|Joto/Kiangazi
|Disemba/Januari-Februari
na
 
Julai/Agosti-Septemba
|}
 
==Ukweaji mlima==
===Njia za kukwea===
 
 
Kuna njia nane za kutembea zinazoelekea kwenye kilele cha juu. Ni, kwa mzunguko wa akrabu, kutoka kaskazini, njia za Meru, Chogoria, Kamweti, Naro Moru, Burguret, Sirimon na Timau<ref name="map" />. Pia kuna njia inayozunguka vilele inayotumiwa kuunganisha njia tofauti. <ref>{{Cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20071217091034/http://www.ewpnet.com/eaimg/Mount_Kenya_general.htm|title=Mount Kenya - Introduction and Trekking Guide|date=2007-12-17|accessdate=2018-09-16}}</ref> Kati ya hizi, Chogoria, Naro Moru na Sirimon ndio hutumika zaidi na zina malango. Njia nyingine zinahitaji idhini maalum kutoka kwa [[Shirika la Huduma kwa Wanyama Pori ya Kenya|Huduma ya Wanyamapori Kenya]] ili kuzitumia.
 
==Tazama pia==
 
* [[Orodha ya milima ya Kenya]]
 
* [[Orodha ya milima ya Afrika]]
 
* [[Orodha ya milima]]
 
== Vitabu kuhusu Mlima Kenya ==
 
*Sir Halford Mackinder, ''The First ujio wa Mlima Kenya'' [KM Barbour, ed.], (London, 1991); hadithi ya ujio wa kwanza Batian, pamoja Mackinder's diary na baadhi ya Expedition's picha. Barbour discusses sababu Mackinder, ambaye aliandika na kuchapisha vitabu vingine, hawakuwa kuchapisha maelezo ya akaunti ya Expedition.<ref name="firstascent">{{cite book
 
 
*Sir Halford Mackinder, ''The First ujio wa Mlima Kenya''  [KM Barbour, ed.], (London, 1991); hadithi ya ujio wa kwanza Batian, pamoja Mackinder's diary na baadhi ya Expedition's picha. Barbour discusses sababu Mackinder, ambaye aliandika na kuchapisha vitabu vingine, hawakuwa kuchapisha maelezo ya akaunti ya Expedition.<ref name="firstascent">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= The First Ascent of Mount Kenya
 
 
 
|last= Mackinder
 
 
 
|first= Halford John
 
 
 
|authorlink= Halford John Mackinder
 
 
 
|coauthors= Kenneth Michael Barbour
 
 
 
|year= 1991
 
 
 
|publisher= Ohio University Press
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|isbn= 1850651027
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages=287
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
 
 
*Dutton EAT, [[Kenya Mountain|''Kenya Mountain'']] (London, 1929); akaunti ya Expedition Mlima Kenya mwaka 1926; illustreras.<ref name="dutton" />
 
*Vivienne de Watteville, ''Mwambie Dunia - kuzunguka na Reflections kati Tembo na Milima'' (London & New York, 1935); akaunti ya mwandishi wa ugenini katika kibanda kidogo katika kanda ya Ziwa na Ellis explorations yake ya Gorges Valley; illustreras .<ref name="wanderings">{{cite book
 
 
*Vivienne de Watteville, ''Mwambie Dunia - kuzunguka na Reflections kati Tembo na Milima''  (London & New York, 1935); akaunti ya mwandishi wa ugenini katika kibanda kidogo katika kanda ya Ziwa na Ellis explorations yake ya Gorges Valley; illustreras .<ref name="wanderings">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= Speak to the Earth - Wanderings and Reflections among Elephants and Mountains
 
 
 
|last= de Watteville
 
 
 
|first= Vivienne
 
 
 
|authorlink=
 
 
 
|coauthors=
 
 
 
|year= 1986
 
 
 
|publisher= Methuen
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|origyear= 1935
 
 
 
|edition= 2
 
 
 
|isbn= 0413602702
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 329
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
*HW Tilman, theluji ''juu ya Ikweta'' (London, 1937); akaunti ya ujio wa kwanza (na Shipton) ya NW ridge na Nelion; illustreras.<ref name="snow">{{cite book
 
 
*HW Tilman, theluji ''juu ya Ikweta''  (London, 1937); akaunti ya ujio wa kwanza (na Shipton) ya NW ridge na Nelion; illustreras.<ref name="snow">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= Snow on the Equator
 
 
 
|last= Tilman
 
 
 
|first= H. W.
 
 
 
|authorlink= Bill Tilman
 
 
 
|coauthors=
 
 
 
|year= 1938
 
 
 
|publisher= The Macmillan Company
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|isbn=
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 265
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
*Eric Shipton, juu ''ya kwamba Mlima,'' (London, 1943); akaunti ya ujio wa kwanza (na Tilman) ya NW ridge na Nelion; illustreras.<ref name="uponthatmountain">{{cite book
 
 
*Eric Shipton, juu ''ya kwamba Mlima,''  (London, 1943); akaunti ya ujio wa kwanza (na Tilman) ya NW ridge na Nelion; illustreras.<ref name="uponthatmountain">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= Upon that Mountain
 
 
 
|last= Shipton
 
 
 
|first= Eric
 
 
 
|authorlink= Eric Shipton
 
 
 
|coauthors=
 
 
 
|year= 1945
 
 
 
|publisher= Readers Union
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|isbn=
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 248
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
*Felice Benuzzi, ''Fuga sul Kenya'' (Milano 1947) / [[No picnic juu ya Mlima Kenya|''No picnic juu ya Mlima Kenya'']] (London, 1952); a mountaineering classic, kuhusu wafungwa wa kivita tatu ambao kutoroka kutoka gerezani kambi yao mwaka 1943, hupanda mlima na sparse mgawo, improvised vifaa na hakuna ramani, na kisha ''kuvunja kurejea katika'' kambi yao gerezani.<ref name="picnic" />
 
*Roland Truffaut, ''Du Kenya au wa Kilimanjaro'' (Paris 1953) / ''Kutoka Kenya kwa Kilimanjaro'' (London, 1957); 1952 akaunti ya ujio wa Kifaransa N. uso wa Mt Kenya; illustreras.<ref name="dukenya">{{cite book
 
*Felice Benuzzi, ''Fuga sul Kenya''  (Milano 1947) / [[No picnic juu ya Mlima Kenya|''No picnic juu ya Mlima Kenya'']] (London, 1952); a mountaineering classic, kuhusu wafungwa wa kivita tatu ambao kutoroka kutoka gerezani kambi yao mwaka 1943, hupanda mlima na sparse mgawo, improvised vifaa na hakuna ramani, na kisha ''kuvunja kurejea katika''  kambi yao gerezani.<ref name="picnic" />
 
 
 
*Roland Truffaut, ''Du Kenya au wa Kilimanjaro''  (Paris 1953) / ''Kutoka Kenya kwa Kilimanjaro'' (London, 1957); 1952 akaunti ya ujio wa Kifaransa N. uso wa Mt Kenya; illustreras.<ref name="dukenya">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title=Du Kenya au Kilimanjaro: expédition française au Kenya
 
 
 
|last= Truffaut
 
 
 
|first= Roland
 
 
 
|authorlink=
 
 
 
|coauthors=
 
 
 
|year= 1953
 
 
 
|publisher= Julliard
 
 
 
|location= Paris
 
 
 
|language= French
 
 
 
|isbn=
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 251
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
*I. Allan, ''Guide to Mlima Kenya'' (1981; 1991; wengi updates); mamlaka ya kuongoza kwa njia ya peaks.<ref name="mck" />
 
*Hamish MacInnes, bei ''ya Adventure,'' (London, 1987); inajumuisha hadithi ya wiki-mrefu uokozi wa Gerd Judmeier baada yake kuanguka karibu na kilele cha Batian mapema katika miaka ya 1970.<ref name="priceofadventure">{{cite book
 
*I. Allan, ''Guide to Mlima Kenya''  (1981; 1991; wengi updates); mamlaka ya kuongoza kwa njia ya peaks.<ref name="mck" />
 
 
 
*Hamish MacInnes, bei ''ya Adventure,''  (London, 1987); inajumuisha hadithi ya wiki-mrefu uokozi wa Gerd Judmeier baada yake kuanguka karibu na kilele cha Batian mapema katika miaka ya 1970.<ref name="priceofadventure">{{cite book
 
 
 
| last= MacInnes
 
 
 
| first= Hamish
 
 
 
| authorlink=
 
 
 
| title=The Price of Adventure
 
 
 
| origdate=
 
 
 
| year=1987
 
 
 
| publisher= Hodder & Stoughton
 
 
 
| location= London
 
 
 
| isbn=0340263237
 
 
 
}}</ref>
 
*I. Allan, C. Kata, G. Boy, ''Snowcaps juu ya Ikweta'' (London, 1989); historia ya Afrika Mashariki milima na ascents yao, ikiwemo ya hivi karibuni zaidi pioneered njia; illustreras.<ref name="snowcaps">{{cite book
 
 
*I. Allan, C. Kata, G. Boy, ''Snowcaps juu ya Ikweta''  (London, 1989); historia ya Afrika Mashariki milima na ascents yao, ikiwemo ya hivi karibuni zaidi pioneered njia; illustreras.<ref name="snowcaps">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= Snowcaps on the Equator: The Fabled Mountains of Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda and Zaire
 
 
 
|last= Ward
 
 
 
|first= Clive
 
 
 
|authorlink=
 
 
 
|coauthors= Gordon Boy, Iain Allan
 
 
 
|year= 1988
 
 
 
|publisher= Bodley Head
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|isbn= 0370311264
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 192
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}</ref>
 
*Yohana Msomaji, ''Mlima Kenya'' (London, 1989); akaunti ya ujio wa Nelion, pamoja na Iain Allan kama mwongozo; illustreras.<ref name="reader">{{cite book
 
|title= Mount Kenya
 
|last= Reader
*Yohana Msomaji, ''Mlima Kenya''  (London, 1989); akaunti ya ujio wa Nelion, pamoja na Iain Allan kama mwongozo; illustreras.<ref name="reader">
|first= John
{{cite book|title=Mount Kenya|last=Reader|first=John|publisher=Elm Tree Books|year=1989|ISBN=0-241-12486-7|location=London}}
|authorlink=
 
|coauthors=
|year= 1989
|publisher= Elm Tree Books
|location= London
|isbn= 0-241-12486-7
|page=
|pages= 160
|url=
|accessdate= }}
</ref>
 
*M. Amin, D. Willetts, B. Tetley, ''On Mungu Mountain: The Story wa Mlima Kenya'' (London, 1991). A photographic maadhimisho ya mlima.<ref name="ongodsmountain">{{cite book
 
 
*M. Amin, D. Willetts, B. Tetley, ''On Mungu Mountain: The Story wa Mlima Kenya''  (London, 1991). A photographic maadhimisho ya mlima.<ref name="ongodsmountain">{{cite book
 
 
 
|title= On God's Mountain: The Story of Mount Kenya
 
 
 
|last= Amin
 
 
 
|first= Mohamed
 
 
 
|authorlink=
 
 
 
|coauthors= Duncan Willetts, Brian Tetley
 
 
 
|year= 1991
 
 
 
|publisher= Moorland
 
 
 
|location=
 
 
 
|isbn=
 
 
 
|page=
 
 
 
|pages= 192
 
 
 
|url=
 
 
 
|accessdate= }}
 
 
 
</ref>
 
*''Kirinyaga,'' [[Mike Resnick,]] (1989).<ref name="kirinyaga">{{cite book
 
|title= Kirinyaga: a fable of Utopia
 
|last= Resnick
*''Kirinyaga,''  [[Mike Resnick,]] (1989).<ref name=":4" />
|first= Mike
 
|authorlink= Mike Resnick
 
|coauthors=
 
|year= 1998
*[[Facing Mount Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta,|''Facing Mount Kenya,'' Jomo Kenyatta,]] (1938); kitabu kuhusu Kikuyu.<ref name="facingmtkenya">{{cite book|title=Facing Mount Kenya|last=Kenyatta|first=Jomo|publisher=Secker and Warburg|year=1961|location=London|authorlink=Jomo Kenyatta}}</ref>
|publisher= Ballantine
 
|location=
 
|isbn= 0345417011
 
|page=
 
|pages= 293
 
|url=
 
|accessdate= }}
</ref>
*[[Facing Mount Kenya, Jomo Kenyatta,|''Facing Mount Kenya,'' Jomo Kenyatta,]] (1938); kitabu kuhusu Kikuyu.<ref name="facingmtkenya" />
 
==Tanbihi==
{{Marejeo}}
 
 
 
{{Marejeo}}
==Viungo vya nje==
 
 
 
{{Commons category|Mount Kenya|Mount Kenya}}
 
 
 
* [http://www.mountkenya.org/ Mount Kenya homepage]
 
 
 
* [http://www.mount-kenya.com/ Mount Kenya Information & Resource]
 
 
 
* [http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/800 UNESCO Mtindo Site Data Sheet juu ya Mlima Kenya]
 
 
 
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?ll=-0.151405,37.312660&amp;spn=0.166014,0.234180&amp;t=k&amp;hl=en Satellite picture by Google Maps]
 
 
 
* [http://www.kilimanjaro.cc/mkgeolog.htm Mount Kenya Jiolojia na Glaciology]
 
 
 
* [http://www.awf.org/section/safaris/samburu African Wildlife Foundation Safari Planner]
 
 
 
* [http://www.mck.or.ke/ Mlima Club ya Kenya Homepage]
 
 
 
* [http://www.mountkenyatrust.org/ Bill Woodley Mount Kenya Trust]
 
 
 
* [http://www.animalorphanagekenya.org/ Mount Kenya Wildlife Conservancy]
 
* [http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/ Wakati tulianza, kulikuwa Witchmen] ''An Oral History kutoka Mlima Kenya'' (1993) Jeffrey Fadiman
 
 
* [http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/ Wakati tulianza, kulikuwa Witchmen] ''An Oral History kutoka Mlima Kenya''  (1993) Jeffrey Fadiman
 
 
 
* [http://www.matthewpower.net/FEAT.KENYA.pdf Vizuka juu ya Mlima Kenya] Kifungu kutoka [[National Geographic Adventure]] magazine (2007) Mathayo Power
 
 
 
* [http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html Kenya Wildlife Service's page on Mount Kenya National Park]
 
 
 
* [http://www.planetfear.com/articles/Frontier_Climbing_in_Kenya_446.html Frontier Climbing nchini Kenya] Article on wawili wa kwanza juu ya Hekalu ascents
 
 
 
* [http://www.hssonline.org/publications/Newsletter2008/NewsletterApril2008photoessay.html Afrika Mashariki ubeberu photo insha]
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{mbegu-jio-Kenya}}
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
{{DEFAULTSORT:Kenya, Mlima}}
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Milima ya Kenya]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Milima ya Afrika]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Volkeno za Afrika]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Mlima Kenya]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Volkeno za Kenya]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Mahali pa Urithi wa Dunia katika Afrika]]
 
 
 
[[Jamii:Historia ya Kenya]]
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