Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mlima Kenya"

128 bytes removed ,  miaka 2 iliyopita
no edit summary
Tag: 2017 source edit
Vilele vya Batian, Nelion na Lenana vimepewa majina ya [[Laibon]] Mbatian na wanawe ambao walikuwa Wamasai..<ref name="dutton" /> Kilele cha Terere pia kilipatiwa jina la kiongozi Mmasai. Majina mengine yalitoka kwa majina ya wazungu wapelelezi, k.v. Shipton, Sommerfelt, Tilman, Dutton na Arthur. Kuna majina yaliyotoka kwa wakenya na walowezi maarufu. Majina ya [[Mtume|watume]] John na Peter yalitolewa na Arthur, aliyekuwa mmishonari.<ref name="mck">{{cite book|title=The Mountain Club of Kenya Guide to Mount Kenya and Kilimanjaro|last=Allan|first=Iain|publisher=Mountain Club of Kenya|year=1981|isbn=978-9966985606|location=Nairobi}}</ref>
 
==Historia Jiografia ==
===Ugunduzi wa WazunguJiolojia===
[[File:Joseph Thomson.png|right|thumb|Joseph Thomson alithibitisha  ugunduzi wa Krapf.]]
 
[[Picha:Batian and Nelion.JPG|thumb|Vilele vya Mlima kenya. Vinaaminika kuwepo baada ya mmomonyoko kwa njia ya barafuto.<ref name="geology">{{cite book|title=Geology of the Mount Kenya Area|last=Baker|first=B. H.|publisher=Ministry of Natural Resources|year=1967|isbn=|series=Geological Survey of Kenya|doi=|authorlink=}}</ref>]]
Mlima Kenya ulikuwa kati ya vilele virefu [[Afrika]] kuonekana kwa mara ya kwanza na [[Mpelelezi|wapelelezi]] kutoka Ulaya. Wa kwanza kuuona alikuwa [[Johann Ludwig Krapf]], [[mmisionari]] [[Mjerumani]]<ref name="Krapf">{{cite book
 
Mlima Kenya ni [[volkeno rusu]] iliyokuwa hai kati ya miaka milioni 2.6 na 3.1 iliyopita. Kasoko ya awali ilikuwa pengine katika urefu wa m 6,000; juu kuliko [[Kilimanjaro]]. Tangu izimike, kumekuwa na [[Kipindi cha barafu|vipindi viwili vya barafu]]. Barafuto za leo hazipiti m 4,650 <ref name="map" />.
 
Miteremko ya kitako cha mlima haijawahi kuwa na barafuto. Ni misitu na baadhi ya sehemu zikalimwa. Miteremko hiyo ina mabonde yenye umbo la V na [[Kijito|vijito]] vingi. Juu mlimani, katika eneo ambalo ni nyika, mabonde yenye umbo la U na vina vifupi. Mabonde hayo yaliumbwa na barafuto.<ref name="geology" />
 
Wakati Mlima Kenya ulikuwa hai, shughuli za kivolkeno mbali kiasi na mlima. Kaskazini mashariki, kando ya mlima kuna vizibo vingi vya volkeno na [[kreta]]. Kreta ya Ithanguni ndio kubwa zaidi. Inadhaniwa kuwa ilikuwa na theluji wakati huo. Hii inaweza kuonekana kwa kuwa kilele kimelainika. Vilima vidogo huonekana hapo kama ishara kuwa vilikuwa vizibo.<ref name="geology" />
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
 
Miamba inayounda Mlima kenya ni pamoja na [[basalt]], [[rhomb porphyrite]], [[phonolite]], [[kenyte]] na [[trachyte]].<ref name="geology" /> Kenyte iliripotiwa kuonekana mara ya kwanza mwaka 1900 na Gregory katika utafiti wake wa [[jiolojia]] ya Mlima Kenya.<ref name="gregory1900">{{cite journal
 
 
| title= Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa
 
| last= Gregory
 
 
| year=1860 | publisher=Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London
 
| first= J. W.
 
 
| isbn= }}</ref>, [[tarehe]] [[3 Desemba]] [[1849]]<ref name="dutton">{{cite book
 
| authorlink = John Walter Gregory
 
 
| last=Dutton | first=E.A.T. | authorlink=
 
| year=1900
 
 
| title= Kenya Mountain |year=1929 |publisher=Jonathan Cape
 
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.-Part II. The Geology of Mount Kenya
 
 
| location= London}}</ref>, kutoka [[Kitui]], mji ulio km 160 kutoka mlima<ref name="rough_guide">{{cite map
 
| journal= Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
 
 
| publisher=Rough Guide | title= Rough Guide Map Kenya
 
| volume=56
 
 
| edition=9 | year=2006 | cartography=World Mapping Project
 
| issue=
 
 
| scale=1:900,000 | series=Rough Guide Map |isbn=1-84353-359-6
 
| pages = 205–222
 
 
}}</ref>, baada ya ugunduzi wa [[Mlima Kilimanjaro]].
 
| url =
Krapf aliambiwa na [[watu]] wa [[kabila]] la [[Waembu]] kwamba walikuwa wakiuzunguka mlima lakini hawakuwa wamepaa juu kwa sababu ya [[baridi]] na  [[theluji]].<ref name="Krapf" /> [[Wakikuyu]] walithibitisha haya yametukia.[[File:Samuel Teleki.jpg|thumb|left|Samuel Teleki, Mzungu wa kwanza kuweka mguu juu ya Mlima Kenya.]]
 
 
 
<!--  | accessdate=4th June 2007
Krapf pia alibainisha kwamba [[mito]] inayotoka Mlima Kenya, na mingine katika eneo la milima, ilikuwa mito ya kudumu. Akagundua kuwa lazima kuna chanzo cha maji mlimani, katika umbo la barafuto.<ref name="Krapf" /> Aliamini ni chanzo cha [[Mto Nili Nyeupe|Nili Nyeupe]].<ref>{{cite journal
 
 
 
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1900.056.01-04.12 -->
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
 
 
 
}}</ref>
| title = Extract from Krapf's diary | date=13 Mei 1850
 
[[Joseph Thompson]] alipendekeza utafiti ufanyiwe Mlima Kenya mara ya kwanza mwaka 1883. Aliona mlima kutoka [[Tambarare ya Laikipia]] na akaandika kuwa ilikuwa volkeno zimwe, kizibo kikionekana.<ref name="thomson" /> Hata hivyo, maoni yake hayakuaminika na wanasayansi wa magharibi, hasa baada ya mwaka 1887 wakati [[Teleki]] na [[von Höhnel]] walikwea mlima na kueleza walichokatia kauli kuwa kreta.<ref name="gregory" /> Mwaka 1893 msafara wa Gregory ulifika Barafuto ya Lewis, m 5,000. Alithibitisha kuwa volkeno ilikuwa imezimwa na kuwa kulikuwa na barafuto.<ref name="gregory" /><ref name="gregory1900" />
===Vilele===
[[File:Mount Kenya Summit photomap-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Vilele vikuu na barafuto kati mwa mlima.]]
 
Asili ya vilele vingi ni shughuli za volkeno. Vilele vingi vimekaribia kati mwa mlima. Vinafanana na vilele vya [[Alpi]] kwa sababu ya mikunjo.<ref name="baker">[112]</ref> Kuvu, kuvumwani na mimea midogo ya milimani humea katika vilele vya kati.<ref name="ecology" /> Vizibo vya volkeno vimefunikwa kwa majivu ya volkeno na udongo.<ref name="speck">{{cite journal
 
| journal=Church Missionary Intelligencer
 
 
| last = Speck
 
| volume=i | pages=345}}</ref>
 
Mwaka [[1851]] Krapf akarudi Kitui. Yeye alisafiri km 65 karibu na mlima, lakini hakuweza kuuona tena. Mwaka 1877 Hildebrandt alikuwa katika eneo la Kitui na kusikia juu ya mlima, lakini pia hakuweza kuuona, hivyo watu walianza kumtuhumu Krapf.<ref name="gregory">
 
| first = Heinrich
 
 
{{cite book
 
| coauthors =
 
 
| last=Gregory | first=John Walter |authorlink=John Walter Gregory
 
| title = Soils of the Mount Kenya Area: Their formation, ecology, and agricultural significance
 
 
| title=The Great Rift Valley | origdate=1896 | year=1968
 
| journal = Mountain Research and Development
 
 
| publisher= Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London}}</ref>
 
| volume = 2
Hatimaye, mwaka [[1883]], [[Joseph Thomson]] alipita upande wa magharibi wa mlima na Krapf alithibitisha madai yake.<ref name="thomson">{{cite book|title=Through Masai Land|last=Thomson|first=Joseph|publisher=Frank Cass & Co Ltd|year=1968|edition=3|location=London|authorlink=Joseph Thomson (explorer)|origdate=1885}}</ref> Hata hivyo, upelelezi rasmi wa kwanza ulifanyika mwaka 1887 na [[Samuel Teleki]] na [[Ludwig von Höhnel]]. Waliweza kufika mita 4,350 kwenye mteremko wa kusini magharibi<ref name=":2" />. Katika safari ya upelelezi huo, waliamini kuwa walikuwa wamegundua volkeno.
 
Mwaka 1892, Teleki na von Höhnel walirudi upande wa mashariki, lakini hawakuweza kupitia msitu.<ref name="ecology">{{cite book
 
 
| issue = 2
 
| last=Coe | first=Malcolm James
 
 
| pages = 201–221
 
| title=The Ecology of the Alpine Zone of Mount Kenya
 
 
| publisher =
 
| year=1967 | publisher= Dr W. Junk | location=The Hague}}</ref>
 
Hatimaye, mwaka 1893 timu ilisafiri kutoka pwani hadi [[Ziwa Baringo]] katika [[Bonde la Ufa]], ikiongozwa na [[John W. Gregory]], [[mwanajiolojia]] [[Mwingereza]]. Walikwea mlima hadi mita 4,730 na wakakaa masaa kadhaa katika Barafuto ya Lewis. Aliporudi [[Uingereza]], Gregory alichapisha [[majarida]] na [[hadithi]] ya mafanikio yake.<ref name="mck" /> George Kolb, [[daktari]] Mjerumani, alifanya safari mwaka 1894 na 1896 <ref name="mck" /> na alikuwa wa kwanza kufika nyika ya mlima upande wa mashariki.
 
| date = 1982
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name=":3" /> Halford John Mackinder aliongoza kundi la wapelelezi 6 kutoka [[Ulaya]], 66 kutoka [[Uswahilini]], [[Wamaasai]] 2 na Wakikuyu 96<ref name=":3" />. Walipatana na matatizo mengi njiani<ref name=":3" />. Mackinder aliendelea kupanda mlima. Alikita kambi m 3,142<ref name=":3" />  katika Bonde la Höhnel. Alifanya jaribio la kwanza kufikia kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] pamoja na Brocherel na Ollier kupitia upande wa mashariki, lakini wakabakisha kupanda m 100 kutoka Kilele cha Nelion. Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel walifanya mzunguko kutafuta njia rahisi ila hawakuweza kupata. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel walipanda Barafuto ya Darwin, lakini walilazimishwa kukatiza safari kutokana na [[dhoruba ya theluji]]<ref name=":3" />.
 
Wakati Saunders alirudi kutoka Naivasha timu okozi, Mackinder, Ollier na Brocherel walijaribu kupanda kilele tena. Walifika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na walishuka kutumia njia ileile<ref name=":3" />.
===1900-1930===
Baada ya ukweaji wa kwanza, hakukuwa na safari nyingi za kukwea mlima. Upelelezi kabla ya [[Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia|Vita ya Kwanza ya Dunia]] ulikuwa ukifanywa na [[walowezi]] nchini Kenya, ambao hawakufanya upelelezi wa kisayansi. Misheni ya Kanisa la Uskoti ilipofunguliwa Chogoria[[Chogoria,|,]] wamishonari kadhaa walikwea mlima lakini hakuna aliyefanikiwa kufikia vilele vya Batian au Nelion.<ref name="mck" />
 
Miti ya misitu ilikatwa ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia vilele. Mwaka 1920, Arthur Fowell Buxton alijaribu kutengeneza njia kutoka kusini, na njia nyingine walikuja kutoka [[Nanyuki]] kaskazini, lakini njia iliyotumiwa zaidi ni ile ya Chogoria, kutoka mashariki, iliyotengenezwa na Ernest Carr.<ref name="mck" />
 
| url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0276-4741(198205)2%3A2%3C201%3ASOTMKA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8
Mwishoni mwa Julai 1930, Shipton na Bill Tilman walikwea vilele vyote. Katika safari hii, Shipton na Tilman walijaribu kukwea vilele vingine, ikiwa ni pamoja na Petro, Dutton, Midget , Pigott na aidha Terere au Sendeyo.<ref name="cordee">{{cite book
 
 
 
| doi = 10.2307/3672965
|last= Burns
 
 
 
| accessdate = 2007-06-21
|first= Cameron
 
 
 
| year = 1982
|title= Kilimanjaro & Mount Kenya; A Climbing and Trekking Guide
 
 
 
}}</ref>
|year= 1998
 
Vilele virefu zaidi ni Batian (m 5,199), Nelion (m 5,188) na Lenana (m 4,985).<ref name="map" />
 
Vilele na vizibo vingine ni pamoja na Piggot (m 4,957), Dutton (m 4,885), John (m 4,883), John Minor (m 4,875), Krapf Rognon (m 4,800), Peter (m 4,757), Slade (m 4,750) na Midget (m 4,700). Vyote vina miinuko inayotengeneza umbo kama la piramidi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" />
 
Vilele maarufu vilivyo katika viunga vya mlima ni Terere (m 4,714) and Sendeyo (m 4,704).<ref name="map" /><center>
|publisher= Cordee
 
 
 
<gallery>
|location= Leicester
 
Picha:Batian Nelion and pt Slade in the foreground Mt Kenya.JPG|Batian (kushoto), Nelion (kulia), na Slade katika mandharimbele
 
Picha:Pt Lenana Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha lenana ndicho kimeinuka zaidi
 
Picha:Krapf rognon and glacier after snowstorm.jpg|Krapf Rognon (m 4800) na Barafuto ya Krapf
|isbn= 1-871890-98-5}}</ref>
===1931 hadi leo===
Katika miaka ya 1930 ziara zilifanyika zaidi katika nyika ya mlima. Raymond Hook na Humphrey Slade walikwea ili wachore ramani ya mlima na wakapeleka samaki. Februari mwaka 1938, C Carol na Mtu Muthara wakawa mwanamke wa kwanza na Mwafrika wa kwanza mtawalia kupaa Nelion, katika ziara na Noel Symington, mwandishi wa ''The Night Climbers of Cambridge,''  na tarehe [[5 Machi]] Una Cameron akawa mwanamke wa kwanza kupaa Batian.<ref name="mck" />
 
Picha:Hut tarn 4500m and Midget Peak Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha Midget kinaweza kukwewa kwa siku moja
Wakati wa [[Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia]] ziara za kukwea mlima zilididimia zaidi. Watu maarufu waliokwea katika wakati huo walikuwa wafungwa wa vitani Waitaliano, ambao walikuwa wamefungwa jela Nanyuki. Walitoroka na kupanda mlima kabla ya kurejea kambini.<ref name="picnic">{{cite book
 
Picha:Terere and Sendeyo.jpg|Vilele vya Terere na Sendeyo viko katika kiunga cha mlima
 
</gallery></center>
===Barafuto===
[[File:MtKenya gletscher.jpg|thumb|200px|Barafuto ya Lewis ndio kubwa zaidi.]]
 
Barafuto zinazidi kudidimia kila mwaka.<ref name="web">{{cite web
| last= Benuzzi | first= Felice | authorlink=
 
 
 
| url= http://www.mck.or.ke/ | author=Mountain Club
| title=No Picnic on Mount Kenya: A Daring Escape, a Perilous Climb
 
 
 
| title= Mountain Club of Kenya Homepage
| origdate=1953 | year=2005 | publisher=The Lyons Press
 
 
 
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref><ref name="glafot">''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html Recession ya Ikweta Glaciers.]'' ''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html A Photo Documentation,]''  Hastenrath, S., 2008, Sundog Publishing, Madison, WI, ISBN 978-0-9729033-3-2, 144 pp.
| location=  | isbn=978-1592287246}}</ref>
</ref> Kila mwaka, theluji inayolimbikika katika [[majira ya baridi]] ni kidogo kuliko inayoyeyuka katika [[majira ya joto]]. Inabashiriwa kuwa hali ikiendelea hivyo, Mlima Kenya hautakuwa na theluji miaka 30 itakayokuja<ref name=":0" /><ref name="guide" />. Kupungua kwa barafuto kunasababishwa na kuongezeka kwa halijoto au kubadilika kwa tabia ya usimbishaji.<ref name="benn">{{cite book
 
Mwaka 1949 eneo kupita m 3,400 lilifanywa [[Hifadhi ya taifa|hifadhi ya kitaifa]].<ref name="mck" /> Barabara ilijengwa kutoka [[Naro Moru]] ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia nika ya mlima.
 
Mwaka 1963, katika siku ya uhuru wa Kenya, Kisoi Munayo alikita bendera ya Kenya juu ya mlima. Mwaka 1997, mlima Kenya uliteuliwa kuwa eneo la urithi wa dunia na UNESCO.<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
 
|last = Benn
 
 
| url= http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=800
 
|first = Doug
 
 
| title= UNESCO World Heritage Site | author=UNESCO
 
|last1 = David
 
 
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref>
==Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya==
{{main|Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya}}
 
|first1 = Evans
Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya, ilianzishwa mwaka [[1949]]. Inahifadhi eneo linalozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa [[hifadhi ya misitu]].<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
 
 
 
|title = Glaciers and Glaciation
|url= http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
 
 
|publisher = Arnold
|title= Mount Kenya National Park
 
 
 
|year = 1997
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
 
 
|isbn = 978-0340584316}}</ref> Eneo la barafuto lilipimwa rasmi mara ya kwanza mwaka 1980 na kubainika kuwa ni 0.7 km<sup>2</sup> <ref name="glacierfluctuations">
|author= Kenya Wildlife Service
{{cite journal|last=Karlén|first=Wibjörn|year=1999|title=Glacier Fluctuations on Mount Kenya since ~6000 Cal. Years BP: Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa|url=http://www.ambio.kva.se|journal=Ambio|publisher=Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|volume=28|issue=5|pages=409–418|coauthors=James L Fastook, Karin Holmgren, Maria Malmström, John A Matthews, Eric Odada, Jan Risberg, Gunhild Rosqvist, Per Sandgren, Aldo Shemesh and Lars-Ove Westerberg|month=Agosti}}
</ref>.
 
Majina ya barafuto za Mlima Kenya kwa mzunguko wa akrabu kutoka kaskazini ni ni:
 
# Northey
 
# Krapf
|authorlink= Kenya Wildlife Service
 
# Gregory
 
# Lewis
 
# Diamond
|year= 2007
 
# Darwin
 
# Forel
 
# Heim
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070622045208/http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
# Tyndall
 
# Cesar
 
# Josef
|archivedate= 2007-06-22
 
===Miundo ya kingo za barafuto===
Jalidi usiku hufanya kuwe na miundo ya kingo za kingo za barafuto. Kuna sentimita chache ardhi jalidi chini ya uso wa ardhi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" /> Kupanuka na kupunguka kwa ardhi kwa sababu ya halijoto, hufanya mimea isiweze kumea katika kingo.<ref name="mck" />
===Mito===
Mlima Kenya ni eneo kuu la vyanzo vya maji vya mito miwili mikubwa nchini Kenya; [[Mto Tana]] na Mto Ewaso Ngiro Kaskazini.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
 
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama Hifadhi ya Mazingira ya dunia UNESCO .<ref name="unep">{{cite web
 
| last = Gichuki
 
 
|url= http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
 
|title= Protected Areas and World Heritage
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
| journal = Ambio
 
 
|author= United Nations Environment Programme
 
| volume = 28
 
 
|authorlink= United Nations Environment Programme
 
| issue = 5
 
 
|year= 1998
 
| pages = 430–435
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070212211303/http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
 
 
|archivedate= 2007-02-12
 
| date = Agosti 1999
 
 
}}</ref>
 
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se}}
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kuanzisha Hifadhi ya Taifa inayozunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]], kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani yake, na kuhifadhi [[Chanzo cha maji|vyanzo vya maji]] vinavyozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
</ref> Mfumo wa ikolojia wa Mlima Kenya hupatia watu zaidi ya milioni 2 maji.<ref name="development" /> Wiani wa vijito ni kubwa hasa katika miteremko ambayo haijawahi kuwa na barafuto.<ref name="baker_map">{{cite map
 
 
| last = Gichuki
 
| publisher =Edward Stanford Ltd
 
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
| title =Geological Map of the Mount Kenya Area
 
 
| coauthors =
 
| url = http://eusoils.jrc.it/ESDB_Archive/EuDASM/Africa/maps/afr_kegmmka.htm
 
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
| edition =1st
 
 
| journal = Ambio
 
| year =1966
 
 
| volume = 28
 
| cartography =B. H. Baker, Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
| issue = 5
 
| scale =1:125000
 
 
| pages = 430–435
 
| series =Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
 
| accessdate =
 
 
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
 
| accessmonth =
 
 
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
 
| accessyear =
 
 
| doi =
 
}}</ref> Vijito na mito inayoanza Mlima Kenya humwaga maji ndani ya Mto Sagana, Mto Tana na Mto Ewaso Ngiso Kaskazini moja kwa moja au kupitia mito mingine. <ref name="baker_map" /><ref name="mapandguide">
 
{{cite map|publisher=Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage|title=Mt Kenya 1:50000 Map and Guide|edition=1|year=1991|cartography=West Col Productions|scale=1:50000 with 1:25000 inset|isbn=0-906227-39-9}}</ref>
===Ikolojia===
Eneo la Mlima Kenya lina kanda tofauti za kiikolojia. Kila ukanda una sifa zake na spishi kuu ya mimea. Spishi nyingi zinazopatikana katika sehemu zilizo juu ya mlima zinapatikana pia katika maeneo mengine ya mlima na Afrika Mashariki.<ref name="ecology" />
 
Pia kuna tofauti kati ya kanda, kutegemea upande wa mlima na ukali wa mteremko. Kusini mashariki pa mlima ni sehemu nyevu kuliko kaskazini<ref name="glacierfluctuations" /> kwa hivyo, spishi nyingi za sehemu hiyo hutegemea unyevu kukua. Baadhi ya spishi, k.v. [[mianzi]], haziwezi kukua katika pande zote za mlima kwa sababu za tofauti za unyevu.<ref name="map" />
| accessdate =
====Kanda====
[[File:Mount Kenya Vegetation map en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Kuna kanda tofauti mimea kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ambayo inatofautiana kulingana na urefu na kipengele.]]
 
Tabianchi hubadilika kulingana na mwinuko. Katika kitako cha mlima, udongo una rutuba na hivyo ni mzuri kwa ukulima. Ukulima ulikuwa ukifanyika hapo kwa miaka.<ref name="castro" />
 
Mlima Kenya umezungukwa na misitu. [[Uoto asilia|Uoto]] katika misitu unategemea kiwango cha mvua, na spishi hutofautiana zaidi kusini na kaskazini mwa mteremko.<ref name="dutton" /> Misitu katika kitako cha mlima hutishiwa na binadamu wanaokata miti ili watengeneze mbao na wanyakuzi ardhi.<ref name="castro" />
 
Juu ya misitu ni ukanda wa mianzi asilia. Ukanda huu huzunguka mlima isipokuwa sehemu ya kaskazini ambapo kuna upungufu wa mvua<ref name="mck" />. Ni vigumu kupata spishi nyingine za mimea hapo kwa sababu uoto wa mianzi ni mzito na huzuia mimea mingine kumea.<ref name="map" />[[File:Timberline forest with lichens.jpg|thumb|left|Msitu wa mpaka wamiti.]]
| format = subscription required}}
 
 
 
Juu ya ukanda wa mianzi ni ukanda wa mpaka wa miti. Miti hapa mara nyingi ni midogo kuliko miti katika misitu ya kitako cha mlima.<ref name="zonation">
</ref>
{{cite journal
==Utamaduni==
[[File:Mount Kenya Population map-fr.svg|right|thumb|Mlima Kenya ni muhimu kwa makabila yote ya pembezoni hai.]]
 
Makabila makuu wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ni [[Wakikuyu]], [[Wameru]], [[Waembu]] na [[Wamaasai]]. Hao wote huona mlima huo kama kipengele muhimu cha [[tamaduni]] zao.
 
===Wakikuyu===
[[File:Batian and Nelion in the background cropped.JPG|thumb|Makabila kadhaa wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya wanaamini kuwa mlima takatifu. Walitumia kujenga nyumba zao zinazowakabili mlima, na milango upande karibu yake.|alt=|left]]
 
| last = Niemelä
[[Wakikuyu]] wanaishi kusini na magharibi mwa mlima.<ref name="ecology" /><ref name="Explorers">{{cite book |title= East African Explorers|last= Richards|first= Charles|authorlink= |coauthors= James Place|year= 1960|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= London}}
 
</ref> Wao ni [[wakulima]] na hulima katika udongo mwekundu wa volkeno. Wakikuyu waamini kwamba Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  aliishi juu ya Mlima Kenya aliposhuka kutoka mbinguni.<ref name=":5">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=pPBtzgAACAAJ&dq=facing+mount+kenya&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwithfbKqbjdAhUD1BoKHWuEDS4Q6AEIJzAA|title=Facing Mount Kenya|last=Kenyatta|first=Jomo|date=2011-04-05|publisher=Penguin Random House|isbn=9781846555527|language=en}}</ref> Wao wanaamini kuwa mlima ni kiti cha enzi cha Ngai duniani. Ni mahali ambapo Gikuyu, baba wa kabila, alitumia kukutana na Mungu wao, Ngai.<ref name=":5" /><ref name="guide">{{cite|author=Kenya Wildlife Service|title=Mount Kenya Official Guidebook|publisher=Kenya Wildlife Service|year=2006|date=2006}}</ref> Jina kwa ajili ya Kikuyu Mlima Kenya ni ''Kĩrĩnyaga''  ([[Kirinyaga]]), tafsiri yake ikiwa ni mlima mweupe. Linatokana na weupe wa theluji<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Karangi|first=Matthew|date=2013-01-01|title=The gĩkũyũ religion and philosophy: A tool for understanding the current religio-political debates in Kenya|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291902121_The_gikuyu_religion_and_philosophy_A_tool_for_understanding_the_current_religio-political_debates_in_Kenya|volume=108|pages=612–622}}</ref>.
 
===Waembu===
[[Waembu]] wanaishi kusini-mashariki mwa Mlima Kenya,<ref name="ecology" /> na kuamini kuwa mlima ni nyumba ya Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  au ''Mwene Njeru.'' Mlima ni takatifu, na walikuwa wakijenga nyumba zikiwa na milango iliyokuwa ikitazama mlima.<ref name="guide" /> Waembu wanauita ''kiri Njeru'', maana yake, mlima mweupe.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
===Wamasai===
[[Wamasai]] ni [[wahamahamaji]] ambao walitumia ardhi kaskazini ya mlima kulisha mifugo wao. Wanaamini kuwa mababu zao walishuka kutoka mlima mwanzoni mwa wakati.<ref name="guide" /> Wamasai waliuita ''Ol Donyo Keri'', ambalo linamaanisha 'mlima wa bakora au rangi nyingi' kudokeza theluji, misitu na mengineyo vinavyoonekana kutoka tambarare ya kandokando.<ref name="somjee">{{cite journal
 
| first = Tuomo
 
 
| last=Somjee | first=Sultan | year=2000
 
| coauthors = Petri Pellikka
 
 
| title = Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience
 
| title = Zonation and characteristics of the vegetation of Mt. Kenya
 
 
| journal= Research in African Literatures
 
| journal = Expedition reports of the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki
 
 
| volume=31 | issue=4 | pages = 97–103
 
| volume = 40
 
 
| url = http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/research_in_african_literatures/v031/31.4somjee.html
 
| issue =
 
 
| accessdate=2008-02-21 | doi = 10.2979/RAL.2000.31.4.97
 
| pages = 14–20
 
 
}}</ref> Angalau moja sala Wamaasai inahusu mlima wa Kenya:
 
| publisher =
 
 
{{Quote|Mungu bariki watoto wetu, wawe kama mkuyu wa Morintat, wakue na wapanuke, wawe kama Vilima vya Ngong, kama Mlima Kenya, kama Mlima Kilimanjaro na waongezeke. (tafsiri)|Ilikusanywa na Francis Sakuda wa Makumbusho ya Amani ya Oloshoibor<ref name=somjee/>}}
===Wameru===
[[Wameru]] wanaishi Mashariki na Kaskazini mwa mlima. Walilima na [[Ufugaji|kufuga]] katika sehemu yenye rutuba nyingi nchini Kenya. Jina la Mt. Kenya kwa [[Kimeru]] ni ''Kirimara'' (kutokana na weupe wa theluji).<ref name="witchmen">{{cite book |title= When We Began There Were Witchmen|last= Fadiman|first= Jeffrey A.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1994|publisher= University of California Press|location= Berkeley|isbn= 0-520-08615-5|page= |pages= |url= http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/|accessdate= 2009-05-14}}
 
| date =
 
 
</ref>
===Makabila mengine===
Wazungu wa kwanza kutembelea Mlima Kenya mara nyingi walileta wajumbe wa makabila mengine kama marafiki na mabawabu. Wengi wao hawakuwa na uzoefu wa baridi, au kuwahi kuona theluji. Maitikio yao mara nyingi zilikuwa za woga na tuhuma.{{Quote|Sifa nyingine ya wazanzibari ilionekana katika kambi ile ile. Asubuhi ilipofika, waume walikuja kuniarifu kwamba maji yale waliokuwa wamewacha ndani ya vyungu yalikuwa yamerogwa. Walisema kuwa ni meupe, na hayatikisiki; Fundi, aliyejulikana kuwa mwenye kuthubutu, alikuwa ameyagonga kwa kijiti na hayakutoka. Walinirai niyaangalie, nikawaambia wayaniletee. Wakakataa, hata hivyo, ili kuyagusa, wakanirai niende yalipokuwa. Kwa kweli, maji yalikuwa yameganda. Niliweka chungu juu ya jiko, nikatabiri kuwa yangegeuka kuwa maji tena. Tuliokuwa nao wakakaa karibu na kuyatazama; yalipoyeyuka, waliniambia kwa furaha kuwa shetani alikuwa amefukuzwa, na nikawaambia kuwa wangeweza kuyatumia maji tena; lakini punde nilipogeuka, waliyamwaga na kuchota mengine kutoka mto uliokuwa karibu. (tafsiri)|J W Gregory|''The Great Rift Valley''<ref name=gregory/>}}
 
| year = 2004
 
 
Mackinder's Expedition wa 1899 alikutana na baadhi ya wanaume kutoka kabila la [[Wadorobo]].<ref name="ecology" />
== Jiografia ==
===Jiolojia===
 
| ISBN = 952-10-2077-6
[[Picha:Batian and Nelion.JPG|thumb|Vilele vya Mlima kenya. Vinaaminika kuwepo baada ya mmomonyoko kwa njia ya barafuto.<ref name="geology">{{cite book|title=Geology of the Mount Kenya Area|last=Baker|first=B. H.|publisher=Ministry of Natural Resources|year=1967|isbn=|series=Geological Survey of Kenya|doi=|authorlink=}}</ref>]]
 
Mlima Kenya ni [[volkeno rusu]] iliyokuwa hai kati ya miaka milioni 2.6 na 3.1 iliyopita. Kasoko ya awali ilikuwa pengine katika urefu wa m 6,000; juu kuliko [[Kilimanjaro]]. Tangu izimike, kumekuwa na [[Kipindi cha barafu|vipindi viwili vya barafu]]. Barafuto za leo hazipiti m 4,650 <ref name="map" />.
 
Miteremko ya kitako cha mlima haijawahi kuwa na barafuto. Ni misitu na baadhi ya sehemu zikalimwa. Miteremko hiyo ina mabonde yenye umbo la V na [[Kijito|vijito]] vingi. Juu mlimani, katika eneo ambalo ni nyika, mabonde yenye umbo la U na vina vifupi. Mabonde hayo yaliumbwa na barafuto.<ref name="geology" />
 
}}
Wakati Mlima Kenya ulikuwa hai, shughuli za kivolkeno mbali kiasi na mlima. Kaskazini mashariki, kando ya mlima kuna vizibo vingi vya volkeno na [[kreta]]. Kreta ya Ithanguni ndio kubwa zaidi. Inadhaniwa kuwa ilikuwa na theluji wakati huo. Hii inaweza kuonekana kwa kuwa kilele kimelainika. Vilima vidogo huonekana hapo kama ishara kuwa vilikuwa vizibo.<ref name="geology" />
</ref>
 
Mahali miti haiwezi kuota ni nyika ya mlima, m 3,000. Mimea ya jenasi ''[[Erica]]'' hupatikana katika sehemu ya magharibi ambayo huwa nyevu. Vichaka na nyasi hupatikana katika sehemu kame ambayo hushuhudia moto wa pori.<ref name="mck" /> <ref name="castro" />
Miamba inayounda Mlima kenya ni pamoja na [[basalt]], [[rhomb porphyrite]], [[phonolite]], [[kenyte]] na [[trachyte]].<ref name="geology" /> Kenyte iliripotiwa kuonekana mara ya kwanza mwaka 1900 na Gregory katika utafiti wake wa [[jiolojia]] ya Mlima Kenya.<ref name="gregory1900">{{cite journal
 
Kimo kinapoongezeka, halijoto hupungua zaidi na hewa hupungua, katika ukanda unaojulikana kama Alpi ya Kiafrika. Mazingira ya ukanda huo yanafanana tu na yale ya [[Aberdare|Safu ya Aberdare]]. <ref name="ecology" /> Mimea mingi ya ukanda huo imejirekebisha ili kuweza kukabili halihewa.<ref name="rosette">{{cite journal
 
 
| last= Gregory
 
| last = Beck
 
 
| first= J. W.
 
| first = Erwin
 
 
| authorlink = John Walter Gregory
 
| coauthors = Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Margot Senser and Renate Scheibe
 
 
| year=1900
 
| title = Equilibrium freezing of leaf water and extracellular ice formation in Afroalpine 'giant rosette' plants
 
 
| title = Contributions to the Geology of British East Africa.-Part II. The Geology of Mount Kenya
 
| journal = Planta
 
 
| journal= Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society
 
| volume = 162
 
 
| volume=56
 
| issue =
 
 
| issue=
 
| pages = 276–282
 
 
| pages = 205–222
 
| publisher =
 
 
| url =
 
| date = 1984
 
 
<!--  | accessdate=4th June 2007
 
| url =
 
 
| doi = 10.1144/GSL.JGS.1900.056.01-04.12 -->
 
| doi = 10.1007/BF00397450
 
 
}}</ref>
 
| accessdate = }}</ref>
[[Joseph Thompson]] alipendekeza utafiti ufanyiwe Mlima Kenya mara ya kwanza mwaka 1883. Aliona mlima kutoka [[Tambarare ya Laikipia]] na akaandika kuwa ilikuwa volkeno zimwe, kizibo kikionekana.<ref name="thomson" /> Hata hivyo, maoni yake hayakuaminika na wanasayansi wa magharibi, hasa baada ya mwaka 1887 wakati [[Teleki]] na [[von Höhnel]] walikwea mlima na kueleza walichokatia kauli kuwa kreta.<ref name="gregory" /> Mwaka 1893 msafara wa Gregory ulifika Barafuto ya Lewis, m 5,000. Alithibitisha kuwa volkeno ilikuwa imezimwa na kuwa kulikuwa na barafuto.<ref name="gregory" /><ref name="gregory1900" />
===Vilele===
[[File:Mount Kenya Summit photomap-en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Vilele vikuu na barafuto kati mwa mlima.]]
 
Ukanda ulio juu ni ambapo barafuto zimedidimia. Mimea bado haijaweza kuota hapo.<ref name="ecology" />
Asili ya vilele vingi ni shughuli za volkeno. Vilele vingi vimekaribia kati mwa mlima. Vinafanana na vilele vya [[Alpi]] kwa sababu ya mikunjo.<ref name="baker">[112]</ref> Kuvu, kuvumwani na mimea midogo ya milimani humea katika vilele vya kati.<ref name="ecology" /> Vizibo vya volkeno vimefunikwa kwa majivu ya volkeno na udongo.<ref name="speck">{{cite journal
====Flora====
[[File:Senecio keniodendron2.jpg|thumb|right|Mimea kama ''[[Dendrosenecio keniodendron]]'' hufanya marekebisho ili iweze kuota.]]
 
Mimea ya mlima hutofautiana na mwinuko na mwelekeo wa mlima.<ref name="tropicalalpine" /> Mwinuko unapoongezeka, mimea huwa na marekebisho spesheli ili kuhimili [[jalidi]] na miale ya [[urujuanimno]].<ref name="mck" /><ref name="zonation" /> Kwa mfano, mimea ya jenasi ''[[Carduus]]'', katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika, hutumia majani kulinda jicho la ua kutokana na jalidi.<ref name="senecio">{{cite journal
 
 
| last = Speck
 
| last = Young
 
 
| first = Heinrich
 
| first = Truman P.
 
 
| coauthors =
 
| coauthors = Mary M. Peacock
 
 
| title = Soils of the Mount Kenya Area: Their formation, ecology, and agricultural significance
 
| title = Giant senecios and alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya
 
 
| journal = Mountain Research and Development
 
| journal = Journal of Ecology
 
 
| volume = 2
 
| volume = 80
 
 
| issue = 2
 
| issue =
 
 
 
| pages = 201–221
| pages = 141–148
 
 
 
 
| date = 19821992
 
 
 
| url =
| url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0276-4741(198205)2%3A2%3C201%3ASOTMKA%3E2.0.CO%3B2-8
 
 
 
| doi = 10.2307/3672965
 
 
 
| accessdate = 2007-06-21}}
</ref><ref name="rosette" />[[File:Cape Hyrax Mt Kenya 1.JPG|left|thumb|[[Pimbi]] huweza kuishi katika maeneo yenye halihewa kali.]]
 
====Fauna====
Wanyama wengi hukaa katika kitako cha mlima penye halianga nzuri kidogo. Spishi za nyani, pimbi wa mitini, ndovu, nungunungu, nyati, fisi, mbuni, duma na simba huishi hapo.<ref name="map" />  Wanyama mamalia wachache, k.v. ''Sylvicapra grimmia'' na pimbi wa miamba wanaweza kuishi katika miinuko ya juu kidogo.<ref name="senecio" /><ref name="ecology" />
 
Spishi za ndege, k.v. chozi, kwenzi, tai na tumbusi hupatikana katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika. Ndege ni muhimu katika mfumo wa ikolojia hiyo kwa kuwa wao husaidia katika mchavusho.<ref name="tropicalalpine">{{cite journal
 
| year = 1982
 
 
| last = Smith
 
}}</ref>
 
Vilele virefu zaidi ni Batian (m 5,199), Nelion (m 5,188) na Lenana (m 4,985).<ref name="map" />
 
| first = Alan P.
Vilele na vizibo vingine ni pamoja na Piggot (m 4,957), Dutton (m 4,885), John (m 4,883), John Minor (m 4,875), Krapf Rognon (m 4,800), Peter (m 4,757), Slade (m 4,750) na Midget (m 4,700). Vyote vina miinuko inayotengeneza umbo kama la piramidi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" />
 
Vilele maarufu vilivyo katika viunga vya mlima ni Terere (m 4,714) and Sendeyo (m 4,704).<ref name="map" /><center>
 
 
| coauthors = Truman P. Young
 
<gallery>
 
Picha:Batian Nelion and pt Slade in the foreground Mt Kenya.JPG|Batian (kushoto), Nelion (kulia), na Slade katika mandharimbele
 
| title = Tropical Alpine Plant Ecology
Picha:Pt Lenana Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha lenana ndicho kimeinuka zaidi
 
Picha:Krapf rognon and glacier after snowstorm.jpg|Krapf Rognon (m 4800) na Barafuto ya Krapf
 
Picha:Hut tarn 4500m and Midget Peak Mt Kenya.JPG|Kilele cha Midget kinaweza kukwewa kwa siku moja
 
| journal = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
Picha:Terere and Sendeyo.jpg|Vilele vya Terere na Sendeyo viko katika kiunga cha mlima
 
</gallery></center>
===Barafuto===
[[File:MtKenya gletscher.jpg|thumb|200px|Barafuto ya Lewis ndio kubwa zaidi.]]
 
Barafuto zinazidi kudidimia kila mwaka.<ref name="web">{{cite web
 
| volume = 18
 
 
| url= http://www.mck.or.ke/ | author=Mountain Club
 
| pages = 137–158
 
 
| title= Mountain Club of Kenya Homepage
 
| date = 1987
 
 
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref><ref name="glafot">''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html Recession ya Ikweta Glaciers.]'' ''[http://www.sundogpublishing.com/Hastenrath/Announcement.html A Photo Documentation,]''  Hastenrath, S., 2008, Sundog Publishing, Madison, WI, ISBN 978-0-9729033-3-2, 144 pp.
</ref> Kila mwaka, theluji inayolimbikika katika [[majira ya baridi]] ni kidogo kuliko inayoyeyuka katika [[majira ya joto]]. Inabashiriwa kuwa hali ikiendelea hivyo, Mlima Kenya hautakuwa na theluji miaka 30 itakayokuja<ref name=":0" /><ref name="guide" />. Kupungua kwa barafuto kunasababishwa na kuongezeka kwa halijoto au kubadilika kwa tabia ya usimbishaji.<ref name="benn">{{cite book
 
| doi = 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001033}}</ref>
 
 
===Tabianchi===
|last = Benn
Tabianchi ya Mlima Kenya ni ya milima ya ikweta ambayo Hedberg alieleza kuwa ni 'majira ya baridi kila usiku, majira ya joto kila mchana'''.'' <ref name="hedberg1969">{{cite journal
 
 
 
| last =Hedberg
|first = Doug
 
 
 
| first =O.
|last1 = David
 
 
 
| title = Evolution and speciation in a tropical high mountain flora
|first1 = Evans
 
 
 
| journal = Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
|title = Glaciers and Glaciation
 
 
 
|publisher volume = Arnold1
 
 
 
|year pages = 1997135–148
 
 
 
| year = 1969
|isbn = 978-0340584316}}</ref> Eneo la barafuto lilipimwa rasmi mara ya kwanza mwaka 1980 na kubainika kuwa ni 0.7 km<sup>2</sup> <ref name="glacierfluctuations">
{{cite journal|last=Karlén|first=Wibjörn|year=1999|title=Glacier Fluctuations on Mount Kenya since ~6000 Cal. Years BP: Implications for Holocene Climate Change in Africa|url=http://www.ambio.kva.se|journal=Ambio|publisher=Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences|volume=28|issue=5|pages=409–418|coauthors=James L Fastook, Karin Holmgren, Maria Malmström, John A Matthews, Eric Odada, Jan Risberg, Gunhild Rosqvist, Per Sandgren, Aldo Shemesh and Lars-Ove Westerberg|month=Agosti}}
</ref>.
 
Majina ya barafuto za Mlima Kenya kwa mzunguko wa akrabu kutoka kaskazini ni ni:
 
# Northey
 
| doi =10.1111/j.1095-8312.1969.tb01816.x
# Krapf
 
# Gregory
 
# Lewis
 
}}</ref> Mlima Kenya mojawapo ya vituo vya uchunguzi wa angahewa vya Global Atmospheric Watch.<ref name="globalatmospherestation">{{cite journal
# Diamond
 
# Darwin
 
# Forel
 
| last = Henne
# Heim
 
# Tyndall
 
# Cesar
 
| first = Stephan
# Josef
 
===Miundo ya kingo za barafuto===
Jalidi usiku hufanya kuwe na miundo ya kingo za kingo za barafuto. Kuna sentimita chache ardhi jalidi chini ya uso wa ardhi.<ref name="map" /><ref name="baker" /> Kupanuka na kupunguka kwa ardhi kwa sababu ya halijoto, hufanya mimea isiweze kumea katika kingo.<ref name="mck" />
===Mito===
Mlima Kenya ni eneo kuu la vyanzo vya maji vya mito miwili mikubwa nchini Kenya; [[Mto Tana]] na Mto Ewaso Ngiro Kaskazini.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
 
| coauthors = Wolfgang Junkermann, Josiah M. Kariuki, John Aseyo and Jörg Klausen
 
| last = Gichuki
 
 
| title = Mount Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch Station (MKN): Installation and Meteorological Characterization
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
 
| journal = Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
 
| volume = 47
 
| journal = Ambio
 
 
| issue = 11
 
| volume = 28
 
 
| pages = 2946–2962
 
| issue = 5
 
 
| publisher =
 
| pages = 430–435
 
 
| date = Novemba 2008
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
 
 
| year =
 
| date = Agosti 1999
 
 
}}</ref>
====Misimu====
[[File:Sunrise over Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|right|Katika msimu wa joto, asubuhi huwa baridi na bila mawingu. Adhuhuri inapofika, mawingu huziba vilele]]
 
Mlima Kenya hushuhudia misimu miwili tofauti, [[Msimu wa joto (tropiki)|misimu ya joto]] na [[Msimu wa mvua|misimu ya mvua]], kama maeneo mengine ya Kenya.<ref name="climate_article">{{cite journal
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se}}
 
</ref> Mfumo wa ikolojia wa Mlima Kenya hupatia watu zaidi ya milioni 2 maji.<ref name="development" /> Wiani wa vijito ni kubwa hasa katika miteremko ambayo haijawahi kuwa na barafuto.<ref name="baker_map">{{cite map
 
 
| last =Thompson
 
| publisher =Edward Stanford Ltd
 
 
| first = B. W.
 
| title =Geological Map of the Mount Kenya Area
 
 
| title = The mean annual rainfall of Mount Kenya
 
| url = http://eusoils.jrc.it/ESDB_Archive/EuDASM/Africa/maps/afr_kegmmka.htm
 
 
| journal = Weather
 
| edition =1st
 
 
| volume = 21
 
| year =1966
 
 
| pages = 48–49
 
| cartography =B. H. Baker, Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
| date = 1966
 
| scale =1:125000
 
 
}}</ref> Miteremko ya mashariki kaskazini hupata mvua kubwa zaidi kwa kuwa uko katika [[Upande wa upepo|upande wa pepo]] za [[matlai]] ambazo huleta mvua kutoka [[Bahari ya Hindi|Bahari Hindi]]. Mvua hii huwezesha msitu uliosongamana katika upande huo. Katika miinuko ya juu, [[usimbishaji]] hufanyika kama theluji na kutengeneza barafuto.<ref name="spink">{{cite journal
 
| series =Geological Survey of Kenya
 
 
| last = Spink
 
| accessdate =
 
 
| first = Lieut.-Commander P. C.
 
| accessmonth =
 
 
| title = Further Notes on the Kibo Inner Crater and Glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya
 
| accessyear =
 
 
| journal = Geographical Journal
 
}}</ref> Vijito na mito inayoanza Mlima Kenya humwaga maji ndani ya Mto Sagana, Mto Tana na Mto Ewaso Ngiso Kaskazini moja kwa moja au kupitia mito mingine. <ref name="baker_map" /><ref name="mapandguide">
 
{{cite map|publisher=Andrew Wielochowski and Mark Savage|title=Mt Kenya 1:50000 Map and Guide|edition=1|year=1991|cartography=West Col Productions|scale=1:50000 with 1:25000 inset|isbn=0-906227-39-9}}</ref>
===Ikolojia===
Eneo la Mlima Kenya lina kanda tofauti za kiikolojia. Kila ukanda una sifa zake na spishi kuu ya mimea. Spishi nyingi zinazopatikana katika sehemu zilizo juu ya mlima zinapatikana pia katika maeneo mengine ya mlima na Afrika Mashariki.<ref name="ecology" />
 
| volume = 106
Pia kuna tofauti kati ya kanda, kutegemea upande wa mlima na ukali wa mteremko. Kusini mashariki pa mlima ni sehemu nyevu kuliko kaskazini<ref name="glacierfluctuations" /> kwa hivyo, spishi nyingi za sehemu hiyo hutegemea unyevu kukua. Baadhi ya spishi, k.v. [[mianzi]], haziwezi kukua katika pande zote za mlima kwa sababu za tofauti za unyevu.<ref name="map" />
====Kanda====
[[File:Mount Kenya Vegetation map en.svg|thumb|right|300px|Kuna kanda tofauti mimea kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ambayo inatofautiana kulingana na urefu na kipengele.]]
 
Tabianchi hubadilika kulingana na mwinuko. Katika kitako cha mlima, udongo una rutuba na hivyo ni mzuri kwa ukulima. Ukulima ulikuwa ukifanyika hapo kwa miaka.<ref name="castro" />
 
Mlima Kenya umezungukwa na misitu. [[Uoto asilia|Uoto]] katika misitu unategemea kiwango cha mvua, na spishi hutofautiana zaidi kusini na kaskazini mwa mteremko.<ref name="dutton" /> Misitu katika kitako cha mlima hutishiwa na binadamu wanaokata miti ili watengeneze mbao na wanyakuzi ardhi.<ref name="castro" />
 
| issue = 5/6
Juu ya misitu ni ukanda wa mianzi asilia. Ukanda huu huzunguka mlima isipokuwa sehemu ya kaskazini ambapo kuna upungufu wa mvua<ref name="mck" />. Ni vigumu kupata spishi nyingine za mimea hapo kwa sababu uoto wa mianzi ni mzito na huzuia mimea mingine kumea.<ref name="map" />[[File:Timberline forest with lichens.jpg|thumb|left|Msitu wa mpaka wamiti.]]
 
 
 
| pages = 210–216
Juu ya ukanda wa mianzi ni ukanda wa mpaka wa miti. Miti hapa mara nyingi ni midogo kuliko miti katika misitu ya kitako cha mlima.<ref name="zonation">
{{cite journal
 
 
 
| publisher = The Royal Geographical Society
| last = Niemelä
 
 
 
| firstdate = Tuomo1945
 
 
 
| doi =
| coauthors = Petri Pellikka
 
 
 
}}
| title = Zonation and characteristics of the vegetation of Mt. Kenya
</ref>
 
Misimu ya Mlima Kenya ni kama ifuatavyo<ref name="castro">{{cite book
 
 
| journal = Expedition reports of the Department of Geography, University of Helsinki
 
| last = Castro
 
 
| volume = 40
 
| first = Alfonso Peter
 
 
| issue =
 
| title = Facing Kirinyaga
 
 
| pages = 14–20
 
| year = 1995
 
 
| publisher =
 
| publisher = Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
 
 
| date =
 
| location = London
 
 
| year = 2004
 
| isbn = 1-85339-253-7
 
 
| ISBN = 952-10-2077-6
 
}}</ref>:
{| class="wikitable"
|+
!Msimu
!Wakati
|-
|Masika
|Aprili-Juni/Julai
|-
|Vuli
|Oktoba-Disemba
|-
|Joto/Kiangazi
|Disemba/Januari-Februari
na
 
Julai/Agosti-Septemba
|}
 
==Historia==
}}
===Ugunduzi wa Wazungu===
</ref>
[[File:Joseph Thomson.png|right|thumb|Joseph Thomson alithibitisha  ugunduzi wa Krapf.]]
 
Mlima Kenya ulikuwa kati ya vilele virefu [[Afrika]] kuonekana kwa mara ya kwanza na [[Mpelelezi|wapelelezi]] kutoka Ulaya. Wa kwanza kuuona alikuwa [[Johann Ludwig Krapf]], [[mmisionari]] [[Mjerumani]]<ref name="Krapf">{{cite book
Mahali miti haiwezi kuota ni nyika ya mlima, m 3,000. Mimea ya jenasi ''[[Erica]]'' hupatikana katika sehemu ya magharibi ambayo huwa nyevu. Vichaka na nyasi hupatikana katika sehemu kame ambayo hushuhudia moto wa pori.<ref name="mck" /> <ref name="castro" />
 
Kimo kinapoongezeka, halijoto hupungua zaidi na hewa hupungua, katika ukanda unaojulikana kama Alpi ya Kiafrika. Mazingira ya ukanda huo yanafanana tu na yale ya [[Aberdare|Safu ya Aberdare]]. <ref name="ecology" /> Mimea mingi ya ukanda huo imejirekebisha ili kuweza kukabili halihewa.<ref name="rosette">{{cite journal
 
 
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
 
| last = Beck
 
 
| title= Travels, Researches, and Missionary Labours in Eastern Africa
 
| first = Erwin
 
 
| year=1860 | publisher=Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London
 
| coauthors = Ernst-Detlef Schulze, Margot Senser and Renate Scheibe
 
 
| isbn= }}</ref>, [[tarehe]] [[3 Desemba]] [[1849]]<ref name="dutton">{{cite book
 
| title = Equilibrium freezing of leaf water and extracellular ice formation in Afroalpine 'giant rosette' plants
 
 
| last=Dutton | first=E.A.T. | authorlink=
 
| journal = Planta
 
 
| title= Kenya Mountain |year=1929 |publisher=Jonathan Cape
 
| volume = 162
 
 
| location= London}}</ref>, kutoka [[Kitui]], mji ulio km 160 kutoka mlima<ref name="rough_guide">{{cite map
 
| issue =
 
 
| publisher=Rough Guide | title= Rough Guide Map Kenya
 
| pages = 276–282
 
 
| edition=9 | year=2006 | cartography=World Mapping Project
 
| publisher =
 
 
| scale=1:900,000 | series=Rough Guide Map |isbn=1-84353-359-6
 
| date = 1984
 
 
}}</ref>, baada ya ugunduzi wa [[Mlima Kilimanjaro]].
 
Krapf aliambiwa na [[watu]] wa [[kabila]] la [[Waembu]] kwamba walikuwa wakiuzunguka mlima lakini hawakuwa wamepaa juu kwa sababu ya [[baridi]] na  [[theluji]].<ref name="Krapf" /> [[Wakikuyu]] walithibitisha haya yametukia.[[File:Samuel Teleki.jpg|thumb|left|Samuel Teleki, Mzungu wa kwanza kuweka mguu juu ya Mlima Kenya.]]
| url =
 
 
 
Krapf pia alibainisha kwamba [[mito]] inayotoka Mlima Kenya, na mingine katika eneo la milima, ilikuwa mito ya kudumu. Akagundua kuwa lazima kuna chanzo cha maji mlimani, katika umbo la barafuto.<ref name="Krapf" /> Aliamini ni chanzo cha [[Mto Nili Nyeupe|Nili Nyeupe]].<ref>{{cite journal
| doi = 10.1007/BF00397450
 
 
 
| last=Krapf | first=Johann Ludwig | authorlink=Johann Ludwig Krapf
| accessdate = }}</ref>
 
Ukanda ulio juu ni ambapo barafuto zimedidimia. Mimea bado haijaweza kuota hapo.<ref name="ecology" />
====Flora====
[[File:Senecio keniodendron2.jpg|thumb|right|Mimea kama ''[[Dendrosenecio keniodendron]]'' hufanya marekebisho ili iweze kuota.]]
 
Mimea ya mlima hutofautiana na mwinuko na mwelekeo wa mlima.<ref name="tropicalalpine" /> Mwinuko unapoongezeka, mimea huwa na marekebisho spesheli ili kuhimili [[jalidi]] na miale ya [[urujuanimno]].<ref name="mck" /><ref name="zonation" /> Kwa mfano, mimea ya jenasi ''[[Carduus]]'', katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika, hutumia majani kulinda jicho la ua kutokana na jalidi.<ref name="senecio">{{cite journal
 
| title = Extract from Krapf's diary | date=13 Mei 1850
 
 
| last = Young
 
| journal=Church Missionary Intelligencer
 
 
| first = Truman P.
 
| volume=i | pages=345}}</ref>
 
Mwaka [[1851]] Krapf akarudi Kitui. Yeye alisafiri km 65 karibu na mlima, lakini hakuweza kuuona tena. Mwaka 1877 Hildebrandt alikuwa katika eneo la Kitui na kusikia juu ya mlima, lakini pia hakuweza kuuona, hivyo watu walianza kumtuhumu Krapf.<ref name="gregory">
 
| coauthors = Mary M. Peacock
 
 
{{cite book
 
| title = Giant senecios and alpine vegetation of Mount Kenya
 
 
| last=Gregory | first=John Walter |authorlink=John Walter Gregory
 
| journal = Journal of Ecology
 
 
| title=The Great Rift Valley | origdate=1896 | year=1968
 
| volume = 80
 
 
| publisher= Frank Cass & Co. Ltd | location=London}}</ref>
 
Hatimaye, mwaka [[1883]], [[Joseph Thomson]] alipita upande wa magharibi wa mlima na Krapf alithibitisha madai yake.<ref name="thomson">{{cite book|title=Through Masai Land|last=Thomson|first=Joseph|publisher=Frank Cass & Co Ltd|year=1968|edition=3|location=London|authorlink=Joseph Thomson (explorer)|origdate=1885}}</ref> Hata hivyo, upelelezi rasmi wa kwanza ulifanyika mwaka 1887 na [[Samuel Teleki]] na [[Ludwig von Höhnel]]. Waliweza kufika mita 4,350 kwenye mteremko wa kusini magharibi<ref name=":2" />. Katika safari ya upelelezi huo, waliamini kuwa walikuwa wamegundua volkeno.
| issue =
 
Mwaka 1892, Teleki na von Höhnel walirudi upande wa mashariki, lakini hawakuweza kupitia msitu.<ref name="ecology">{{cite book
 
 
| pages = 141–148
 
| last=Coe | first=Malcolm James
 
 
| publisher =
 
| title=The Ecology of the Alpine Zone of Mount Kenya
 
 
| date = 1992
 
| year=1967 | publisher= Dr W. Junk | location=The Hague}}</ref>
 
Hatimaye, mwaka 1893 timu ilisafiri kutoka pwani hadi [[Ziwa Baringo]] katika [[Bonde la Ufa]], ikiongozwa na [[John W. Gregory]], [[mwanajiolojia]] [[Mwingereza]]. Walikwea mlima hadi mita 4,730 na wakakaa masaa kadhaa katika Barafuto ya Lewis. Aliporudi [[Uingereza]], Gregory alichapisha [[majarida]] na [[hadithi]] ya mafanikio yake.<ref name="mck" /> George Kolb, [[daktari]] Mjerumani, alifanya safari mwaka 1894 na 1896 <ref name="mck" /> na alikuwa wa kwanza kufika nyika ya mlima upande wa mashariki.
 
Tarehe 28 Julai 1899,<ref name=":3" /> Halford John Mackinder aliongoza kundi la wapelelezi 6 kutoka [[Ulaya]], 66 kutoka [[Uswahilini]], [[Wamaasai]] 2 na Wakikuyu 96<ref name=":3" />. Walipatana na matatizo mengi njiani<ref name=":3" />. Mackinder aliendelea kupanda mlima. Alikita kambi m 3,142<ref name=":3" />  katika Bonde la Höhnel. Alifanya jaribio la kwanza kufikia kilele tarehe [[30 Agosti]] pamoja na Brocherel na Ollier kupitia upande wa mashariki, lakini wakabakisha kupanda m 100 kutoka Kilele cha Nelion. Tarehe [[5 Septemba]], Hausberg, Ollier na Brocherel walifanya mzunguko kutafuta njia rahisi ila hawakuweza kupata. Tarehe [[11 Septemba]] Ollier na Brocherel walipanda Barafuto ya Darwin, lakini walilazimishwa kukatiza safari kutokana na [[dhoruba ya theluji]]<ref name=":3" />.
| url =
 
Wakati Saunders alirudi kutoka Naivasha timu okozi, Mackinder, Ollier na Brocherel walijaribu kupanda kilele tena. Walifika kilele cha Batian saa sita mchana tarehe 13 Septemba, na walishuka kutumia njia ileile<ref name=":3" />.
===1900-1930===
Baada ya ukweaji wa kwanza, hakukuwa na safari nyingi za kukwea mlima. Upelelezi kabla ya [[Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia|Vita ya Kwanza ya Dunia]] ulikuwa ukifanywa na [[walowezi]] nchini Kenya, ambao hawakufanya upelelezi wa kisayansi. Misheni ya Kanisa la Uskoti ilipofunguliwa Chogoria[[Chogoria,|,]] wamishonari kadhaa walikwea mlima lakini hakuna aliyefanikiwa kufikia vilele vya Batian au Nelion.<ref name="mck" />
 
Miti ya misitu ilikatwa ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia vilele. Mwaka 1920, Arthur Fowell Buxton alijaribu kutengeneza njia kutoka kusini, na njia nyingine walikuja kutoka [[Nanyuki]] kaskazini, lakini njia iliyotumiwa zaidi ni ile ya Chogoria, kutoka mashariki, iliyotengenezwa na Ernest Carr.<ref name="mck" />
 
Mwishoni mwa Julai 1930, Shipton na Bill Tilman walikwea vilele vyote. Katika safari hii, Shipton na Tilman walijaribu kukwea vilele vingine, ikiwa ni pamoja na Petro, Dutton, Midget , Pigott na aidha Terere au Sendeyo.<ref name="cordee">{{cite book
| doi =
 
 
 
|last= Burns
| accessdate = }}
</ref><ref name="rosette" />[[File:Cape Hyrax Mt Kenya 1.JPG|left|thumb|[[Pimbi]] huweza kuishi katika maeneo yenye halihewa kali.]]
 
====Fauna====
Wanyama wengi hukaa katika kitako cha mlima penye halianga nzuri kidogo. Spishi za nyani, pimbi wa mitini, ndovu, nungunungu, nyati, fisi, mbuni, duma na simba huishi hapo.<ref name="map" />  Wanyama mamalia wachache, k.v. ''Sylvicapra grimmia'' na pimbi wa miamba wanaweza kuishi katika miinuko ya juu kidogo.<ref name="senecio" /><ref name="ecology" />
 
Spishi za ndege, k.v. chozi, kwenzi, tai na tumbusi hupatikana katika ukanda wa alpi ya kiafrika. Ndege ni muhimu katika mfumo wa ikolojia hiyo kwa kuwa wao husaidia katika mchavusho.<ref name="tropicalalpine">{{cite journal
 
|first= Cameron
 
 
| last = Smith
 
|title= Kilimanjaro & Mount Kenya; A Climbing and Trekking Guide
 
 
| first = Alan P.
 
|year= 1998
 
 
| coauthors = Truman P. Young
 
|publisher= Cordee
 
 
| title = Tropical Alpine Plant Ecology
 
|location= Leicester
 
 
| journal = Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics
 
|isbn= 1-871890-98-5}}</ref>
===1931 hadi leo===
Katika miaka ya 1930 ziara zilifanyika zaidi katika nyika ya mlima. Raymond Hook na Humphrey Slade walikwea ili wachore ramani ya mlima na wakapeleka samaki. Februari mwaka 1938, C Carol na Mtu Muthara wakawa mwanamke wa kwanza na Mwafrika wa kwanza mtawalia kupaa Nelion, katika ziara na Noel Symington, mwandishi wa ''The Night Climbers of Cambridge,''  na tarehe [[5 Machi]] Una Cameron akawa mwanamke wa kwanza kupaa Batian.<ref name="mck" />
 
Wakati wa [[Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia]] ziara za kukwea mlima zilididimia zaidi. Watu maarufu waliokwea katika wakati huo walikuwa wafungwa wa vitani Waitaliano, ambao walikuwa wamefungwa jela Nanyuki. Walitoroka na kupanda mlima kabla ya kurejea kambini.<ref name="picnic">{{cite book
 
| volume = 18
 
 
| last= Benuzzi | first= Felice | authorlink=
 
| pages = 137–158
 
 
| title=No Picnic on Mount Kenya: A Daring Escape, a Perilous Climb
 
| date = 1987
 
 
| origdate=1953 | year=2005 | publisher=The Lyons Press
 
| doi = 10.1146/annurev.es.18.110187.001033}}</ref>
 
 
| location=  | isbn=978-1592287246}}</ref>
 
Mwaka 1949 eneo kupita m 3,400 lilifanywa [[Hifadhi ya taifa|hifadhi ya kitaifa]].<ref name="mck" /> Barabara ilijengwa kutoka [[Naro Moru]] ili kurahisisha safari ya kufikia nika ya mlima.
==Tabianchi==
Tabianchi ya Mlima Kenya ni ya milima ya ikweta ambayo Hedberg alieleza kuwa ni 'majira ya baridi kila usiku, majira ya joto kila mchana'''.'' <ref name="hedberg1969">{{cite journal
 
Mwaka 1963, katika siku ya uhuru wa Kenya, Kisoi Munayo alikita bendera ya Kenya juu ya mlima. Mwaka 1997, mlima Kenya uliteuliwa kuwa eneo la urithi wa dunia na UNESCO.<ref name="unesco">{{cite web
 
 
| last =Hedberg
 
| url= http://whc.unesco.org/pg.cfm?cid=31&id_site=800
 
 
| first =O.
 
| title= UNESCO World Heritage Site | author=UNESCO
 
 
| title = Evolution and speciation in a tropical high mountain flora
 
| accessdate=2007-05-26 }}</ref>
==Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya==
{{main|Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya}}
 
Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Mlima Kenya, ilianzishwa mwaka [[1949]]. Inahifadhi eneo linalozunguka mlima. Awali ilikuwa [[hifadhi ya misitu]].<ref name="kws_website">{{cite web
 
| journal = Biological Journal of the Linnean Society
 
 
|url= http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
| volume = 1
 
 
|title= Mount Kenya National Park
 
| pages = 135–148
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
| year = 1969
 
 
|author= Kenya Wildlife Service
 
| doi =10.1111/j.1095-8312.1969.tb01816.x
 
 
|authorlink= Kenya Wildlife Service
 
}}</ref> Mlima Kenya mojawapo ya vituo vya uchunguzi wa angahewa vya Global Atmospheric Watch.<ref name="globalatmospherestation">{{cite journal
 
 
|year= 2007
 
| last = Henne
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070622045208/http://www.kws.org/mt-kenya.html
 
| first = Stephan
 
 
|archivedate= 2007-06-22
 
| coauthors = Wolfgang Junkermann, Josiah M. Kariuki, John Aseyo and Jörg Klausen
 
 
}}</ref> Tangu [[Aprili]] [[1978]] eneo limeteuliwa kama Hifadhi ya Mazingira ya dunia UNESCO .<ref name="unep">{{cite web
 
| title = Mount Kenya Global Atmosphere Watch Station (MKN): Installation and Meteorological Characterization
 
 
|url= http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
| journal = Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology
 
 
|title= Protected Areas and World Heritage
 
| volume = 47
 
 
|accessdate= 2008-02-23
 
| issue = 11
 
 
|author= United Nations Environment Programme
 
| pages = 2946–2962
 
 
|authorlink= United Nations Environment Programme
 
| publisher =
 
 
|year= 1998
 
| date = Novemba 2008
 
 
|archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20070212211303/http://www.unep-wcmc.org/sites/wh/mt_kenya.html
 
| year =
 
 
|archivedate= 2007-02-12
 
}}</ref>
===Misimu===
[[File:Sunrise over Mount Kenya.jpg|thumb|right|Katika msimu wa joto, asubuhi huwa baridi na bila mawingu. Adhuhuri inapofika, mawingu huziba vilele]]
 
Mlima Kenya hushuhudia misimu miwili tofauti, [[Msimu wa joto (tropiki)|misimu ya joto]] na [[Msimu wa mvua|misimu ya mvua]], kama maeneo mengine ya Kenya.<ref name="climate_article">{{cite journal
 
}}</ref>
 
[[Serikali ya Kenya]] ilikuwa na sababu nne za kuanzisha Hifadhi ya Taifa inayozunguka Mlima Kenya: umuhimu wa [[utalii]] kwa [[uchumi]], kuhifadhi eneo la uzuri, kuhifadhi [[viumbe hai]] ndani yake, na kuhifadhi [[Chanzo cha maji|vyanzo vya maji]] vinavyozunguka eneo.<ref name="development">{{cite journal
 
| last =Thompson
 
 
| last = Gichuki
 
| first = B. W.
 
 
| first = Francis Ndegwa
 
| title = The mean annual rainfall of Mount Kenya
 
 
| coauthors =
 
| journal = Weather
 
 
| title = Threats and Opportunities for Mountain Area Development in Kenya
 
| volume = 21
 
 
| journal = Ambio
 
| pages = 48–49
 
 
| volume = 28
 
| date = 1966
 
 
| issue = 5
 
}}</ref> Miteremko ya mashariki kaskazini hupata mvua kubwa zaidi kwa kuwa uko katika [[Upande wa upepo|upande wa pepo]] za [[matlai]] ambazo huleta mvua kutoka [[Bahari ya Hindi|Bahari Hindi]]. Mvua hii huwezesha msitu uliosongamana katika upande huo. Katika miinuko ya juu, [[usimbishaji]] hufanyika kama theluji na kutengeneza barafuto.<ref name="spink">{{cite journal
 
 
| pages = 430–435
 
| last = Spink
 
 
| publisher = Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences
 
| first = Lieut.-Commander P. C.
 
 
| month = Agosti | year = 1999
 
| title = Further Notes on the Kibo Inner Crater and Glaciers of Kilimanjaro and Mount Kenya
 
 
| url = http://www.ambio.kva.se
 
| journal = Geographical Journal
 
 
| doi =
 
| volume = 106
 
 
| accessdate =
 
| issue = 5/6
 
 
| format = subscription required}}
 
| pages = 210–216
 
 
</ref>
 
==Utamaduni==
| publisher = The Royal Geographical Society
[[File:Mount Kenya Population map-fr.svg|right|thumb|Makazi ya makabila kabla ya taifa la Kenya.]]
 
Makabila makuu wanaoishi kuzunguka Mlima Kenya ni [[Wakikuyu]], [[Wameru]], [[Waembu]] na [[Wamaasai]]. Hao wote huona mlima huo kama kipengele muhimu cha [[tamaduni]] zao.
 
===Wakikuyu===
[[File:Batian and Nelion in the background cropped.JPG|thumb|Makabila kadhaa wanaishi katika kitako cha mlima.|alt=|left]]
 
[[Wakikuyu]] wanaishi kusini na magharibi mwa mlima.<ref name="ecology" /><ref name="Explorers">{{cite book |title= East African Explorers|last= Richards|first= Charles|authorlink= |coauthors= James Place|year= 1960|publisher= Oxford University Press|location= London}}
| date = 1945
 
</ref> Wao ni [[wakulima]] na hulima katika udongo mwekundu wa volkeno. Wakikuyu waamini kwamba Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  aliishi juu ya Mlima Kenya aliposhuka kutoka mbinguni.<ref name=":5">{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=pPBtzgAACAAJ&dq=facing+mount+kenya&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwithfbKqbjdAhUD1BoKHWuEDS4Q6AEIJzAA|title=Facing Mount Kenya|last=Kenyatta|first=Jomo|date=2011-04-05|publisher=Penguin Random House|isbn=9781846555527|language=en}}</ref> Wao wanaamini kuwa mlima ni kiti cha enzi cha Ngai duniani. Ni mahali ambapo Gikuyu, baba wa kabila, alitumia kukutana na Mungu wao, Ngai.<ref name=":5" /><ref name="guide">{{cite|author=Kenya Wildlife Service|title=Mount Kenya Official Guidebook|publisher=Kenya Wildlife Service|year=2006|date=2006}}</ref> Jina kwa ajili ya Kikuyu Mlima Kenya ni ''Kĩrĩnyaga''  ([[Kirinyaga]]), tafsiri yake ikiwa ni mlima mweupe. Linatokana na weupe wa theluji<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Karangi|first=Matthew|date=2013-01-01|title=The gĩkũyũ religion and philosophy: A tool for understanding the current religio-political debates in Kenya|url=https://www.researchgate.net/publication/291902121_The_gikuyu_religion_and_philosophy_A_tool_for_understanding_the_current_religio-political_debates_in_Kenya|volume=108|pages=612–622}}</ref>.
 
===Waembu===
[[Waembu]] wanaishi kusini-mashariki mwa Mlima Kenya,<ref name="ecology" /> na kuamini kuwa mlima ni nyumba ya Mungu wao, ''Ngai''  au ''Mwene Njeru.'' Mlima ni takatifu, na walikuwa wakijenga nyumba zikiwa na milango iliyokuwa ikitazama mlima.<ref name="guide" /> Waembu wanauita ''kiri Njeru'', maana yake, mlima mweupe.<ref name="mck" /><ref name="cordee" /><ref name="guide" />
===Wamasai===
[[Wamasai]] ni [[wahamahamaji]] ambao walitumia ardhi kaskazini ya mlima kulisha mifugo wao. Wanaamini kuwa mababu zao walishuka kutoka mlima mwanzoni mwa wakati.<ref name="guide" /> Wamasai waliuita ''Ol Donyo Keri'', ambalo linamaanisha 'mlima wa bakora au rangi nyingi' kudokeza theluji, misitu na mengineyo vinavyoonekana kutoka tambarare ya kandokando.<ref name="somjee">{{cite journal
 
| doi =
 
 
| last=Somjee | first=Sultan | year=2000
 
}}
</ref>
 
Misimu ya Mlima Kenya ni kama ifuatavyo<ref name="castro">{{cite book
 
| title = Oral Traditions and Material Culture: An East Africa Experience
 
 
| last = Castro
 
| journal= Research in African Literatures
 
 
| first = Alfonso Peter
 
| volume=31 | issue=4 | pages = 97–103
 
 
| title = Facing Kirinyaga
 
| url = http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/research_in_african_literatures/v031/31.4somjee.html
 
 
| year = 1995
 
| accessdate=2008-02-21 | doi = 10.2979/RAL.2000.31.4.97
 
 
| publisher = Intermediate Technology Publications Ltd.
 
}}</ref> Sala moja ya Wamasai kuhusu Mlima Kenya:
 
 
| location = London
 
{{Quote|Mungu bariki watoto wetu, wawe kama mkuyu wa Morintat, wakue na wapanuke, wawe kama Vilima vya Ngong, kama Mlima Kenya, kama Mlima Kilimanjaro na waongezeke. (tafsiri)|Ilikusanywa na Francis Sakuda wa Makumbusho ya Amani ya Oloshoibor<ref name=somjee/>}}
===Wameru===
[[Wameru]] wanaishi Mashariki na Kaskazini mwa mlima. Walilima na [[Ufugaji|kufuga]] katika sehemu yenye rutuba nyingi nchini Kenya. Jina la Mt. Kenya kwa [[Kimeru]] ni ''Kirimara'' (kutokana na weupe wa theluji).<ref name="witchmen">{{cite book |title= When We Began There Were Witchmen|last= Fadiman|first= Jeffrey A.|authorlink= |coauthors= |year= 1994|publisher= University of California Press|location= Berkeley|isbn= 0-520-08615-5|page= |pages= |url= http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft8199p24c/|accessdate= 2009-05-14}}
 
 
| isbn = 1-85339-253-7
 
</ref>
===Makabila mengine===
Wazungu wa kwanza kutembelea Mlima Kenya mara nyingi walileta wajumbe wa makabila mengine kama marafiki na mabawabu. Wengi wao hawakuwa na uzoefu wa baridi, au kuwahi kuona theluji. Maitikio yao mara nyingi zilikuwa za woga na tuhuma.{{Quote|Sifa nyingine ya wazanzibari ilionekana katika kambi ile ile. Asubuhi ilipofika, waume walikuja kuniarifu kwamba maji yale waliokuwa wamewacha ndani ya vyungu yalikuwa yamerogwa. Walisema kuwa ni meupe, na hayatikisiki; Fundi, aliyejulikana kuwa mwenye kuthubutu, alikuwa ameyagonga kwa kijiti na hayakutoka. Walinirai niyaangalie, nikawaambia wayaniletee. Wakakataa, hata hivyo, ili kuyagusa, wakanirai niende yalipokuwa. Kwa kweli, maji yalikuwa yameganda. Niliweka chungu juu ya jiko, nikatabiri kuwa yangegeuka kuwa maji tena. Tuliokuwa nao wakakaa karibu na kuyatazama; yalipoyeyuka, waliniambia kwa furaha kuwa shetani alikuwa amefukuzwa, na nikawaambia kuwa wangeweza kuyatumia maji tena; lakini punde nilipogeuka, waliyamwaga na kuchota mengine kutoka mto uliokuwa karibu. (tafsiri)|J W Gregory|''The Great Rift Valley''<ref name=gregory/>}}
 
Ziara yake ya mwaka 1899, Mackinder alipatana na baadhi ya wanaume kutoka kabila la [[Wadorobo]].<ref name="ecology" />
 
}}</ref>:
{| class="wikitable"
|+
!Msimu
!Wakati
|-
|Masika
|Aprili-Juni/Julai
|-
|Vuli
|Oktoba-Disemba
|-
|Joto/Kiangazi
|Disemba/Januari-Februari
na
 
Julai/Agosti-Septemba
|}
 
==Ukweaji mlima==
===Njia za kukwea===
285

edits