Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mamluki"

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(Created by translating the page "Mercenary")
 
[[Picha:Mad Mike Hoare - 1981.jpg|thumb|Mike Hoare, aliyekuwa mamluki katika Mgogoro wa kwanza wa [[Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo|Kongo]]]]
[[Picha:Il_Condottiere.jpg|right|thumb|[[Leonardo da Vinci]]'s ''Profilo di jeshi kapteni antico'', pia inajulikana kama ''il Condottiero'', 1480. ''Condottiero'' maana ya "kiongozi wa mamluki" katika Italia wakati wa Mwishoni mwa Zama za Kati na Renaissance.]]
'''Mamluki''' ni askari aliyekodiwa ambaye hayuko katika kikosi cha jeshi la nchi.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.icrc.org/applic/ihl/ihl.nsf/ART/470-750057?OpenDocument|title=Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol 1), Article 47|accessdate=20 Apr 2018|website=International Committee of the Red Cross}}</ref> Mamluki hushiriki katika vita kwa ajili ya pesa au malipo mengine badala ya siasa au uzalendo.  
 
 
==== Afrika Ya Kale ====
Katika [[Misri ya Kale]], [[Ramesses II]] aliwatumia mamluki 11,000 katika vita. ''Medjay'', wanajeshi wa kukodiwa kutoka [[Nubia]], walihudumu pamoja na jeshi la Misri wakati wa [[Ufalme wa Kale wa Misri]] hadi Ufalme Upya wa Misri. Wapiganaji wengine walioajiriwa kutoka nje ya mipaka ya Misri ni pamoja na vikosi vya [[Libya|Walibya]], [[Syria|Wasiria]] na [[Kanaani|Wakanani]] wakati wa Ufalme Upya na Washardana kutoka [[Sardinia]] ambao huonekana na helmeti maalum katika michoro, kama walinzi wa Ramesses II.<ref>Healy, Mark; ''New Kingdom Egypt''; </ref> Watawala Wagiriki wa [[Misri ya Ptolemaio]], walitumia mamluki [[Wakelti]].<ref>{{cite web|url=http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/CELTS/2004-02/1077679998|title=Rootsweb: Celts in Egypt|date=24 February 2004|publisher=Archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com|accessdate=17 October 2011}}</ref> [[Karthago]] ilitegemea mamluki kupigana katika vita vyake.
 
==== Karne ya 19 na 20 ====
[[Mgogoro wa Kongo]] wa mwaka 1960-1965 ulikuwa kipindi cha machafuko katika [[Jamhuri ya Kwanza ya Kongo]] ambayo iliundwa kwa kupewa uhuru na [[Ubelgiji]] na ikakatizwa baada ya [[Mobutu Sese Seko|Joseph Mobutu]] kuchukua madaraka ya nchi kwa mabavu. Katika kipindi hicho, mamluki walitumiwa na baadhi ya vikundi katika mgogoro na wakati mwingine, walitumiwa na [[Walinzi wa amani wa UM]].
 
Katika miaka ya 1960 na 1961, [[Mike Hoare]] alikuwa mamluki aliyekuwa akiongoza kitengo cha wanajeshi waliokuwa wakiongea Kiingereza, kilichokuwa kikiitwa "''4 Commando''", kilichokuwa [[Katanga]], mkoa ambao ulikuwa unajaribu kujitenga na Kongo ili uwe nchi huru chini ya uongozi wa [[Moïse Tshombe|Moise Tshombe]]. Hoare aliandika matukio hayo katika kitabu chake kiitwacho, ''Road to Kalamata''.<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/244068905|title=The road to Kalamata : a Congo mercenary's personal memoir|last=Mike.|first=Hoare,|date=2008|publisher=Paladin Press|isbn=9781581606416|edition=Paladin ed|location=Boulder, Colo.|oclc=244068905}}</ref>
 
Katika mwaka wa 1964 Tshombe (aliyekuwa [[Waziri Mkuu]] wa Kongo) alimwajiri Meja Hoare aongoze kitengo cha kijeshi kilichokuwa kikiitwa "''5 Commando''", kilichokuwa na wapiganaji 300, wengi ambao walikuwa wametoka [[Afrika Kusini]]. Lengo la 5 Commando lilikuwa kupigana na kikundi cha waasi, kilichokuwa kikiitwa Simba, ambacho kilikuwa kimetwaa karibu thuluthi mbili ya nchi.
 
Katika [[Operation Dragon Rouge|''Operesheni Dragon Rouge'']], ''5 Commando'' walishirikiana na wanajeshi Wabelgiji, marubani kutoka [[Kuba]] waliokuwa mahamishoni, na mamluki waliokuwa wameajiriwa na [[CIA]]. Lengo la ''Operesheni JokaDragon Rouge'' lilikuwa kutwaa [[Kisangani|Stanleyville]] na kuokoa mamia ya raia (hasa Wazungu na [[Mmisionari|wamisionari]]) ambao walikuwa mateka wa waasi wa Simba. Operesheni hiyo iliokoa maisha ya watu wengi;<ref>{{cite news|title=Changing Guard|work=Time Magazine|date=19 December 1965|url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834782,00.html?promoid=googlep|accessdate=6 June 2007}}</ref> hata hivyo, ilimchafulia sifa [[Moïse Tshombe|Moise Tshombe]] kwa kuwa iliwarudisha mamluki wazungu katika Kongo tu baada ya uhuru wa nchi. Ilikuwa mojawapo ya sababu za Tshombe kukosa msaada kutoka rais wa Kongo, [[Joseph Kasa-Vubu]], ambaye alimpiga kalamu.
 
Wakati huo huo, Bob Denard aliongoza "6 Commando" na [[Jean Schramme|"Black Jack" Schramme]] aliamuru "10 Commando" na [[William "Rip" Robertson]] aliongoza kikosi cha Wakuba waliokuwa mahamishoni.<ref>p.85 Villafaña, Frank ''Cold war in the Congo: The Confrontation of Cuban military forces, 1960–1967'' Transaction Books</ref>
 
 
Wakati huo huo, Bob Denard aliongoza "''6 Commando''" na [[Jean Schramme|"Black Jack" Schramme]] aliamuru "10 Commando" na [[William "Rip" Robertson]] aliongoza kikosi cha Wakuba waliokuwa mahamishoni.<ref>p.85 Villafaña, Frank ''Cold war in the Congo: The Confrontation of Cuban military forces, 1960–1967'' Transaction Books</ref>
===== Biafra =====
Mamluki walitumiwa kupigana katika vita vya wenyewe kwa wenyewe Nijeria, mwaka 1967-1970.<ref>[http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,900387-1,00.html The Mercenaries] in ''[//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_Magazine Time Magazine]'' 25 October 1968</ref> Wengine walitumiwa kuendesha ndege kwa niaba ya [[Biafra|Wabiafra]]. Kwa mfano, Oktoba mwaka 1966,  ndege aina DC-4M Argonaut ya shirika la ndege la Burundi lililokuwa likiendeshwa na mamluki Heinrich Wartski, aliyejulikana pia kama Henry Wharton, lilianguka [[Kameruni]] likiwa na bidhaa za kijeshi zililzokuwa zikipelekwa Biafra.<ref>Tom Cooper ''[http://www.acig.org/artman/publish/article_351.shtml Civil War in Nigeria (Biafra), 1967–1970]'' 13 November 2003. Second paragraph.</ref>
===== Eritrea na Ethiopia =====
Nchi zote mbili ziliajiri mamluki katika [[Vita vya Eritrea na Ethiopia]] vilivyokuwa kati ya mwaka 1998 hadi 2000. Iliaminiwa kuwa mamluki kutoka [[Urusi]] walikuwa wakiendesha [[ndege za kivita]] za pande zote mbili.<ref>{{cite news|title=Sentinel Security Assessment - North Africa, Air force (Eritrea), Air force|publisher=Jane's Information Group|date=26 October 2011}}</ref><ref>''Africa News Online'': "In defiance, Eritrea was born; in defiance, it will live forever." 30 May 2000.</ref>
 
 
 
 
== Marejeo ==
{{Reflist|30em}}
 
== Tanbihi ==
 
* Bernales-Ballesteros, Enrique; ''[https://web.archive.org/web/20081224002931/http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu2/7/b/mercenaries/documents.htm UNHCHR: Special Rapporteur of the Commission on Human Rights on use of mercenaries]''
* Bodin J; ''Les Suisses au Service de la France''; Editions Albion Michael, 1988. {{ISBN|2-226-03334-3}}2-226-03334-3
* Chartrand, Rene; ''Louis XV's Army – Foreign Infantry''; Osprey 1997. {{ISBN|1-85532-623-X}}1-85532-623-X
* Chartrand, Rene; ''Spanish Army of the Napoleonic Wars 1793–1808''; Osprey 1998. {{ISBN|1-85532-763-5}}1-85532-763-5
* Milliard, Todd S.; [http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?Location=U2&doc=GetTRDoc.pdf&AD=ADA440071 Overcoming post-colonial myopia: A call to recognize and regulate private military companies](PDF), in Military Law Review Vol 173, June 2003. At the time of publication Major Milliard was a Judge Advocate in the Judge Advocate General's Corps, U.S. Army
* Anthony Mockler, ''Storia dei mercenari: Da Senofonte all'Iraq''. Odoya, 2012. {{ISBN|9788862881531}}9788862881531.
 
* Guy Arnold. ''Mercenaries: The Scourge of the Third World.'' Palgrave Macmillan, 1999. {{ISBN|978-0-312-22203-1}}978-0-312-22203-1
* [http://www.humansecurity.info/#/vol-63-brooks-rathgeber/4527827401 Doug Brooks & Shawn Lee Rathgeber.] [http://www.humansecurity.info/#/vol-63-brooks-rathgeber/4527827401 "The Industry Role in Regulating Private Security Companies]", ''Canadian Consortium on Human Security – Security Privatization: Challenges and Opportunities'', Vol. 6.3, University of British Columbia, March 2008.
* [[Niccolo Machiavelli|Niccolò Machiavelli]]. ''The Prince.'' 1532. Ch. 12.
* Anthony Mockler. ''Hired Guns and Coups d'Etat: Mercenaries: Thirty Years 1976-2006''. Hunter Mackay, 2007.
* Anthony Mockler. ''The Mercenaries: The Men Who Fight for Profit—from the Free Companies of Feudal France to the White Adventurers in the Congo''. Macmillan, 1969.
* Anthony Mockler. ''The New Mercenaries: The History of the Mercenary from the Congo to the Seychelles''. Paragon House, 1987.
* Robert Young Pelton. ''Hunter Hammer and Heaven, Journeys to Three World's Gone Mad,'' {{ISBN|1-58574-416-6}}1-58574-416-6
* Jeremy Scahill. ''Blackwater: The Rise of the World's Most Powerful Mercenary Army'', Nation Books, 2007. {{ISBN|1-56025-979-5}}1-56025-979-5
* Peter J. Woolley. "Soldiers of Fortune," ''The Common Review'', [https://web.archive.org/web/20110513141410/http://www.thecommonreview.org/fileadmin/template/tcr/pdf/WoolleyRev54.pdf v. 5, no. 4(2007), pp. 46–48]. Review essay.
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