Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mata"

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{{infobox
maada ni kitu chochote chenye uzito na kinachoweza kuchukua nafasi.maada imeudwa kwa chembechembe ndogo sana ziitwazo[atomi]. kwa kawaida maada inaweza kuwa katika hali kuu tatu ambazo ni yabisi,mango na gesi.maada huweza kubadilika pale tu joto linapo badilika.badiliko la maada linaweza kuwa kutoka gesi kwenda yabisi mfano mvuke kuwa barafu,yabisi kwenda gesi mfano barafu kuwa mvuke,kimiminika kuwa yabisi mfano maji kuwa barafu n.k
| title = Mata
Tangu karne ya 20 ufafanuzi sahihi wa maada umeshindikana kutokana na maendeleo ya sayansi,nayo si jambo tena la msingi katika fizikia kama ilivyokuwa awali
| data1 = [[File:Quartz oisan.jpg|200px]]<br/> [[File:Drop closeup.jpg|200px]]<br/> [[File:NO2-N2O4.jpg|200px]]<br/> [[File:Plasma-lamp 2.jpg|200px]]
hivyo matawi mbalimbali ya sayansi yanatumia neno mata kwa maana tofauti tofauti
| data2 = Mata kwa kawaida inaweza kupatikana katika hali nne. Picha zinazionyesha kutoka juu kwenda chini: [[kwazi]] ([[mango]]), [[maji]] ([[kiowevu]]), [[daioksidi ya nitrojeni]] ([[gesi]]), na [[tufe la plazma]] ([[Plazma (fizikia)|plazma]]).
}}
'''Mata''' (kutoka [[Kiingereza]] ''matter'': kwa [[Kiswahili]] pia "maada") ni [[neno]] pana linalojumlisha vyote vinavyoweza kuonekana, kusikika, kuguswa, kuchunguzwa n.k., ikiwemo hasa ''mata ya kawaida'' inayoundwa na [[atomi]] ambazo tena zinaundwa na [[kiini]] cha [[protoni]] na [[neutroni]], kikizungukwa na [[wingu]] la [[elektroni]].<ref name=Davies2>
{{cite book
|author=P. Davies
|date=1992
|title=The New Physics: A Synthesis
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=akb2FpZSGnMC&pg=PA1
|page=1
|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]
|isbn=0-521-43831-4
}}</ref><ref name=Hooft>
{{cite book
|author=G. 't Hooft
|date=1997
|title=In search of the ultimate building blocks
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=e-7eAp-bVbEC&pg=PA6
|page=6
|publisher=[[Cambridge University Press]]
|isbn=0-521-57883-3
}}</ref>
Hivyo maada ni [[kitu]] chochote chenye [[uzito]] na kinachoweza kuchukua nafasi.
 
Tangu [[karne ya 20]] [[ufafanuzi]] sahihi wa mata umeshindikana kutokana na maendeleo ya [[sayansi]], nayo si tena jambo la msingi katika [[fizikia]] kama ilivyokuwa awali.<ref name=Penrose>
{{cite book
|author= R. Penrose
|date=1991
|chapter=The mass of the classical vacuum
|editors=S. Saunders, H.R. Brown
|title=The Philosophy of Vacuum
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=ZU1LL4IbDKcC&pg=PA21
|page=21
|publisher=[[Oxford University Press]]
|isbn=0-19-824449-5
}}</ref><ref name=mcgrawhill>
{{cite web
|title=Matter (physics)
|url=http://www.accessscience.com/abstract.aspx?id=410600&referURL=http%3a%2f%2fwww.accessscience.com%2fcontent.aspx%3fid%3d410600
|work=McGraw-Hill's Access Science: Encyclopedia of Science and Technology Online
|accessdate=2009-05-24
}}</ref>
 
Mata inapatikana kwa kawaida katika [[hali za mata|hali]] nne: [[mango]], [[kiowevu]], [[gesi]] na [[Utegili (fizikia)|plasma]]. Maada huweza kubadilika pale tu [[halijoto]] inapobadilika. Badiliko la maada linaweza kuwa kutoka gesi kwenda yabisi mfano mvuke kuwa barafu, yabisi kwenda gesi mfano barafu kuwa mvuke, kimiminika kuwa yabisi mfano maji kuwa barafu n.k.
 
Hivyo matawi mbalimbali ya [[sayansi]] yanatumia neno mata kwa maana tofautitofauti.<ref name=Davies>
{{cite book
|author=P.C.W. Davies
|date=1979
|title=The Forces of Nature
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=Av08AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA116&dq=%22matter+field%22
|page=116
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|isbn=0-521-22523-X
}}</ref><ref name=Weinberg>
{{cite book
|author=S. Weinberg
|date=1998
|title=The Quantum Theory of Fields
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=2oPZJJerMLsC&pg=PA5&dq=Weinberg+%22matter+field%22
|page=2
|publisher=Cambridge University Press
|isbn=0-521-55002-5
}}</ref><ref name= Masujima>
{{cite book
|author=M. Masujima
|date=2008
|title=Path Integral Quantization and Stochastic Quantization
|url=http://books.google.com/?id=OM15pk3ZHf0C&pg=PA103
|page=103
|publisher=Springer
|isbn=3-540-87850-5
}}</ref>
 
[[Falsafa]] pia inatumia neno hilo, hasa kwa kutofautisha mata na [[roho]], na hivyo ulimwengu unaoonekana na ule ambao hauonekani, lakini unasadikika kuwepo.
 
==Tanbihi==
{{marejeo}}
 
== Marejeo ==
*{{cite book |title=The Rise of the Standard Model |editor= Lillian Hoddeson |editor2=Michael Riordan |isbn=0-521-57816-7 |publisher=Cambridge University Press |date=1997 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=klLUs2XUmOkC&printsec=frontcover }}
*{{cite book |title=Hidden Worlds |chapter=The search for quarks in ordinary matter |author=Timothy Paul Smith |page=1 |url=http://books.google.com/?id=Pc1A0qJio88C&pg=PA1 |isbn=0-691-05773-7 |date=2004 |publisher=Princeton University Press}}
*{{cite book |title=Elementary Particles: Building blocks of matter |isbn=981-256-141-2 |date=2005 |publisher=World Scientific |author=Harald Fritzsch |url=http://books.google.com/?id=KFodZ8oHz2sC&pg=PA1 |page=1}}
*{{cite book |title=A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz |author= Bertrand Russell |url=http://books.google.com/?id=R7GauFXXedwC&pg=PA88 |page=88 |chapter=The philosophy of matter |isbn=0-415-08296-X |date=1992 |edition=Reprint of 1937 2nd |publisher=Routledge}}
* Stephen Toulmin and June Goodfield, ''The Architecture of Matter'' (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962).
* Richard J. Connell, ''Matter and Becoming'' (Chicago: The Priory Press, 1966).
* [[Ernan McMullin]], ''The Concept of Matter in Greek and Medieval Philosophy'' (Notre Dame, Indiana: Univ. of Notre Dame Press, 1965).
* [[Ernan McMullin]], ''The Concept of Matter in Modern Philosophy'' (Notre Dame, Indiana: University of Notre Dame Press, 1978).
 
== Viungo vya nje ==
{{commons category}}
* [http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=49&l=&c3= Visionlearning Module on Matter]
* [http://www.newuniverse.co.uk/Matter.html Matter in the universe] How much Matter is in the Universe?
* [http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970213.html NASA on superfluid core of neutron star]
* [http://profmattstrassler.com/articles-and-posts/particle-physics-basics/mass-energy-matter-etc/matter-and-energy-a-false-dichotomy/ Matter and Energy: A False Dichotomy] – Conversations About Science with Theoretical Physicist Matt Strassler
 
{{mbegu-sayansi}}
 
[[Jamii:Fizikia]]
[[Jamii:Falsafa]]