Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Binadamu"

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[[File:Homo-Stammbaum, Version Stringer-en.svg|420px|thumb|[[Mchoro]] wa [[uenezi]] wa [[jenasi]] ''Homo'' katika miaka [[milioni]] [[mbili]] ya mwisho. [[Rangi]] ya [[samawati]] Inaonyesha uwepo wa [[spishi]] fulani [[wakati]] na [[mahali]] fulani.<ref>{{cite journal | last=Stringer | first=C. | title=What makes a modern human | journal=Nature | year=2012 | volume=485 | issue=7396 | pages=33–35 | doi=10.1038/485033a | pmid=22552077}}</ref>]]
[[File:Homo sapiens dispersal routes.jpg|thumb|450x450px|Ramani ya uenezi wa binadamu ([ka] inamaanisha miaka elfu).]]
'''Binadamu''' (pia '''mwanadamu''') ni [[neno]] lenye [[asili]] ya [[Kiarabu]] linalomaanisha "[[Mwana]] wa [[Adamu]]", anayeaminiwa na [[dini]] za [[Uyahudi]], [[Ukristo]] na [[Uislamu]] kuwa ndiye [[mtu]] wa kwanza.
 
== Binadamu kadiri ya sayansi ==
[[Sayansi|Kisayansi]] [[jina]] hilo linaweza kutumika kwa maana ya ''Homo sapiens'' ili kumtofautisha na viumbe[[viumbehai]] wengine wa [[jenasi]] [[Homo]] ambao wote walitoweka walau miaka 12,000 hivi iliyopita.
 
Watu wote walioko leo hii ni [[spishi]] ileile na tofauti zinazoonekana kati ya [[maumbile]] yao katika sehemu mbalimbali za [[dunia]] ni kidogondogondogo tu.
 
[[Utafiti]] juu ya [[DNA]] umethibitisha kwamba binadamu wote wametokana na watu waliokuwepo [[Afrika]] walau miaka 300,000 hivi iliyopita.
 
Kwa namna ya pekee, [[upimaji]] wa [[DNA ya mviringo]], ambayo kila mmoja anarithi kwa [[mama]] tu, ulionyeshaumeonyesha kuwa binadamu wote waliopo [[duniani]] wanachanga mama mmoja aliyewahi kuishi miaka 160,000 hivi iliyopita<ref>Although the original research did have analytical limitations, the estimate on the age of the mt-MRCA has proven robust. More recent age estimates have remained consistent with the 140–200 kya estimate published in 1987: A 2013 estimate dated Mitochondrial Eve to about 160 kya (within the reserved estimate of the original research) and Out of Africa II to about 95 kya.</ref>.
 
Halafu upimaji wa [[kromosomu Y]], ambayo kila [[mwanamume]] anarithi kwa [[baba]] tu, ulionyeshaumeonyesha kuwa wanaume wote waliopo duniani wanachanga baba mmoja aliyewahi kuishi walau miaka 120,000 hivi iliyopita<ref>Another 2013 study (based on genome sequencing of 69 people from 9 different populations) reported the age of Mitochondrial Eve between 99 to 148 kya and that of the Y-MRCA between 120 and 156 kya.</ref>, kidogo tu kabla ya watu kuanza kuenea katika [[bara]] la [[Asia]] labda kufuatia [[pwani]] za [[Bahari ya Hindi]].
 
Hata hivyo, miaka hii ya mwisho imegundulika katika baadhi ya wanaume wenye [[asili]] ya [[makabila]] ya [[Wabangwa]] na [[Wambo]] ([[Camerun]], [[Afrika ya Kati]]) aina ya kromosomu Y tofauti sana na ile ya wanaume wengine wote waliowahi kupimwa, kiasi cha kukadiria imetofautianazimetofautiana miaka 350,000 hivi iliyopita.
 
Vilevile, upimaji wa [[DNA ya mstari]] kwa jumla umeonyesha uwezekano wa kwamba baadhi ya binadamu wa leo, wale wasio wa kusini[[Kusini kwa [[Sahara]], wana [[asilimia]] 1-6 ya [[urithi]] wa [[Biolojia|kibiolojia]] kutoka kwa aina nyingine za homoHomo, hususan [[Homo neanderthalensis]], ile ya [[pango la Denisova]] na ile iliyorithiwa na baadhi ya watu wa [[visiwa vya Andaman]] ([[India]]).
 
Kama hao waliweza kweli kuzaliana na [[Homo sapiens]] na kuacha [[uzao]] uliojiendeleza maana yake walikuwa [[spishi]] moja na yeye. Hapo asili ya binadamu inatakiwa kuhesabiwa ya zamani zaidi sana kuliko miaka 200,000 iliyofikiriwa kwanza<ref>Omo Kibish Formation and its neighboring sites in Ethiopia have produced some of the earliest examples of fossilised human and australopithecine remains and stone tools. [[Richard Leakey]]'s work there in 1967 found some of the oldest remains of primitive ''Homo sapiens''. Earlier believed to be around 125,000 years old, more recent research indicates they may in fact date to c.195,000 years ago. {{Cite news|url=https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/02/050223122209.htm|title=The Oldest Homo Sapiens: Fossils Push Human Emergence Back To 195,000 Years Ago|work=ScienceDaily|access-date=2018-04-13|language=en}}</ref>.
 
== Uenezi wa binadamu ==
Kutoka bara la Asia, watu walienea kwanza [[Australia]] na [[Ulaya]], halafu [[Amerika]] toka [[kaskazini]] hadi [[kusini]].
 
Hatimaye, katika [[karne ya 20]] watu walikwenda kukaa kwa [[muda]] katika bara la [[Antaktika]] kwa ajili ya utafiti.
 
== Upekee wake ==
Ingawa binadamu ana undugu mkubwa wa kibiolojia na [[sokwe]] na viumbe vingine, ustawi wake hauna mfano, kiasi cha kufanya wengi waamini kwamba tofauti iliyopo inadai kuelezwa kwa uwemo wa [[roho]] ndani ya [[mwili]] wake; roho ambayo [[dini]] hizo [[imani|zinasadiki]] imetiwa na [[Mungu]] moja kwa moja.
 
== Binadamu kadiri ya Biblia ==