Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Maana ya maisha"

Rescuing 13 sources and tagging 2 as dead.) #IABot (v2.0.8
(Rescuing 13 sources and tagging 2 as dead.) #IABot (v2.0.8)
*Maana ya maisha ni nini? <ref name="Krishnamurti" />
 
*Cha maana na cha thamani maishani ni nini? <ref name="Fadul" /><ref name="UIUC">{{cite web |last=Puolimatka |first=Tapio | coauthors=Airaksinen, Timo |title=Education and the Meaning of Life |work=Philosophy of Education |publisher=[[University of Helsinki]] |date=2002 |url=http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/2001/tapio%2001.pdf |format=PDF | accessdate=2007-07-26 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070926154148/http://www.ed.uiuc.edu/EPS/PES-Yearbook/2001/tapio%2001.pdf |archivedate=2007-09-26 }}</ref>
 
*Thamani ya maisha ni nini? <ref name="Fadul" /><ref name="Van Hooft">{{cite book |author=Stan Van Hooft |title=Life, Death, and Subjectivity: Moral Sources in Bioethics |publisher=Rodopi |year=2004 |isbn=9042019123}}</ref>
Ingawa [[wanasayansi]] wameyachunguza maisha yalivyo [[duniani]], kuyafafanua bayana bado ni changamoto.<ref>[http://www.astrobio.net/news/article226 Astrobiology Magazine: Defining Life]</ref><ref>[http://www.nbi.dk/~emmeche/cePubl/97e.defLife.v3f.html Defining Life, Explaining Emergence<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Schrödinger | first = Erwin | title = What is Life? | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 1944 | isbn = 0-521-42708-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Margulis | first = Lynn | coauthors = Sagan, Dorion | title = What is Life? | publisher = University of California Press | year = 1995 | isbn = 0-520-22021-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Lovelock | first = James | title = Gaia – a New Look at Life on Earth | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2000 | isbn = 0-19-286218-9}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Avery | first = John | title = Information Theory and Evolution | publisher = World Scientific | year = 2003 | isbn = 9812383999}}</ref>
 
[[Wanabiolojia]] kwa jumla wanakubaliana kwamba viumbe mbalimbali ni mifumo inayojipanga inayosimamia mazingira ya ndani ili kudumisha hali hii ya mpango, shughuli za kimetaboli hutumika kutoa nishati, na [[uzazi]] unaruhusu uhai kuendelea kwa vizazi vingi. Kwa kawaida, [[umbile]] huwa sikivu kwa [[uchochezi]] na habari za kijenetikia, hivyo huelekea kubadilika kutoka [[kizazi]] hadi kizazi ili kuruhusu marekebisho kupitia mabadiliko ya mwili. Sifa hizo huongeza nafasi ya kuishi ya kiumbe binafsi na wazao wake kwa mtiririko huo.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/BI%20101/Overview%20Fall%202004.htm |title=How to Define Life |accessdate=2008-10-17 |last=Davison |first=Paul G. |publisher=The University of North Alabama |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20081101024755/http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/BI%20101/Overview%20Fall%202004.htm |archivedate=2008-11-01 }}</ref><ref>Witzany, G. (2007). The Logos of the Bios 2. Bio-Communication. Helsinki, Umweb.</ref>
 
Viwakala visivyokuwa vya [[seli]] vinavyozaana, hasa [[virusi]], kwa jumla havitazamwi kama viumbehai kwa sababu haviwezi kuzaana kwa "kujitegemea" au kuendesha shughuli za kimetaboliki. [[Pambano]] hilo ni tatizo, ingawa baadhi ya [[vimelea]] na visimbayonti vya ndani ya mwili pia vinaweza kuishi kwa kujitegemea.
Nadharia za akili za ki[[kwontamu]] hutumia [[nadharia ya kwontamu]] kuelezea baadhi ya sifa za akili. <ref name="Bohm & Hiley">{{cite book |author=[[David Bohm]]; Basil J. Hiley |title=The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory |publisher=Routledge |year=1993 |isbn=0415065887}}</ref><ref name="Bruce">{{cite book |author=Alexandra Bruce |title=Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!? |publisher=The Disinformation Company |year=2005 |isbn=1932857222}}</ref><ref name="Bohm & Hiley" /><ref name="Libet, Freeman, Sutherland">{{cite book |author=Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland |title=The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will |publisher=Imprint Academic |year=1999 |isbn=0907845118}}</ref>
 
Ikitegemea hoja ya maelezo ya akili yasiyoweza kugusika, baadhi ya watu wamependekeza uwepo wa [[fahamu ya kikosmiki]], wakidai kwamba fahamu kwa kweli ndiyo "msingi wa yote kuwepo".<ref name="Walker"/><ref name="Bruce" /><ref name="Ho">{{cite book |author=[[Mae-Wan Ho]] |title=The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms |publisher=World Scientific |year=1998 |pages=218–231 |isbn=9810234279}}</ref> Wanaounga mkono mtazamo huo wanaelezea matukio yasiyo ya kawaida, hasa uwezo wa kuhisi usio wa kawaida na uwezo wa kuyasoma mawazo, kama [[ushahidi]] wa uwepo wa fahamu ya juu isiyoeleweka. Ili kuthibitisha uwepo wa mambo hayo yasiyo ya kawaida, wana[[elimunafsia]] wa mambo yasiyo ya kawaida wamefanya ma[[jaribio]] mbalimbali. Uchambuzi unaoangalia mambo yote yaliyopo unaonyesha kuwa [[asilimia]] ya wenye nguvu zisizo za kawaida (ingawa ndogo sana) imebaki thabiti.<ref name=Radnin97>{{cite book |last=Radin |first=Dean |authorlink = |title=The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena |publisher=HarperSanFrancisco |year=1997 |isbn=0062515020}}</ref><ref name=Dunne85>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena |journal=Foundations of Physics |volume=16 |issue=8 |pages=721–772 |year=1985 |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/ |doi=10.1007/BF00735378 |accessdate=2007-07-31 }}{{Dead link|date=January 2021 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref> Ingawa baadhi ya [[wachambuzi wakosoaji]] wanahisi somo la [[elimunafsia isiyo ya kawaida]] kuwa sayansi, hawaridhishwi na matokeo ya majaribio yake.<ref name=Alcock03>{{cite journal |last=Alcock |first=James E. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance |journal=Journal of Consciousness Studies |volume=10 |issue=6-7 |pages=29–50 |year=2003 |url=http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30 |archive-date=2007-08-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070810173433/http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |dead-url=yes }}</ref><ref name=Hyman>{{cite journal |last=Hyman |first=Ray |title=Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |volume=59 |issue=1 |year=1995 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/rv0W|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref>
Wanaochunguza mambo haya upya, wanabaki na [[wasiwasi]] kwamba matokeo yanayoonekana kuwa na mafanikio huenda yakawa yanatokana na [[utaratibu]] mbaya, na watafiti wasiokuwa na mafunzo ya kutosha, au mbinu hafifu.<ref name=Akers>{{cite paper |author=Akers, C. |title=Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1986 |url=http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html |accessdate=2007-07-30 |journal= |archive-date=2007-09-27 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927223348/http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html |dead-url=yes }}</ref><ref>{{cite paper |author=Child, I.L. |title=Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1987 |url=http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html |accessdate=2007-07-30 |journal= |archive-date=2007-09-27 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070927223410/http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html |dead-url=yes }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last=Wiseman |first=Richard |authorlink= |coauthors=Smith, Matthew, et al. |title=Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |year=1996 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/9VS8|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Lobach |first=E. |coauthors=Bierman, D. |title=The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects |work=Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention |url=http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf |year=2004 |pages=77–90 |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070810173433/https://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf |archivedate=2007-08-10 }}</ref>
|accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref>{{cite paper |author=Child, I.L.
|title=Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1987 |url= http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html |accessdate=2007-07-30 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last=Wiseman |first=Richard |authorlink= |coauthors=Smith, Matthew, et al. |title=Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |year=1996 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/9VS8|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Lobach |first=E. |coauthors=Bierman, D. |title=The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects |work=Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention |url=http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf |year=2004 |pages=77–90 |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref>
 
==Mitazamo ya kifalsafa==
====Utu wa Kidunia====
[[File:HumanismSymbol.PNG|120px|left|thumb| Picha ya "binadamu mwenye furaha" ishara ya Utu wa Kidunia.]]
Kulingana na [[Utu wa Kidunia]], wanadamu walitokana na kuzaana katika maendeleo ya mabadiliko ambayo hayakuongozwa kama sehemu muhimu ya maumbile, ambayo huishi yenyewe.<ref name=humanifesto1>{{cite web |title=[[Humanist Manifesto I]]] [http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto1.html url=http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto1.html |work=American Humanist Association |year=1933 |accessdate=2007-07-26}}</ref><ref name=humanifesto2>{{cite web |title=[[Humanist Manifesto II]]] [http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html work=American Humanist Association |year=1973 |url=http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html |accessdate=2007-08-01 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809102124/http://www.americanhumanist.org/about/manifesto2.html |archivedate=2007-08-09 }}</ref> Maarifa hayatoki katika vyanzo vyenye nguvu visivyo vya kawaida, lakini kutoka uchunguzi wa binadamu, majaribio, na uchambuzi wa kimantiki ([[mbinu ya kisayansi]]): asili ya [[ulimwengu]] ni kile ambacho watu huitambua kuwa hivyo.<ref name=humanifesto1 /> Aidha, [[maadili]] na ukweli vinalengwa kwa njia ya uchunguzi wa kiakili<ref name=humanifesto1 /> na yanatokana na mahitaji ya binadamu na hamu kama ilivyopimwa na uzoefu, yaani kupitia akili yenye uchambuzi.<ref name=humanifesto3>{{cite web |title=[[Humanist Manifesto III]]] [http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.php work=American Humanist Association |year=2003 |url=http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.php |accessdate=2007-08-01 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070809103515/http://www.americanhumanist.org/3/HumandItsAspirations.php |archivedate=2007-08-09 }}</ref><ref name=CDSH>{{cite web |title=[[A Secular Humanist Declaration]]] [http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration work=Council for Democratic and Secular Humanism (now the Council for Secular Humanism) |year=1980 |url=http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration |accessdate=2007-08-01 |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20080817084107/http://www.secularhumanism.org/index.php?section=main&page=declaration |archivedate=2008-08-17 }}</ref> "Kulingana na yale tunayojua, tabia za mtu kiujumla ni [chanzo] cha kiumbe cha kibiolojia kinachoendesha shughuli zake katika muktadha wa kijamii na wa kiutamaduni."<ref name=humanifesto2 />
 
Watu huamua kusudi la binadamu, bila ya ushawishi wa Kimungu; ni tabia ya binadamu, hisia ya kijumla, ambayo ni lengo la maisha ya binadamu. Utu wa Kidunia unataka kuendeleza na kutimiza ubinadamu:<ref name=humanifesto1 /> "Utu husisitiza [[uwezo]] wetu, na [[uwajibikaji]] wetu, kuishi maisha adili yenye [[utimilifu]] wa binafsi yanayolenga mema makuu ya ubinadamu".<ref name=humanifesto3 /> [[Wanautu]] huendeleza kufunguliwa kifikra ili kuyashughulikia [[maslahi]] ya binafsi na yenye manufaa kwa watu wote. Furaha ya mtu binafsi inahusishwa kwa njia isiyoweza kubadilishwa na ustawi wa binadamu wengine, kwa sababu sisi ni wanyama wanaolazimika kuishi katika jamii, ambayo hupata maana kutokana na uhusiano wa karibu, na kwa sababu maendeleo ya kiutamaduni humnufaisha kila mtu katika [[utamaduni]].<ref name=humanifesto2 /><ref name=humanifesto3 />
Mambo (watu, matukio) katika maisha ya mtu yanaweza kuwa na maana kama sehemu ya uzima, lakini maana isiyobainika ya maisha hayo, yenyewe, mbali na mambo hayo, haiwezi kubainika. Maisha ya mtu yana maana (kwake mwenyewe na kwa wengine) kama matukio ya maisha yanayotokana na mafanikio yake, urithi, familia, na kadhalika, lakini, kusema kwamba maisha yenyewe yana maana ni matumizi mabaya ya lugha, kwani yoyote yaliyo muhimu, au ya mwisho, ni muhimu tu "katika" maisha (kwa walio hai), hivyo basi kuifanya taarifa iwe ya kimakosa. [[Bertrand Russell]] aliandika kwamba ingawa alipata kwamba chuki yake ya mateso haikuwa kama chuki yake ya [[mboga]] ya [[brokoli]], hakupata utaratibu wowote wa kuridhisha, na wa kupimika wa kuthibitisha hili:<ref name="Russel"/>
 
<blockquote> Tunapojaribu kuwa na uhakika, kuhusu kile tunachomaanisha tunaposema kuwa hiki au kile ni "tunu", tunajikuta katika matatizo makubwa sana. Tamko la Bentham, kwamba radhi ndiyo Zuri, lilizua upinzani mkali, na ilisemekana kuwa falsafa ya [[nguruwe]]. Yeye na wapinzani wake walishindwa kuibua hoja zozote. Katika swali la kisayansi, ushahidi unaweza kupatikana kutoka pande zote mbili, na mwishowe, upande mmoja unabainika kuwa na hoja bora au, kama hili halitokei, swali linabaki kama halijajibiwa. Lakini katika swali, kuhusu ikiwa hili, au hilo, ndilo mwisho Mzuri, hakuna ushahidi, kwa vyovyote vile; kila mtetezi anaweza kupendekeza tu hoja kulingana na hisia zake, na kutumia vifaa vya ushawishi ambavyo vitaibua hisia sawa katika wengine... Maswali kuhusu "maadili" - yaani, kuhusu kile ambacho chenyewe ni kizuri au kibaya, bila kutilia maanani madhara yake - yanapatikana nje ya uwanja wa sayansi, jinsi watetezi wa dini wanavyodai kwa msisitizo. Nadhani kwamba, katika hili, wako sawa, lakini mimi napata hitimisho zaidi, ambalo hao hawapati, kwamba maswali kuhusu "maadili" yanapatikana kabisa nje ya uwanja wa maarifa. Hiyo ni kusema, tunaposema kwamba hili au lile lina "thamani", sisi tunaeleza tu hisia zetu wenyewe, si ukweli, ambao bado ungalikuwa kweli ikiwa hisia zetu za binafsi zingalikuwa tofauti.<ref>[[Bertrand Russell]] (1961). [http://www.solstice.us/russell/science-ethics.html ''Science and Ethics''] {{Wayback|url=http://www.solstice.us/russell/science-ethics.html |date=20071114144956 }}</ref></blockquote>
 
====Baada ya Usasa====
Wajaini huamini kwamba kila binadamu anawajibika kwa matendo yake na viumbe wote hai wana roho ya milele, jīva. Wajaini wanaamini nafsi zote ni sawa kwa sababu zote zinamiliki uwezekano wa kufanywa ziwe huru na kufikia Moksha. Mtazamo wa Kijanini wa karma ni kwamba kila hatua, kila neno, kila wazo linazalisha, mbali na yanayoonekana, matokeo yasiyoonekana, na yanayopita fikira kwa nafsi.
 
Ujaini unajumuisha kushikilia vikali ahimsa (au ''ahinsā''), mbinu ya aina ya Kusitisha Vurugu ambayo huzidi kwa mbali ulaji mboga. Wajaini wanakikataa chakula kilichopatikana kwa ukatili usiohitajika. Wengi wana mazoezi ya maisha sawa na ulaji mboga pekee kutokana na vurugu ya mashamba ya maziwa ya kisasa, na wengine huepukana na mboga za mizizi katika maakuli yao ili kulinda maisha ya mimea ambayo wao hula.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.retoday.org.uk/pdfs/dre/viren.pdf |title=Viren, Jain |accessdate=2007-06-14 |publisher=[http://www.retoday.org.uk/ RE Today] |format=PDF |archiveurl=https://web.archive.org/web/20070614110256/http://www.retoday.org.uk/pdfs/dre/viren.pdf |archivedate=2007-06-14 }}</ref>
 
====Ubudha====
==Viungo vya nje==
===Jumla===
* [http://www.meaningsoflife.com/ Meaningsoflife.com]{{Dead link|date=January 2021 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}
* [http://meaningoflife.tv/ Meaningsoflife.tv] &ndash; Video discussions on the ultimate meaning of life with various religious and philosophical leaders.
*[http://www.erinstoddard.com/meaningoflife.html Meaning of life”]
* [http://rationalphilosophy.net/meaning-of-life/ An Objective Philosophy: Why We Exist?] &ndash; by Martin G. Walker.
*[http://eneida.over-blog.net/ Hedonism & Meaning of life]
*[http://journal.ilovephilosophy.com/Article/The-Logic-of-Existential-Meaning/217 The Logic of Existential Meaning] {{Wayback|url=http://journal.ilovephilosophy.com/Article/The-Logic-of-Existential-Meaning/217 |date=20070709004210 }}
* [http://myweb.dal.ca/kernohan/godless A Guide for the Godless: The Secular Path to Meaning] {{Wayback|url=http://myweb.dal.ca/kernohan/godless |date=20110706174824 }}
* [http://www.originofhumannature.ca The Origin of Human Nature, A Zen Buddhist Looks a Evolution] by [[Albert Low]]