Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Maana ya maisha"

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*Maana ya maisha ni nini? Nini maana ya haya yote? Sisi ni nani? <ref name="Westphal">{{cite book |author=Jonathan Westphal |title=Philosophical Propositions: An Introduction to Philosophy |publisher=Routledge |year=1998 |isbn=0415170532}}</ref><ref name="Nozick">{{cite book |author=[[Robert Nozick]] |title=[[Philosophical Explanations]] |publisher=Harvard University Press |year=1981 |isbn=0674664795}}</ref><ref name="Jewell">{{cite book |author=Albert Jewell |title=Ageing, Spirituality and Well-Being |publisher=Jessica Kingsley
Publishers |year=2003 |isbn=184310167X}}</ref><ref name="WITMOL">{{cite web |title=Question of the Month: What Is The Meaning Of Life? |work=[[Philosophy Now]] |publisher=Issue 59 |url=http://www.philosophynow.org/issue59/59question.htm |accessdate=2007-07-26}}</ref><ref name="Yeffeth">{{cite book |author=Glenn Yeffeth |title=The Anthology at the End of the Universe: Leading Science Fiction Authors on Douglas Adams' The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy |publisher=BenBella Books, Inc |year=2005 |isbn=1932100563}}</ref><ref name="Seaman">{{cite book |author=David Seaman |title=The Real Meaning of Life |url=https://archive.org/details/realmeaningoflif0000unse |publisher=New World Library |year=2005 |isbn=1577315146}}</ref><ref name="Baggini">{{cite book |author=[[Julian Baggini]] |title=What's It All About? Philosophy and the Meaning of Life |url=https://archive.org/details/whatsitallaboutp0000bagg |publisher=Granta Books |month=Septemba | year=2004 |location=USA |isbn=1862076618}}
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*Kwa nini tumekuwepo? Sababu ya sisi kuwa hapa ni nini? <ref name="Baggini" /><ref name="Thiemann & Placher">{{cite book |author=[[Ronald F. Thiemann]]; William Carl Placher |title=Why Are We Here?: Everyday Questions and the Christian Life |publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group |year=1998 |isbn=1563382369}}</ref><ref name="Marcellino">{{cite book |author=Dennis Marcellino |title=Why Are We Here?: The Scientific Answer to this Age-old Question (that you don't need to be a scientist to understand) |publisher=Lighthouse Pub |year=1996 |isbn=0945272103}}</ref><ref name="Curtiss">{{cite book |author=F. Homer Curtiss |title=Why Are We Here |publisher=Kessinger Publishing |year=2003 |isbn=0766138992}}</ref><ref name="Badke">{{cite book |author= William B. Badke |title=The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Meaning of Everything |url= https://archive.org/details/hitchhikersguide00badk |publisher=Kregel Publications |year=2005 |isbn=0825420695}}</ref><ref name="Hua">{{cite book |author=Hsuan Hua |title=Words of Wisdom: Beginning Buddhism |publisher=Dharma Realm Buddhist Association |year=2003 |isbn=0881393029}}</ref>
 
*Asili ya [[uhai]] ni nini? <ref name="Davies">{{cite book |author=[[Paul Davies]] |title=The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life |publisher=Simon & Schuster |date=Machi 2000 |url=http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=1&pid=410133 |accessdate=2007-07-26 |isbn=0-684-86309-X}}</ref><ref name="Fadul">{{cite book |author=[[Jose Fadul]] |title=Lessons in Chess, Lessons in Life: Application of the Psychology of the Game in Real Life |publisher=Lulu Press |date= 2008 |isbn=978-0-557-02158-1}}</ref>
 
*Hali ya maisha ni nini? Ukweli ni nini? <ref name="Davies" /><ref name="Christiansen & Baum & Bass-Haugen">{{cite book |author=Charles Christiansen; Carolyn Manville Baum; Julie Bass-Haugen |title=Occupational Therapy: Performance, Participation, and Well-Being |publisher=SLACK Incorporated |year=2005 |isbn=1556425309}}</ref><ref name="Walker">{{cite book |author=[[Evan Harris Walker]] |title=The Physics of Consciousness: The Quantum Mind and the Meaning of Life |url=https://archive.org/details/physicsofconscio0000walk |publisher=Perseus Books |year=2000 |isbn=0738204366}}</ref>
 
* Madhumuni ya maisha ya mtu ni nini? <ref name="WITMOL" /><ref name="Baggini" /><ref name="Christiansen & Baum & Bass-Haugen" /><ref name="warren">{{cite book |author=[[Rick Warren]] |title=[[The Purpose Driven Life|The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For?]] |publisher=Zondervan |year=2002 |isbn=0310255252}}</ref><ref name="Krishnamurti">{{cite book |author=[[Jiddu Krishnamurti]] |title=What Are You Doing With Your Life? |publisher=Krishnamurti Foundation of America |year=2001 |isbn=188800424X}}</ref>
===Asili na hatima ya ulimwengu===
[[File:CMB Timeline300 no WMAP.jpg|right|268px|thumb|[[Upanuzi wa kimetriki wa nafasi]]. Enzi ya kupanda ni kupanuka kwa kivuto cha kimetriki kilichoko upande wa kushoto.]]
Ingawa dhana ya [[Mlipuko mkuu]] ilipotolewa mara ya kwanza ilipambana na [[shaka]] kwa wingi, pia kutokana na uhusiano na imani ya dini ya [[uumbaji]], baadaye imekuja kuungwa mkono na [[uchunguzi]] kadhaa wa kujitegemea.<ref>{{cite book | author = Helge Kragh | title = Cosmology and Controversy | publisher = Princeton University Press | year = 1996 | isbn=069100546X}}</ref> Hata hivyo, [[fizikia]] ya sasa inaweza kuelezea tu ulimwengu ulivyokuwa mapema, [[sekunde]] 10 baada ya kutokea. [[Wanafizikia]] wengi wamedadisi nini inaweza kuwa imetangulia, na jinsi ulimwengu ulivyoanza.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle">{{cite book |author=Nikos Prantzos; Stephen Lyle |title=Our Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe |url=https://archive.org/details/ourcosmicfutureh0000pran |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2000 |isbn=052177098X}}</ref> Baadhi ya wanafizikia hudhani kuwa Mlipuko mkuu ulitokea kwa [[bahati]] tu, pamoja na uwepo wa ulimwengu maridhawa.<ref name="Edwards">{{cite book |author=Rem B. Edwards |title=What Caused the Big Bang? |publisher=Rodopi |year=2001 |isbn=9042014075}}</ref>
 
Hata hivyo, haijalishi jinsi ulimwengu ulivyokuja kuwepo, hatima ya binadamu katika ulimwengu huu ni [[maangamizi]] kwani - hata kama ubinadamu utaishi muda mrefu - uhai wa kibiolojia hatimaye yatashindwa kujiendeleza.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle" />
Nadharia za [[sumakuumeme]] za fahamu zinasema eneo la sumakuumeme linalotokana na [[ubongo]] ndilo hasa linalobeba [[fahamu zoefu]]. Hata hivyo kuna kutokubaliana kuhusu kutekelezwa kwa nadharia kama hiyo inayohusu utendaji kazi kwingine kwa akili.<ref>J. McFadden (2002) "[http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/electromagnetic-field-theory-of-consciousness.htm Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness]". ''Journal of Consciousness Studies'' '''9''' (4) pp. 23-50.</ref><ref name="Buccheri & Di Gesù & Saniga">{{cite book |author=R. Buccheri; V. Di Gesù; Metod Saniga |title=Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy |publisher=Springer |year=2000 |isbn=030646439X}}</ref>
 
Nadharia za akili za ki[[kwontamu]] hutumia [[nadharia ya kwontamu]] kuelezea baadhi ya sifa za akili. <ref name="Bohm & Hiley">{{cite book |author=[[David Bohm]]; Basil J. Hiley |title=The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory |publisher=Routledge |year=1993 |isbn=0415065887}}</ref><ref name="Bruce">{{cite book |author=Alexandra Bruce |title=Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!? |url=https://archive.org/details/beyondbleep00alex |publisher=The Disinformation Company |year=2005 |isbn=1932857222}}</ref><ref name="Bohm & Hiley" /><ref name="Libet, Freeman, Sutherland">{{cite book |author=Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland |title=The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will |publisher=Imprint Academic |year=1999 |isbn=0907845118}}</ref>
 
Ikitegemea hoja ya maelezo ya akili yasiyoweza kugusika, baadhi ya watu wamependekeza uwepo wa [[fahamu ya kikosmiki]], wakidai kwamba fahamu kwa kweli ndiyo "msingi wa yote kuwepo".<ref name="Walker"/><ref name="Bruce" /><ref name="Ho">{{cite book |author=[[Mae-Wan Ho]] |title=The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms |publisher=World Scientific |year=1998 |pages=218–231 |isbn=9810234279}}</ref> Wanaounga mkono mtazamo huo wanaelezea matukio yasiyo ya kawaida, hasa uwezo wa kuhisi usio wa kawaida na uwezo wa kuyasoma mawazo, kama [[ushahidi]] wa uwepo wa fahamu ya juu isiyoeleweka. Ili kuthibitisha uwepo wa mambo hayo yasiyo ya kawaida, wana[[elimunafsia]] wa mambo yasiyo ya kawaida wamefanya ma[[jaribio]] mbalimbali. Uchambuzi unaoangalia mambo yote yaliyopo unaonyesha kuwa [[asilimia]] ya wenye nguvu zisizo za kawaida (ingawa ndogo sana) imebaki thabiti.<ref name=Radnin97>{{cite book |last=Radin |first=Dean |authorlink = |title=The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena |publisher=HarperSanFrancisco |year=1997 |isbn=0062515020}}</ref><ref name=Dunne85>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena |journal=Foundations of Physics |volume=16 |issue=8 |pages=721–772 |year=1985 |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/ |doi=10.1007/BF00735378 |accessdate=2007-07-31 }}{{Dead link|date=January 2021 |bot=InternetArchiveBot |fix-attempted=yes }}</ref> Ingawa baadhi ya [[wachambuzi wakosoaji]] wanahisi somo la [[elimunafsia isiyo ya kawaida]] kuwa sayansi, hawaridhishwi na matokeo ya majaribio yake.<ref name=Alcock03>{{cite journal |last=Alcock |first=James E. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance |journal=Journal of Consciousness Studies |volume=10 |issue=6-7 |pages=29–50 |year=2003 |url=http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30 |archive-date=2007-08-10 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20070810173433/http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |dead-url=yes }}</ref><ref name=Hyman>{{cite journal |last=Hyman |first=Ray |title=Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |volume=59 |issue=1 |year=1995 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/rv0W|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref>
Katika maana ya maisha ya Monty Python,kuna kugusia kwingi kwa maana ya maisha. Katika "Sehemu ya VI B: Maana ya Maisha" mwanamke anayefanya kazi ya kusafisha anaelezea "Maisha ni mchezo, wakati mwingine unashinda au kushindwa" na baadaye mtu wa kupelekea watu vyakula hotelini anaelezea falsafa yake ya kibinafsi "Dunia ni pahali pazuri. Lazima uende ndani yake, na upende kila mtu, usiwachukie watu. Lazima hujaribu na kumfanya kila mtu awe na furaha, na upeleke amani na ridhaa kokote uendapo.<ref name="useless website">[http://www.intriguing.com/mp/_scripts/meanlife.asp Monty Python's Completely Useless Web Site: Monty Python's The Meaning Of Life: Complete Script]</ref> Katika mwisho wa filamu, tunaweza kumuona Michael Palin akipewa bahasha, anaifungua, na kupea watazamaji 'maana ya maisha': "Basi, si kitu maalumu sana. Uh, jaribu kuwa mzuri kwa watu, epuka kula mafuta, soma kitabu kizuri kila wakati, pata kutembea, na jaribu kuishi pamoja kwa amani na utulivu na watu wa Imani zote na mataifa yote.<ref name="useless website" /><ref name="Burnham">{{cite book |author=Terry Burnham |title=Mean Markets and Lizard Brains: How to Profit from the New Science of Irrationality |publisher=John Wiley and Sons |year=2005 |isbn=0471716952}}</ref><ref name="Fernandez">{{cite book |author=Yolanda Fernandez |title=In Their Shoes: Examining the Issue of Empathy and Its Place in the Treatment of Offenders |publisher=Wood 'N' Barnes Publishing |year=2002 |isbn=1885473486}}</ref>
 
Katika kipindi kimoja cha "The Simpsons" kilichoitwa "Homer the Heretic", mfano wa Mungu unakubali kumwambia Homer maana ya maisha, lakini majina ya wahusika wa kipindi yanaanza kuonekana anapoanza kusema ni nini. Mapema katika kipindi hicho, Homer anaanzisha dini yake mwenyewe, ambapo anajaribu kumwabudu Mungu kwa njia yake mwenyewe, baadaye akimwwambia Moe kwamba dini hiyo haina kuzimu na haina kupiga magoti. Hata hivyo, Homer anaiacha kwa haraka dini yake ya anasa na ubinafsi baada baada ya nyumba yake kunusurika kuchomeka, akitafsiri moto kama ishara ya kulipiza kisasi kwa kimungu, na kuita "O Mwenye Nguvu za Kuumiza, nionyeshe nani wa kuumiza, naye ataumizwa." Ned anamfariji Homer kuwa moto haukuwa kisasi cha Mungu na Lovejoy anaelezea kwamba Mungu alikuwa "akifanya kazi katika mioyo ya marafiki na majirani wako walipokuja kukusaidia."<ref name="Pinsky">{{cite book|author=Mark I. Pinsky|title=The Gospel According To The Simpsons: The Spiritual Life Of The World's Most Animated Family|url=https://archive.org/details/gospelaccordingt00mark|publisher=Westminster John Knox Press|year=2001|isbn=0664224199}}</ref>
 
Mwishoni mwa "The Matrix Revolutions", Smith anahitimsha kwamba "madhumuni ya maisha ni kuisha" na anakusudia kuharakisha lengo hilo.<ref name="Lawrence">{{cite book|author=Matt Lawrence|title=Like a Splinter in Your Mind: The Philosophy Behind the Matrix Trilogy|publisher=Blackwell Publishing|year=2004|isbn=1405125241}}</ref> [[The Matrix (series)|''The Matrix'' series]]. Mfululizo wa filamu wa "The Matrix" pia unatoa wazo la "wanaoishi katika ukweli uliobuniwa" na swali linalohusika na wazo hilo ikiwa kuwepo huko kunafaa kutazamwa kama kusiokuwa na maana, katika njia inayoweza kulinganishwa na Hadithi fupi yenye mafunzo ya pango ya Plato na jinsi baadhi ya mifumo ya imani hutazama ukweli, kama Ubuddha au Uaginostiki.<ref>Christopher Grau (2005). Philosophers Explore the Matrix. Oxford University Press.</ref>