Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Ukeketaji"

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: El Bashir, Hamid. ''The Sudanese National Committee on the Eradication of Harmful Traditional Practices and the Campaign against Female Genital Mutilation'' in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), ''Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
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: El Dareer, Asma. [ "Attitudes of Sudanese People to the Practice of Female Circumcision"], ''International Journal of Epidemiology'', 1983, 12(2), pp. 138–144.
*[[Fadwa El Guindi|El Guindi, Fadwa]]. "Had ''This'' Been Your Face, Would You Leave It as Is?" in Rogaia Mustafa Abusharaf (ed.), ''Female Circumcision: Multicultural Perspectives'', University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.
: El Hadi, Amal Abd. "Female Genital Mutilation in Egypt" in Meredeth Turshen (ed.), ''African Women's Health'', Africa World Press, 2000.
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: Holding, E. Mary. [ "Women's Institutions and the African Church"], ''International Review of Mission'', 31(3), July 1942, pp. 290–300.
: [[Fran Hosken|Hosken, Fran]]. ''The Hosken Report: Genital and Sexual Mutilation of Females'', Women's International Network, 1994, first published 1979.
: [[Edna Adan Ismail|Ismail, Edna Adan]]. [ "Female genital mutilation survey in Somaliland"] {{Wayback|url= |date=20170909054405 }}, Edna Adan Maternity and Teaching Hospital, 2009.
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: James, Stanlie M. "Listening to Other(ed) Voices: Reflections around Female Genital Cutting," in Stanlie M. James and Claire C. Robertson (eds.), ''Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood'', University of Illinois Press, 2002.
: J.F.C. [ "Isaac Baker Brown, F.R.C.S."], ''Medical Times and Gazette'', 8 February 1873.
: Johnsdotter, Sara and Essén, Birgitta. [ "Genitals and ethnicity: the politics of genital modifications"] {{Wayback|url= |date=20170101060055 }}, ''Reproductive Health Matters'', 18(35), 2010, pp. 29–37.
: Kaplan, Adriana et al. [ "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: The Secret World of Women as Seen by Men"], ''Obstetrics and Gynecology International'', 2013: 643780.
: Kelly, Elizabeth, and Hillard, Paula J. Adams. [ "Female genital mutilation"], ''Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology'', 17(5), October 2005, pp. 490–494 (review).
: Kirby, Vicki. "Out of Africa: 'Our Bodies Ourselves'?" in Obioma Nnaemeka (ed.), ''Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses'', Praeger, 2005.
: Knight, Mary. [ "Curing Cut or Ritual Mutilation?: Some Remarks on the Practice of Female and Male Circumcision in Graeco-Roman Egypt"], ''Isis'', 92(2), June 2001, pp. 317–338.
: Korieh, Chima. {{" '}}Other' Bodies: Western Feminism, Race and Representation in Female Circumcision Discourse," in Obioma Nnaemeka (ed.), ''Female Circumcision and the Politics of Knowledge: African Women in Imperialist Discourses'', Praeger, 2005.
: Lane, Sandra D. and [[Robert A. Rubinstein|Rubinstein, Robert A.]] [ "Judging the Other: Responding to Traditional Female Genital Surgeries"], ''Hastings Center Report'', 26(3), May–June 1996, pp. 31–40.
: Liao, Lih Mei and Creighton, Sarah M. [ "Requests for cosmetic genitoplasty: how should healthcare providers respond?"], ''British Medical Journal'', 334(7603), 26 May 2007, pp. 1090–1092.
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: Lightfoot-Klein, Hanny. ''Prisoners of Ritual: An Odyssey Into Female Genital Circumcision in Africa'', Routledge, 1989.
: [[Gerry Mackie|Mackie, Gerry]]. [ "Ending Footbinding and Infibulation: A Convention Account"], ''American Sociological Review'', 61(6), December 1996, (pp. 999–1017), pp. 99–1000 (also [ here]).
: Mackie, Gerry. "Female Genital Cutting: The Beginning of the End," in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), ''Female "Circumcision" in Africa: Culture, Controversy, and Change'', Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000, pp. [ 253–282] (also [ here]).
: Mackie, Gerry and LeJeune, John. [ "Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A New Look at the Theory"], Innocenti Working Paper No. 2008-XXX, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, 2008.
: Mackie, Gerry and LeJeune, John. [ "Social Dynamics of Abandonment of Harmful Practices: A New Look at the Theory"], Innocenti Working Paper No. 2009-06, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre, May 2009.
: Martinelli, M. and Ollé-Goig, J.E. [ "Female genital mutilation in Djibouti], ''African Health Sciences'', 12(4), December 2012.
: McGregor, Deborah Kuhn. ''From Midwives to Medicine: The Birth of American Gynecology'', Rutgers University Press, 1998.
: [[Comfort Momoh|Momoh, Comfort]]. "Female genital mutilation," in Comfort Momoh (ed.), ''Female Genital Mutilation'', Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.
: Momoh, Comfort. "FGM and issues of gender and human rights of women," in Comfort Momoh (ed.), ''Female Genital Mutilation'', Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.
: Morison, Linda et al. [ "The long-term reproductive health consequences of female genital cutting in rural Gambia: a community-based survey"], ''Tropical Medicine & International Health'', 6(8), August 2001, pp. 643–653.
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: [[Jacob Neusner|Neusner, Jacob]]. ''Approaches to Ancient Judaism'', Volume 4, Scholars Press, 1993.
: Nour N.M., Michaels K.B., and Bryant A.E. [ "Defibulation to Treat Female Genital Cutting: Effect on Symptoms and Sexual Function"], ''Obstetrics & Gynecology'', 108(1), July 2006, pp. 55–60.
: Nour, Nawal M. [ "Female Genital Cutting: A Persisting Practice"], ''Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology'', 1(3), Summer 2008, pp. 135–139.
: [[Martha Nussbaum|Nussbaum, Martha Craven]]. ''Sex and Social Justice'', Oxford University Press, 1999.
: [[Carla Obermeyer|Obermeyer, Carla]]. [,%20C.%20%281999%29%20Female%20genital%20surgeries.pdf "Female Genital Surgeries: The Known, the Unknown and the Unknowable"] {{Wayback|url=,%20C.%20%281999%29%20Female%20genital%20surgeries.pdf |date=20160521175851 }}, ''Medical Anthropology Quarterly'', 31(1), 1999, pp. 79–106.
: Obermeyer, Carla. [ "The Health Consequences of Female Circumcision: Science, Advocacy, and Standards of Evidence"], ''Medical Anthropology Quarterly'', 17(3), September 2003.
: Obermeyer, Carla. [ "The Consequences of Female Circumcision for Health and Sexuality: An Update on the Evidence"], ''Medical Anthropology Quarterly'', 7(5), September–October 2005.
: Oldfield Hayes, Rose. [ "Female Genital Mutilation, Fertility Control, Women's Roles, and the Patrilineage in Modern Sudan: A Functional Analysis"], ''American Ethnologist'' 2(4), November 1975, pp. 617–633.
: [[Anika Rahman|Rahman, Anika]] and [[Nahid Toubia|Toubia, Nahid]]. ''Female Genital Mutilation: A Guide to Laws and Policies Worldwide'', Zed Books, 2000.
: Rodriguez, Sarah W. [ "Rethinking the history of female circumcision and clitoridectomy: American medicine and female sexuality in the late nineteenth century"], ''Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences''. 63(3), July 2008, pp. 323–347.
: Ross, Susan Deller. Women's Human Rights: The international and Comparative Law Casebook, Vantage Press, 2008.
: Rymer, Janice and Momoh, Comfort. "Managing the reality of FGM in the UK," in Comfort Momoh (ed.), ''Female Genital Mutilation'', Radcliffe Publishing, 2005.
: [[Nawal El Saadawi|Saadawi, Nawal]]. ''The Hidden Face of Eve: Women in the Arab World'', Zed Books, 2007.
: Seligman, Charles G. [ "Aspects of the Hamitic problems in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan"],''The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland'', 1913, 40(3), pp. 593–705.
: Serour G.I. [ "The issue of reinfibulation"], ''International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics'', 109(2), May 2010, pp. 93–96.
: Sharif, Khadijah F. "Female Genital Mutilation," in Nadine Taub, Beth Anne Wolfson, and Carla M. Palumbo (eds.). ''The Law of Sex Discrimination'', Cengage Learning, 2010.
: Sheehan, Elizabeth. [ "Victorian Clitoridectomy: Isaac Baker Brown and His Harmless Operative Procedure"], ''Medical Anthropology Newsletter'', 12(4), August 1981.
: Shell-Duncan, Bettina and Hernlund, Ylva. "Female 'Circumcision' in Africa: Dimensions of the Practice and Debates" in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), ''Female "Circumcision" in Africa'', Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
: Shorter, Edward. ''From Paralysis to Fatigue: A History of Psychosomatic Illness in the Modern Era'', Simon and Schuster, 2008.
: [[Richard Shweder|Shweder, Richard]]. {{" '}}What About Female Genital Mutilation?" And Why Understanding Culture Matters in the First Place," in Richard A. Shweder, [[Martha Minow]] and [[Hazel Rose Markus]] (eds.), ''Engaging Cultural Differences: The Multicultural Challenge In Liberal Democracies'', Russell Sage Foundation, 2002; also in [ ''Daedalus'', 129(4)] {{Wayback|url= |date=20130921061229 }}, Fall 2000.
: Shweder, Richard. "When Cultures Collide: Which Rights? Whose Tradition of Values? A Critique of the Global Anti-FGM Campaign," in Christiopher L. Eisgruber and András Sajó (eds.), ''Global Justice And the Bulwarks of Localism'', Martinus Nijhoff, 2005, [ pp. 181–199] {{Wayback|url= |date=20130921053958 }}.
: [[Eric Silverman|Silverman, Eric K.]] [ "Anthropology and Circumcision"], ''Annual Review of Anthropology'', 33, 2004.
: Strayer, Robert and Murray, Jocelyn. "The CMS and Female Circumcision," in Robert Strayer. ''The Making of Missionary Communities in East Africa'', Heinemann Educational Books, 1978.
: [[Sylvia Tamale|Tamale, Sylvia]]. "Researching and theorising sexualities," in Sylvia Tamale (ed.), ''African Sexualities: A Reader'', Fahamu/Pambazuka, 2011.
: Thiam, Awa. [ "Women's fight for the abolition of sexual mutilation"], ''International Social Science Journal'', 50(157), September 1998, pp. 381–386.
: Thomas, Lynn M. [ {{" '}}Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself)': The Gender and Generational Politics of the 1956 Ban on Clitoridectomy in Meru, Kenya"], ''Gender and History'', 8(3), November 1996, pp. 338–363.
: Thomas, Lynn M. {{" '}}Ngaitana (I will circumcise myself)': Lessons from Colonial Campaigns to Ban Excision in Meru, Kenya" in Bettina Shell-Duncan and Ylva Hernlund (eds.), ''Female "Circumcision" in Africa'', Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2000.
: Thomas, Lynn M. ''Politics of the Womb: Women, Reproduction, and the State in Kenya'', University of California Press, 2003.
: [[Nahid Toubia|Toubia, Nahid]]. [ "Female Circumcision as a Public Health Issue"], ''The New England Journal of Medicine'', 331(11), 1994, pp. 712–716.
: Toubia, Nahid and Sharief, Eiman Hussein. [ "Female genital mutilation: have we made progress?"] {{Wayback|url= |date=20170101060238 }}, ''International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics'', 82(3), September 2003, pp. 251–261.
: United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). [ "Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change"], July 2013.
: Walley, Christine J. "Searching for 'Voices': Feminism, Anthropology, and the Global Over Female Genital Operations," in Stanlie M. James and Claire C. Robertson (eds.), ''Genital Cutting and Transnational Sisterhood'', University of Illinois Press, 2002.
: Wangila, Mary Nyangweso. ''Female Circumcision: The Interplay of Religion, Culture and Gender in Kenya'', Orbis Books, 2007.
: Werblowsky, R.J. Zwi; Wigoder, R.J. and Geoffrey (eds.). ''The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion'', Oxford University Press, 1997.
: Yasin, Berivan A. et al. [ "Female genital mutilation among Iraqi Kurdish women: a cross-sectional study from Erbil city"], ''BMC Public Health'', 13, September 2013.
: Yoder, Stanley P. and Khan, Shane. [ "Numbers of women circumcised in Africa"], USAID, March 2008.
: Zabus, Chantal. "Between Rites and Rights: Excision on Trial in African Women's Texts and Human Contexts," in Peter H. Marsden and Geoffrey V. Davis (eds.), ''Towards a Transcultural Future: Literature and Human Rights in a ' Post'-Colonial World'', Rodopi, 2004.
: Zabus, Chantal. "The Excised Body in African Texts and Contexts," in Merete Falck Borch (ed.), ''Bodies and Voices: The Force-field of Representation and Discourse in Colonial and Postcolonial Studies'', Rodopi, 2008.
{{Commons category|Female genital mutilation}}
: [ "Factsheet on FGM"], World Health Organization, February 2013.
: British [[National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children]] 24-hour national helpline for children at risk of FGM: 0800 028 3550
: [ FORWARD], London, charity specializing in FGM research (FORWARD's list of [ hospitals and clinics in the UK offering specialist FGM services] {{Wayback|url= |date=20140328211318 }}).
: [ Desert Flower Foundation] ([ "First Desert Flower Center opens in Berlin"] {{Wayback|url= |date=20140129220055 }}, 16 September 2013, first dedicated FGM clinic in Europe).
: [,%20FEMALE1960-1980.pdf "Circumcision, female"] {{Wayback|url=,%20FEMALE1960-1980.pdf |date=20150702080920 }}, The Kinsey Institute (bibliography 1960s–1980s).
: Westley, David M. [ "Female circumcision and infibulation in Africa"], ''Electronic Journal of Africana Bibliography'', 4, 1999 (bibliography up to 1997).
: ''The Guardian''. [ FGM archive].
: ''The Guardian''. [ "The facts about female genital mutilation – interactive"], interactive display showing facts and figures from UNICEF, 22 July 2013.
;===Vitabu, makala===
: [[Felix Bryk|Bryk, Felix]]. ''Circumcision in Man and Woman: Its History, Psychology, and Ethnology'', The Minerva Group, Inc., 2001, first published 1934.
: CNN. [ Report on FGM in Egypt], February 2009.
: Cullen-Dupont, Kathryn. "Female genital mutilation," ''Encyclopedia of Women's History in America'', Da Capo Press, 1998, p. [ 85].
: [[Efua Dorkenoo|Dorkenoo, Efua]]. "Combating Female Genital Mutilation: An Agenda for the Next Decade," in Mona Eliasson (ed.). ''Teaching about Violence Against Women'', Feminist Press at CUNY, 1999.
: Dorkenoo, Efua. "Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation, the Practice and its Prevention'', Minority Rights Group, 1994.
: [[David Gollaher|Gollaher, David]]. "Female circumcision," ''Circumcision: A History of the World's Most Controversial Surgery'', Basic Books, 2000, p. [ 187ff].
: Kouba, Leonard J. and Muasher, Judith. [ "Female Circumcision in Africa: An Overview"], ''African Studies Review'', 28(1), March 1985, pp. 95–110.
: Sanderson, Lillian Passmore. ''Against the Mutilation of Women: The Struggle to End Unnecessary Suffering'', Ithaca Press, 1981.
: [[Ousmane Sembène|Sembène, Ousmane]]. ''[[Moolaadé]]'', 2004, a film about abandoning FGM.
: Sinclair, Stephanie. [ "Inside a Female-Circumcision Ceremony"], ''The New York Times'' magazine, April 2006, slideshow of images from Indonesia ([ article]).
: UNICEF. [ "Towards the abandonment of female genital mutilation in five African countries"], October 2010.
: Yoder, P. Stanley; Noureddine, Abderrahim; Arlinda, Zhuzhuni. [ "Female Genital Cutting in the Demographic and Health Surveys: A Critical and Comparative Analysis"], DHS Comparative Reports No. 7, 2004.
;===Habari za maisha ya watu===
: [[Ayaan Hirsi Ali|Ali, Ayaan Hirsi]]. ''[[Infidel: My Life]]'', Simon & Schuster, 2007: Ali experiences FGM at the hands of her grandmother.
: [[Waris Dirie|Dirie, Waris]]. ''[[Desert Flower]]'', Harper Perennial, 1999: autobiographical novel.
: Dirie, Waris. ''Desert Dawn'', Little, Brown, 2003: Dirie's work as UN Special Ambassador against FGM.
: Dirie, Waris. ''Desert Children'', Virago, 2007: FGM in Europe
: [[Fauziya Kassindja|Kasinga, Fauziya]], and [[Layli Miller-Muro|Bashir, Layli Miller]]. ''Do They Hear You When You Cry'', Delacorte Press, 1998.
: [[Nawal El Saadawi|El Saadawi, Nawal]]. ''[[Woman at Point Zero]]'', Zed Books, 1975.