Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Nchi"

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[[File:Europe topography map.png|thumb|Ramani ya kitopografia ya Ulaya]]
[[File:Europe countries map 2.png|thumb|Ramani sawa na ya hapo juu, lakini ikionyesha mataifa huru ambayo yamekubaliwa na Umoja wa Mataifa badala ya topografia]]
Katika [[jiografia,]], '''nchi''' ni kanda au eneo la kijiografia. Neno hili mara nyingi hutumiwa kwa kitengo cha kisiasa au eneo la taifa huru, au kwa eneo ndogo la kijiografia, zamani likiwa [[kitengo cha kisiasa,]]. Kwa kawaida, lakini si kila wakati, nchi inasanjari na [[eneo huru]] na kuhusishwa na [[taifa]] au [[serikali.]].
 
 
''Nchi'' pia inaweza kumaanisha [[sehemu za mashambani,]] kinyume na [[mji.]]
 
''Nchi'' pia inaweza kumaanisha [[sehemu za mashambani,]] kinyume na [[mji.]].
 
Katika matumizi ya kawaida, neno nchi hutumiwa katika maana ya mataifa na majimbo, kukiwa na fasili tofauti. Katika baadhi ya matumizi inatumiwa kuashiria majimbo na vitengo vingine vya kisiasa, <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/aia1901230/s22.html |title=Acts Interpretation Act 1901 - Sect 22: Meaning of certain words |publisher=Australasian Legal Information Institute |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.austlii.edu.au/cgi-bin/disp.pl/au/cases/cth/federal%5fct/1997/912.html |title=The Kwet Koe v Minister for Immigration &amp; Ethnic Affairs &amp; Ors [1997&#93; FCA 912 (8 September 1997)|publisher=Australasian Legal Information Institute |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/84411.pdf |title=U.S. Department of State Foreign Affairs Manual Volume 2—General |format=PDF |publisher=United States Department of State |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> ilihali katika mengine inahusu tu majimbo <ref>{{cite web|url=http://geography.about.com/cs/politicalgeog/a/statenation.htm| title=Geography: Country, State, and Nation |accessdate=2008-11-12 |last=Rosenberg |first=Matt}}</ref>. Si nadra kwa taarifa ya ujumla au machapisho ya takwimu kuchukua ufafanuzi mpana wa neno hili kwa makusudi kama maonyesho na ulinganifu. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.countryreports.org/country.aspx?countryid=96&countryName=countryid=96&countryName=Greenland |title=Greenland Country Information |publisher=Countryreports.org |accessdate=2008-05-28 }} {{cite web|url=https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html |title=The World Factbook - Rank Order - Exports |publisher=Central Intelligence Agency |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heritage.org/index/countries.cfm |title=Index of Economic Freedom |publisher=The Heritage Foundation |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/topten.cfm |title=Index of Economic Freedom - Top 10 Countries |publisher=The Heritage Foundation |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.heritage.org/research/features/index/chapters/pdf/index2007_RegionA_Asia-Pacific.pdf |title=Asia-Pacific (Region A) Economic Information |format=PDF |publisher=The Heritage Foundation |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://umich.edu/news/happy_08/HappyChart.pdf |title=Subjective well-being in 97 countries |format=PDF |publisher=University of Michigan |accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref>
 
 
Baadhi ya vitengo vya kijiografia, ambavyo zamani vilikuwa majimbo yanayojisimamia, vinaaminika na kujulikana bado kama nchi kwa kawaida kama vile [[Uingereza, Scotland]] na [[Wales]] - katika [[Ufalme Ulioungana (UK).]] <ref name="Lib of Congress">{{Cite web|url=http://www.loc.gov/law/help/uk.php|title=Legal Research Guide: United Kingdom - Law Library of Congress (Library of Cong|publisher=[[Library of Congress]]|date=2009-07-23|accessdate=2009-09-22|work=Library of Congress website|quote=The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the collective name of four countries, England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The four separate countries were united under a single Parliament through a series of Acts of Union.}}</ref> <ref name="Number 10">{{cite web |url=http://www.number10.gov.uk/Page823 |title=countries within a country:number10.gov.uk|publisher=[[10 Downing Street]]|date=2003-01-10|accessdate=2009-09-22|work=10 Downing Street website|quote=The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.}}</ref> <ref name="commonwealth">{{Cite web|url=http://www.thecommonwealth.org/YearbookInternal/139598/geography/|title=Commonwealth Secretariat - Geography|publisher=[[Commonwealth Secretariat]]|date=2009-09-22|accessdate=2009-09-22|work=Commonwealth Secretariat website|quote=The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK) is a union of four countries: England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.}}</ref> <ref name="Europa">{{Cite web|url=http://europa.eu/youth/travelling_europe/index_uk_en.html|title=Travelling Europe - United Kingdom|publisher=[[European Commission]]|accessdate=2009-09-22|date=2009-06-29|work=European Youth Portal|quote=The United Kingdom is made up of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.}}</ref> Kihistoria, nchi za [[Umoja wa zamani wa Kisovyeti]] na [[Yugoslavia]] zilikuwa zingine. Majimbo ya zamani kama [[Bavaria]] (sasa ni sehemu ya Ujerumani) na [[Piedmont]] (sasa ni sehemu ya Italia) yangekuwa si kawaida kujulikana kama "nchi" katika Kiingereza ya kisasa. Kiwango cha uhuru wa nchi zisizo mataifa inatofautiana sana. Baadhi ni mali ya mataifa, kwani mataifa kadhaa yana [[maeneo yanayoyategemea]] ya ng'ambo (kama vile [[Visiwa vya Virgin vya Uingereza, Saint Pierre na Miquelon,]] na [[Samoa ya Marekani),]] yenye eneo na raia tofauti na yao wenyewe. Maeneo tegemezi kama haya wakati mwingine yanatajwa pamoja na mataifa huru kwenye orodha ya nchi, na yanaweza kuchukuliwa kama [["nchi ya asili"]] katika biashara ya kimataifa, kama [[Hong Kong]] ilivyo. Baadhi ya nchi zimegawanywa kati ya majimbo kadhaa, kama vile [[Korea]] na [[Kurdistan.]]
 
 
 
==Asili na maendeleo ya neno==
Neno nchi imeendelea kutoka neno ''contra,'' ya [[Kilatini]] maana yake "dhidi", inayotumika katika maana ya "inayolalia, au kinyume na, mtazamo", yaani hali ya ardhi ilivyoenea nje kwa mtazamo. Kutoka kwa hili likaja neno la [[Mwishoni mwa Kilatini]] ''contrata'' , ambalo lilikuja kuwa [[ contrada ya Kiitaliano ya kisasa| ''contrada'' ya Kiitaliano ya kisasa]]. Neno hili linaonekana katika [[Kiingereza ya Enzi za Kati]] kutoka karne ya 13, tayari katika hisia mbalimbali. <ref>{{cite encyclopedia| editor = John Simpson, Edmund Weiner | encyclopedia = Oxford English Dictionary| edition = 1971 compact | publisher = Oxford University Press| location = Oxford, England| isbn = 0198611862 |title = country
}}</ref>
 
 
Katika Kiingereza neno hili kwa zaidi limehusishwa na vitengo vya kisiasa, ili maana moja, inayohusishwa na [[nakala isiyo sawa]] - "nchi" - sasa ni [[kisawe]] kwa [[taifa,]] au taifa lililokuwa huru zamani, katika maana ya eneo huru linalojitegemea. <ref>[30] ^ [[OED,]] Nchi</ref> Maeneo madogo sana kuliko tawala ya kisiasa yanaweza kuitwa kwa majina kama [[Nchi]] ya [[Magharibi]] nchini Uingereza, " nchi kubwa "(inayotumika katika mazingira mbalimbali ya [[Magharibi ya Marekani),]] "nchi ya makaa"(inayotumika katika ya maeneo ya Marekani na kwingineko) na maneno mengine mengi. <ref name="oed">{{cite encyclopedia| editor = John Simpson, Edmund Weiner | encyclopedia = Oxford English Dictionary| edition = 1971 compact | publisher = Oxford University Press| location = Oxford, England| isbn = 0198611862
}}</ref>
 
 
Maneno sawa katika [[lugha ya]] Kifaransa na [[Kirumi]] ''(pays'' na variants) hayajabeba mchakato wa kutambuliwa na majimbo ya kisiasa yaliyo huru kama "nchi" katika Kiingereza, na katika mengi ya nchi za Ulaya maneno haya hutumiwa kwa vitengo vidogo vya maeneo ya kitaifa, kama katika [[Länder ya Kijerumani,]] vilevile kama neno lisilo rasmi kwa jimbo au taifa huru. Ufaransa ina "pays" nyingi sana ambazo zinatambuliwa rasmi katika kiwango fulani, na ni aidha [[kanda ya asili]], kama [[Pays de Bray,]] au zinaashiria miungano ya kale ya kisiasa au kiuchumi, kama [[Pays de la Loire.]] Wakati huo huo Wales, Marekani, na Brazili pia ni "pays" katika matamshi ya kila siku Kifaransa.
 
 
Makala ya "nchi" inaweza kupatikana katika lugha ya Kifaransa ya kisasa kama ''contrée'' , yenye msingi katika neno ''cuntrée'' katika [[Kifaransa ya Enzi za Zamani]] <ref name="oed"></ref> ambayo inatumika sawa na neno "pays" kuelezea mikoa na miungano, lakini pia inaweza kutumika kuelezea eneo la kisiasa katika baadhi ya matumizi fulani. ''Contrada'' ya Kiitaliano ya kisasa ni neno yenye maana yake ikiwa tofauti humu nchini, lakini kwa kawaida ikimaanisha [[kata]] au mgawanyiko mdogo sawa wa mji, au kijiji au hamlet mashambani.
 
 
 
==Angalia Pia==
 
* [[Orodha ya nchi]]
 
 
 
==Marejeo==
{{marejeo}}
 
 
 
 
 
==Viungo vya nje==
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