Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Microsoft"

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'''Microsoft Corporation''' {{nasdaq|MSFT}} {{sehk2|4338}} ni shirika la kimataifa teknolojia ya kompyuta kwamba utegeneza, tillverkar, leseni, na inasaidia anuwai za bidhaa kwa ajili ya kompyuta [[software]] apparater. <ref name="2005annual">{{cite web | title= Microsoft Corporation Annual Report 2005 | url= http://www.microsoft.com/msft/ar05/downloads/MS_2005_AR.doc | publisher = Microsoft | format = doc | accessdate= 1 October | accessyear=2005}}</ref> Makao yake makuu katika [[Redmond, Washington]], Marekani, bidhaa zake faida nyingi ni [[Microsoft Windows mfumo wa uendeshaji]] na [[Microsoft Office]] Suite wa tija software.
 
Kampuni ilianzishwa mwaka 1975, ili kukuza na kuuza [[BASIC wakalimani]] kwa [[Altair 8800]]. Microsoft rose dominera [[nyumbani]] mfumo wa [[kompyuta]] kuendesha soko na [[MS-DOS]] katika mid-1980, na kufuatiwa na mstari wa uendeshaji [[Windows]] system. Wengi wa bidhaa zake zina mafanikio karibu-ubiquity [[desktop kompyuta]] katika soko. Inabainisha kwamba maoni moja Microsoft's original utume alikuwa "kompyuta kila dawati na katika kila nyumba, kukimbia Microsoft software." <ref>{{cite news | url= http://blog.seattlepi.nwsource.com/microsoft/archives/003469.html | title= The rest of the motto | date= September 23, 2004 | accessdate= 2007-01-22 | publisher= [[Seattle Post-Intelligencer]]| first= Todd | last= Bishop | work= Todd Bishop's Microsoft Blog}}</ref> Microsoft asilimai footholds katika masoko mengine, pamoja na mali kama vile televisheni kabel [[MSNBC]] mtandao, [[MSN]] Internet portal, na multimedia [[Microsoft Encarta]] huru. Masoko wa kampuni pia bidhaa zote [[vifaa vya kompyuta]] kama [[Microsoft mouse]] vilevile bidhaa [[nyumbani burudani]] kama vile [[Xbox, Xbox 360, Zune]] na [[MSN TV]]. <ref name="2005annual"></ref> [[Awali]] wa kampuni [[sadaka hisa umma]] (IPO) ilikuwa mwaka 1986; ya ensuing kampuni kupanda bei ya hisa imefanya mabilionea nne na wastani wa mamilionea 12,000 kutoka kwa Microsoft wafanyakazi. <ref> Chapman, Merrill R., ''Katika kutafuta women: zaidi ya miaka 20 ya high-tech masoko majanga'' (2nd Edition), Apress, ISBN 1-59059-721-4.</ref> <ref name="stockrich">{{cite news | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2005/05/29/business/yourmoney/29millionaire.html?ex=1275019200&en=de3d71cbbb7e06f8&ei=5090&partner=rssuserland&emc=rss | title=The Microsoft Millionaires Come of Age | author= Julie Bick | date=2005-05-29 | publisher= [[The New York Times]] | accessdate=2006-07-03}}</ref> <ref name="MVP1">{{cite web | url=http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2005/06/13/somehow_usenet_lumbers_on/ | title=Somehow, Usenet lumbers on | author=Hiawatha Bray | date=2005-06-13 | accessdate=2006-07-03 | publisher=[[The Boston Globe]]}}<br />* {{cite web | url= http://mvp.support.microsoft.com/mvpfaqs | title= Microsoft Frequently Asked Questions | publisher = Microsoft (Most Valued Professional) | accessdate=2006-07-01}}</ref>
 
Katika historia ya kampuni yake imekuwa [[shabaha ya upinzani]], pamoja na biashara [[monopolistic]] mazoea na mikakati ya kupambana na ushindani ikiwa ni pamoja na [[kukataa kuhusika]] na tying. [[Justice Idara]] ya [[Marekani]] na [[Tume]] ya [[Ulaya]], miongoni mwa wengine, kuwa alitawala dhidi ya Microsoft [[Antitrust]] mbalimbali ipasavyo katika leo ukiukaji wa kisiasa na kiutamaduni ya hali ya hewa ya [[uchumi vikichanganywa]] na "[[maslahi ya umma ya jamii]]". <ref name="usvms"> {{cite web |title=United States v. Microsoft |url=http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_index.htm |publisher=U.S. Department of Justice |accessdate=August 5 |accessyear=2005 }} hemsida katika [[Idara ya Marekani Justice]]</ref> <ref name="Europa">{{cite news|url=http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=IP/04/382|title=Commission concludes on Microsoft investigation, imposes conduct remedies and a fine|date=2004-03-24|publisher=Europa|accessdate=2009-05-30}}</ref> (Angalia pia v. Microsoft ya Marekani, Ulaya Microsoft ushindani kesi.)
 
=== 1975-1984: Founding ===
Kufuatia uzinduzi wa [[Altair 8800]], William Henry Gates III, (inayojulikana kama [[Bill Gates]]) inayoitwa watengenezaji wa [[microcomputer]] mpya, [[Micro Instrumentation na Telemetry Systems]] (MITS), sadaka kuonyesha ni utekelezaji wa [[programu BASIC lugha]] kwa ajili ya mfumo. Baada ya maandamano, MITS ilikubali kusambaza [[Altair BASIC]]. <ref name="keyevents">{{cite web |title=Information for Students: Key Events In Microsoft History |url=http://www.microsoft.com/about/companyinformation/visitorcenter/student.mspx |publisher=Microsoft Visitor Center Student Information |accessdate=October 1 |accessyear=2005 |format=doc}}</ref> Milango left [[Harvard University]], walihamia [[Albuquerque, New Mexico]] ambako MITS mara ziko, na walianzisha Microsoft huko. Kampuni ya kwanza ya ofisi ya kimataifa kilianzishwa tarehe 1 Novemba 1978, katika Ujapani, wenye jina "[[ASCII]] Microsoft" (sasa huitwa "[[Microsoft Ujapani]]"). <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Januari 1, 1979, kampuni walihamia kutoka Albuquerque kwa nyumba mpya katika [[Bellevue, Washington]]. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> [[Steve Ballmer]] alijiunga na kampuni ya tarehe 11 Juni 1980, na baadaye walifanikiwa Bill Gates kama [[CEO]]. <ref name="keyevents"></ref>
 
Miongoni kabla IBM-PC bidhaa walikuwa programu paket TASC (The [[AppleSoft]] compiler), ambayo [[compiled]] mpango msingi katika mashine Apple lugha, na vifaa bidhaa [[Microsoft Softcard]], an add-on [[Z80]] processor kadi kwa Apple II na compatible kompyuta ambayo kuruhusiwa matumizi ya [[CP / M]] badala ya [[mfumo wa uendeshaji]] na [[Applesoft Apple DOS]]. Mwaka 1980, Microsoft iliingia mfumo wa uendeshaji biashara na version yake ya [[Unix]], iitwayo [[Xenix]], ambayo ni leseni kompyuta mbalimbali wachuuzi.
 
[[DOS]] (Disk Operating System) alikuwa mfumo wa uendeshaji wa kampuni yake ilileta kwanza mziki mafanikio. Tarehe 12 Agosti, 1981, baada ya mazungumzo na [[Digital Utafiti]] wameshindwa, [[IBM]] tuzo ya mkataba wa Microsoft kutoa toleo la [[CP / M]] mfumo wa uendeshaji ambayo ilikuwa kuweka kutumika katika ujao [[IBM]] [[Personal Computer]] (PC). Kwa mpango huu, Microsoft kununuliwa a CP / M Clone iitwayo [[86-DOS]] kutoka [[Seattle Computer Products]], ambayo kwa renamed IBM [[PC-DOS]]. Baadaye, soko niliona gharika ya IBM PC clones baada [[Columbia Data Products]] cloned mafanikio ya IBM [[Bios]], na kwa uadui [[MS-DOS]] masoko kwa wazalishaji wa IBM-PC clones, Microsoft umeongezeka kutoka ndogo mchezaji mmoja wa wachuuzi Programu kubwa katika kompyuta sekta ya nyumbani. <ref name="Smart-Close">{{cite web |url=http://www.smartcomputing.com/editorial/article.asp?article=articles/archive/r0304/09r04/09r04.asp&guid= |title=Booting Your PC: Getting Up Close & Personal With A Computer’s BIOS |publisher=Smart Computing |month=November | year=1999 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="Smart-WhatBIOS">{{cite web |url=http://www.smartcomputing.com/editorial/article.asp?article=articles/1994/july94/pcn0713/pcn0713.asp&articleid=5360&guid= |title=What Is The BIOS? |month=July | year=1994 |publisher=Smart Computing |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="Lemley-BIOS">{{cite web |url=http://www.extremetech.com/article2/0,1697,1151907,00.asp |title=Everything You Want or Need to Know About Your BIOS |publisher=Extreme Tech |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="Lemley-IP">{{cite book |last=Lemley |first=Mark |coauthors=Peter S. Menell and Robert P. Merges |title=Intellectual Property in the New Technological Age |chapter=Appendix B: Introduction to Computer Technology |publisher=Aspen Publishers | chapterurl= http://www.law.berkeley.edu/institutes/bclt/pubs/ipnta/appenb.pdf |format=PDF |isbn=0-7355-3652-X |year=2006 |location=New York | edition = 4th |accessdate=2006-09-02}}</ref> <ref name="Lexikon">{{cite web |url=http://www.computermuseum.li/Testpage/MSDOS-PCDOS.htm |title=MS DOS and PC DOS |work=Lexikon's History of Computing |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="Smart-DOSChoice">{{cite news |url=http://www.smartcomputing.com/editorial/article.asp?article=articles/1994/june94/pcn0608/pcn0608.asp&articleid=5103&guid= |title=When It Comes To DOS, You Now Have A Choice |publisher=Smart Computing |date=June 1994 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="Smart-Microsoft">{{cite news |url=http://www.smartcomputing.com/editorial/article.asp?article=articles/archive/r0603/09r03/09r03.asp |title=Microsoft to Microsoft disk operating system (MS-DOS) |publisher=Smart Computing |date=March 2002 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Kampuni kupanua masoko ya ndani mpya na kutolewa ''Microsoft Mouse'' ya mwaka 1983, vilevile kama mgawanyiko kuchapisha aitwaye [[Microsoft Press.]] <ref name="keyevents"></ref>
 
=== 1985-1994: IPO, OS / 2 na Windows ===
Agosti 1985, Microsoft na IBM ushirikiano katika maendeleo ya mfumo wa uendeshaji tofauti inayoitwa [[OS / 2.]] <ref name="Dubash">{{cite web |author=Manek Dubash |title=Techworld Article:OS/2 users must look elsewhere |work=Techworld |publisher=[[IDG]] |url=http://www.techworld.com/applications/features/index.cfm?featureid=1603&Page=1&pagePos=5 |date=2005-07-19 |accessdate=2005-07-05}}</ref> Tarehe 20 Novemba 1985, Microsoft iliyotolewa rejareja wake wa kwanza wa toleo [[Microsoft Windows,]] originally a graphical ugani kwa wake kuendesha MS-DOS mfumo. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Tarehe 13 Machi, 1986 na kampuni akaenda kwa umma [[sadaka]] ya [[awali ya umma (IPO),]] na sadaka mapya ya awali bei ya $ 21.00 na kuishia katika siku ya kwanza ya biashara kama saa US $ 28.00. Det ensuing kupanda bei ya hisa imefanya mabilionea nne na wastani wa mamilionea 12,000 kutoka kwa Microsoft wafanyakazi. <ref name="stockrich"></ref> <ref name="Chapman"> Chapman, Merrill R., ''Katika kutafuta women: zaidi ya miaka 20 ya high-tech masoko majanga'' (2nd Edition), Apress, ISBN 1-59059-721-4.</ref> <ref name="MVP2">{{cite web |url=http://www.boston.com/business/globe/articles/2005/06/13/somehow_usenet_lumbers_on/ |title=Somehow, Usenet lumbers on |author=Hiawatha Bray |date=2005-06-13 |accessdate=2008-08-18 |publisher=[[The Boston Globe]]}}<br />[53]</ref>
Mwaka 1987, Microsoft hatimaye albamu yao ya kwanza ya toleo la OS / 2 hadi [[OEMs.]] <ref name="MSJ-index"> {{cite web |title=Microsoft Systems Journal — 1986–1994 Index |publisher=Microsoft |url=http://www.microsoft.com/msj/backissues86.aspx |accessdate=2008-08-18}} Angalia Mei 1987 releases.</ref>
 
 
==== Post-IPO ====
[[Picha:Microsoft sign closeup.jpg|left|thumb|Ishara kuu katika mlango wa Microsoft ushirika kampasi. Microsoft kampasi ya Redmond leo inajumuisha zaidi ya 750.000 m² (approx. miguu mraba milioni 8) na zaidi ya 30,000 wafanyakazi. <ref Namename="SPI-MSexpansion"/>]]
 
Mwaka 1989, Microsoft ilianzisha [[ofisi]] yake centralt Suite, [[Microsoft Office]]. Programu kutunza ofisi tofauti tija maombi, kama [[Microsoft Word]] na [[Microsoft Excel]]. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Tarehe 22 Mei 1990 Microsoft [[Windows]] lanserade [[3.0]]. <ref name="MSPR-Win3">{{cite press release |title=Windows 3.0 is Here |format=PDF |publisher=Microsoft |url=http://www.windows-now.com/cfs-filesystemfile.ashx/__key/CommunityServer.Components.PostAttachments/00.00.02.10.92/Microsoft.PressReleases.Windows3.pdf |year=1990 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Programme mpya ya mfumo wa uendeshaji Microsoft's boasted kama makala mpya kama harmoniserad [[user interface]] graphics na kuboresha uwezo [[mode zinalindwa]] kwa [[Intel 386]] processor; ni kuuzwa juu nakala 100.000 katika wiki mbili. <ref name="MS-WinHistory">{{cite web |url=http://www.microsoft.com/windows/WinHistoryDesktop.mspx |title=Windows History |publisher=Microsoft |date=2002-06-30 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Madirisha wakati generated mapato zaidi kwa ajili ya Microsoft kuliko OS / 2, na kampuni iliamua kusonga rasilimali zaidi kutoka OS / 2 to Windows. <ref name="OS/2 history">{{cite web |author=David Both |url=http://www.os2bbs.com/os2news/OS2History.html |title=OS/2 History |publisher=OS/2 VOICE |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Katika miaka ensuing, na umaarufu wa OS / 2 ulipungua, na Windows haraka akawa favored PC jukwaa.
 
Katika kipindi cha mpito kutoka MS-DOS to Windows, mafanikio ya Microsoft Office kuruhusiwa kampuni kupata ardhini juu ya maombi-software washindani, kama [[WordPerfect]] na [[Lotus 1-2-3]]. <ref name="thocp2">{{cite web |title=Microsoft Company September 15, 1975 |publisher=The History of Computing Project |url=http://www.thocp.net/companies/microsoft/microsoft_company_part2.htm |accessdate=August 11 |accessyear=2005 }}</ref> <ref name="Masters">{{cite web |url=http://www.vnunet.com/computing/analysis/2073923/behind-pearly-gates |author=Steve Masters|publisher=[[VNU]] Business Publications |date=1998-02-13 |title=Behind the Pearly Gates |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Kulingana [[na Register,]] Novell, ni mmiliki wa WordPerfect kwa muda, alidai kuwa Microsoft alitumia ujuzi wake wa ndani na Windows DOS kernels na undocumented [[Application Programming Interface]] Ofisi features kufanya kazi bora kuliko washindani wake. <ref name="Orlowski2004-11-16">{{cite web |author=Andrew Orlowski |url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/11/16/novell_microsoft_wordperfect_analysis/ |title=Novell's MS complaint: we wuz robbed |work=[[The Register]] |publisher=Situation Publishing Ltd |date=2004-11-16 |accessdate=2006-07-04}}</ref> Hatimaye, Microsoft Office akawa dominerande Suite biashara, na marknadsandel mbali mno kuwa washindani wake. <ref name="McCracken">{{cite news |url=http://www.pcworld.com/article/18462/a_peek_at_office_upgrade.html |title=A Peek at Office Upgrade |publisher=PCWorld.com |date=2000-09-13 |last=McCracken |first=Harry |accessdate=2006-07-04}}</ref>
 
Mwaka 1993, iliyotolewa Microsoft [[Windows NT 3.1]], mfumo wa uendeshaji biashara na Windows 3.1 user interface lakini kernel tofauti kabisa. <ref name="thocp2"></ref>
 
=== 1995-2005: internet na masuala ya kisheria ===
Mwaka 1995, iliyotolewa Microsoft [[Windows 95]], toleo mpya wa kampuni centralt mfumo wa uendeshaji ambayo featured a completely new user interface, pamoja na riwaya [[kuanza button;]] zaidi ya milioni nakala za Microsoft Windows 95 walikuwa kuuzwa katika siku nne za kwanza baada ya kutolewa . <ref name="thocp2"></ref> Pia kampuni yake iliyotolewa [[web browser, Internet Explorer,]] pamoja na Windows 95 Plus! Ufungashaji cha mwezi Agosti 1995 na baadae Windows versions. <ref name="Hardmeier">{{cite web|author=Sandi Hardmeier |date=2005-08-25 |url=http://www.microsoft.com/windows/ie/community/columns/historyofie.mspx|publisher=Microsoft|title=Microsoft – The History of Internet Explorer|accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref>
 
Juu, Mei 26, 1995, kufuatia Bill Gates's intern "internet Tidal Mganda memo", <ref> Gates, Bill - [http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/exhibits/20.pdf Internet Tidal Mganda.] Microsoft, Mei 26, 1995. Made hadharani inapatikana katika Marekani Idara ya Haki. V. Marekani Microsoft kesi Exhibits.</ref> Microsoft alianza redefine sadaka yake na kupanua bidhaa zake linje katika [[mtandao wa kompyuta]] ing na [[World Wide Web.]] Tarehe 24 Agosti, 1995, ni kubwa [[online]] kilizindua [[huduma, MSN]] (Microsoft Network), kama moja ya [[AOL]] mshindani. MSN akawa mwamvuli huduma kwa Microsoft's online huduma. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> <ref name="thocp2"></ref> <ref name="MSN-Timeline">{{cite web |url=http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/press/2002/nov02/11-08MSN8GlobalTimeLine.mspx |title=MSN Historical Timeline: A brief history of milestone events in the life of MSN from the past ten years |publisher=Microsoft |month=June | year=2005 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Kampuni iliendelea tawi nje kwenye masoko mapya katika 1996, mapya kwa ubia na [[NBC]] kuunda mpya 24 / 7 kabel habari kituo, [[MSNBC]]. <ref name="thocp2"></ref> <ref name="APM-NewsArchives">{{cite web |url=http://marketplace.publicradio.org/shows/1996/07/15_mpp.html |title=Marketplace: News Archives for July 15, 1996 |publisher=American Public Media |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Microsoft iliingia digital msaidizi binafsi (PDA) katika soko na Novemba [[Windows CE 1.0]], a new kujengwa-kutoka-scratch Programme centralt yao ya mfumo wa uendeshaji, hasa iliyoundwa kukimbia juu chini kumbukumbu, utendaji wa mashine ya chini, kama vile Handhelds na mengine ndogo ya kompyuta. <ref name="cehistory">{{cite web |url=http://www.hpcfactor.com/support/windowsce/ |title=The History of Microsoft Windows CS |publisher=HPC:Factor |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Baadaye mwaka 1997, [[Internet Explorer 4.0]] ilitolewa kwa wote [[Mac OS]] na Windows, kuashiria mwanzo wa förvärv wa soko browser kutoka Rival [[Netscape]]. Katika Oktoba, Idara Justice filed a msukumo katika [[Mahakama ya Wilaya]] ya Shirikisho ambayo wao alisema kuwa Microsoft alikuwa vunja mkataba uliosainiwa mwaka 1994, na akaomba mahakama kusitisha bundling ya Internet Explorer pamoja Windows. <ref name="keyevents"></ref>
 
Mwaka 1998 ilikuwa muhimu katika historia ya Microsoft, Bill Gates na kumteua [[Steve Ballmer]] kama rais wa Microsoft lakini waliobakia kama Mwenyekiti na CEO mwenyewe. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Kampuni iliyotolewa [[Windows 98]], an update to Windows 95 ambayo ilihusisha idadi ya internet-ililenga features na msaada kwa aina mpya ya vifaa. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Tarehe 3 Aprili 2000, hukumu ilikuwa vikitumiwa katika kesi ya [[Marekani v. Microsoft,]] <ref name="usvms"></ref> wito wa kampuni ya "matusi monopol" <ref name="findingsoffact"></ref> na kulazimisha kampuni ya umegawanyika katika vitengo viwili tofauti. Sehemu ya kupindua tawala baadaye rufaa kwa shirikisho mahakamani, na hatimaye makazi na Idara ya Haki za Marekani mwaka 2001.
 
Mwaka 2001, iliyotolewa Microsoft [[Windows XP]], toleo la kwanza kuwa na sifa za encompassed wawili biashara zake na nyumbani bidhaa mistari. Kabla ilitolewa XP, Microsoft alikuwa kudumisha wawili wa [[NT]] na [[9x]] codebase. XP ilianzisha [[graphical]] mpya [[user interface]], wa kwanza tangu Windows mabadiliko kama 95. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> <ref name="MS-XPProFeatures">{{cite web |date=2004-08-25 |url=http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/evaluation/features.mspx |archiveurl=http://web.archive.org/web/20070818081834/http://www.microsoft.com/windowsxp/pro/evaluation/features.mspx |archivedate=2007-08-18 |title=Windows XP Professional Features |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Mwishoni mwa mwaka 2001, pamoja na kutolewa katika [[Xbox]], Microsoft iliingia vingi dola bilioni [[mchezo]] soko [[console]] inaongozwa kwa [[Sony]] na [[Nintendo]]. <ref name="keyevents"></ref> Microsoft wamekutana oron Machi 2004 wakati Antitrust hatua za kisheria dhidi yake aliletwa na [[Umoja]] wa [[Ulaya]] kwa sasa abusing wake kutawaliwa na mfumo wa uendeshaji Windows (tazama [[Ulaya Microsoft Antitrust kesi),]] hatimaye kusababisha hukumu ya kuzalisha matoleo yake mpya Windows XP jukwaa-inayoitwa Windows XP Home Edition N na Windows XP Professional N-kwamba hakuwa pamoja sina [[Windows Media Player]], vilevile faini ya € 497 million ($ 613 milioni). <ref name="CNN-MSfine">{{cite news |url=http://www.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/03/24/microsoft.eu/ |title=Microsoft hit by record EU fine |publisher=[[CNN]] |date=2004-03-25 |accessdate=2006-05-19}}</ref> <ref name="euantitrust"> {{cite web |title=Commission Decision of 24.03.2004 relating to a proceeding under Article 82 of the EC Treaty (Case COMP/C-3/37.792 Microsoft) |publisher=Commission of the European Communities |url=http://ec.europa.eu/comm/competition/antitrust/cases/decisions/37792/en.pdf |date=2004-04-21 |accessdate=August 5 |accessyear=2005 |format=[[PDF]]}} (kutoka EU rasmi website)</ref>
 
=== 2006-hadi leo: Vista na mengine transitions ===
[[Picha:Microsoft_Windows_wordmark.svg|thumb|Alama ya sasa ya Microsoft Windows, kampuni's signature bidhaa.]]
 
Mgawanyiko huu inazalisha Microsoft's centralt bidhaa, Windows uendeshaji wa mfumo. Imekuwa zinazozalishwa katika matoleo mengi, ikiwa ni pamoja [[Windows]] 3.1, Windows 95, Windows 98, Windows 2000, Windows Me, Windows Server 2003, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2008 na [[Windows]] 7. [[IBM compatible]] karibu wote kuja na [[kompyuta binafsi]] Windows preinstalled. Desktop ya sasa ni toleo la Windows Windows 7. Den online service [[MSN]], kabel televisheni ya [[MSNBC]] na Microsoft online magazine ''Slate'' wote ni sehemu ya mgawanyiko huu. ''(Slate'' mara unaopatikana by ''[[The Washington Post]]'' tarehe 21 Desemba, 2004.) Mwishoni mwa 1997, alipewa Microsoft [[Hotmail]], maarufu zaidi [[webmail]] huduma, ambayo rebranded kama "MSN Hotmail." Katika 1999, Microsoft ilianzisha [[MSN Messenger]], an [[snabbmeddelanden]] mteja, ili kushindana na [[Instant]] popular [[AOL]] Mtume. Pamoja na Windows Vista, MSN Messenger akawa [[Windows Live Mtume]]. <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
 
[[Microsoft Visual Studio]] ni kampuni ya seti ya zana na programu [[compilers]]. Programu bidhaa ni GUI-oriented na viungo kwa urahisi na [[Windows API]] s. Programme ya sasa ni [[Visual Studio 2008.]] Uliopita version, [[Visual Studio 2005]] ilikuwa kubwa uboreshaji juu yake aliyemtangulia, Visual Studio.Net 2003, aitwaye baada ya. NET mpango, mpango wa masoko ya Microsoft kifuniko idadi ya teknolojia. Microsoft's ufafanuzi wa. NET inaendelea kufuka. Kama ya 2004,. NET inalenga kurahisisha maendeleo ya Microsoft Windows makao maombi kuwa matumizi ya internet, kwa utplaceringen Microsoft mpya mfumo wa mawasiliano, ''Indigo'' (sasa renamed [[Windows Mawasiliano Foundation]]). Hii ni nia ya kushughulikia baadhi ya masuala awali ilianzisha by Microsoft's DLL design, ambayo ni vigumu, hata haiwezekani katika baadhi ya hali, kusimamia, kufunga multiple versions wa [[programu]] tata [[paket]] juu ya mfumo huo (angalia [[DLL-kuzimu),]] na kutoa zaidi jukwaa maendeleo thabiti kwa wote Windows maombi (se [[Common Language Miundombinu).]] Aidha, Kampuni ilianzisha kuweka mipango ya vyeti kutambua watu ambao wana utaalam katika programu na ufumbuzi wake. Sawa sadaka kutoka [[Cisco, Sun Microsystems, Novell, IBM,]] na [[Oracle Corporation,]] hizi zimeundwa vipimo kubaini ni ndogo seti ya proficiencies katika jukumu maalum; hii inajumuisha watengenezaji ( "[[Microsoft Certified Solution Developer]]"), mfumo / mtandao wachambuzi ( "Microsoft Certified [[Systems Engineer]]"), wakufunzi ( "Microsoft [[Certified Wakufunzi]]") na watendaji ( "Microsoft Certified [[Systems Administrator]]" na "Microsoft Certified [[Database Administrator]]"). <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
Microsoft hutoa Suite wa [[server]] software, wenye jina [[Windows Server System]]. [[Windows Server]] ya mfumo wa uendeshaji kwa mtandao servrar ni msingi wa mfumo wa Windows Server line. [[Management Systems Server]] ya bidhaa ni mkusanyiko wa zana kutoa kijijini-control uwezo, kiraka usimamizi, software usambazaji na vifaa / software inventering. Other server bidhaa pamoja na:
* [[Microsoft Exchange Server]], kwa baadhi ya biashara-oriented [[e-mail]] na Scheduling features;
* [[Small Business Server]], kwa ujumbe na mengine ya biashara ndogo-oriented features; na
* [[Microsoft BizTalk Server]], kwa [[usimamizi wa mchakato wa biashara]]. <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
=== Business Division ===
[[Picha:Microsoft building 17 front door.jpg|thumb|left|Mlango wa mbele ya jengo tarehe 17 kampasi kuu ya kampuni Redmond kampasi.]]
 
Divisheni ya Biashara ya Microsoft inazalisha [[Microsoft Office]], ambayo ni kampuni mstari wa ofisi ya kompyuta. Bidhaa inajumuisha programu [[Neno]] (neno processor), [[Access]] (database Kiuhusiano binafsi maombi), [[Excel]] (a [[spreadsheet]] mpango), [[Outlook]] (Windows [[groupware]] tu, mara nyingi hutumika kwa [[Exchange Server]]), [[PowerPoint]] (presentation software), na [[Publisher]] ( [[desktop publishing software]]). A idadi ya bidhaa nyingine ziliongezwa baadaye na kutolewa wa Ofisi 2003 pamoja Visio, Project, MapPoint, [[InfoPath]] na [[OneNote]]. <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
Utvecklar pia mgawanyiko wa fedha na usimamizi wa biashara kwa makampuni ya software. Bidhaa hizi ni pamoja na bidhaa zinazozalishwa na zamani Business Solutions Group, ambayo iliundwa Aprili 2001 na [[Mkuu]] wa kununua [[Plains]]. Hatimaye, [[Navision]] mara unaopatikana kutoa sawa kuingia soko la Ulaya, kusababisha iliyopangwa kutolewa ya [[Microsoft Dynamics nav]] mwaka 2006. Kundi masoko [[Axapta]] na Suleiman, upishi na masoko yanayofanana, ambayo imepangwa kuwa pamoja na Plains Navision na Mkuu mistari kwenye jukwaa la kawaida inayoitwa [[Microsoft Dynamics]]. <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
=== Burudani na Kitengo Devices ===
Akajaribu Microsoft ina kupanua Windows brand katika masoko mengine mengi, pamoja na bidhaa kama vile [[Windows CE]] kwa [[PDAs]] na wake "Windows-powered" Smartphone bidhaa. Microsoft awali simu soko iliingia kupitia Windows CE kwa [[kifaa handheld]] s, ambayo leo ina maendeleo ndani [[Windows Mkono]] 6. Mwelekeo wa mfumo wa uendeshaji ni juu ya vifaa ambapo OS inaweza kuonekana si moja kwa moja hadi mwisho user, hususan, apparater na magari.
 
Kampuni inazalisha [[MSN TV]], zamani [[WebTV]], makao ya televisheni [[internet Appliance.]] Microsoft kutumiwa kuuza seti-top [[Digital Video Recorder]] (DVR) iitwayo [[UltimateTV]], ambayo rekodi kuruhusiwa watumiaji hadi masaa 35 kutoka programu televisheni [[moja]] kwa [[moja hadi nyumbani]] mtoa [[DirecTV satellite televisheni]]. Hii ilikuwa kuu ushindani katika UK kwa [[Sky British Broadcasting]] 's (BSkyB) SKY + huduma, inayomilikiwa na [[Rupert Murdoch.]] UltimateTV tangu imekuwa imekoma, pamoja DirecTV badala opting kwa soko DVRs kutoka [[TiVo]] Inc kabla baadaye byte [[DVR]] yao wenyewe brand. <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
Microsoft anauza [[kompyuta michezo]] kuwa kukimbia tarehe Windows persondatorer, pamoja na vyeo kama vile ''[[Age of Empires, Halo]]'' na ''[[Microsoft Flight Simulator]]'' mfululizo. Ni inazalisha mstari wa [[kazi]] s [[akimaanisha]] kuwa ni pamoja na [[huru]] s [[atlases]], chini ya jina ''[[Encarta]]''. [[Eneo la Microsoft]] majeshi free premium na reja michezo ambapo wachezaji wanaweza kushindana dhidi ya kila mmoja na katika mashindano mengine.
Mmoja wa [[Bill Gates]] 'ufunguo maono kwa kampuni ilikuwa na "workstation kupata programu zetu kwenye mbio kila dawati na hatimaye katika kila nyumbani." <ref name="findingsoffact">{{cite web |author=Thomas Penfield Jackson, U.S. District Judge |url=http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/f3800/msjudgex.htm |title=U.S. vs. Microsoft findings of fact |publisher=U.S. Department of Justice |date=1999-11-05 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref> Quote from ComputerWorld 1985 (7 / 22); kuna bado ni kama hakuna kumbukumbu matumizi ya kauli ya maono haya kabla ya 1985. Milango aliandika katika ''The Road Ahead kwamba alikuwa 'kuongozwa na imani kwamba ingekuwa kompyuta chombo muhimu katika kila ofisi desktop na katika kila nyumbani'.'' </ref> <ref name="Bishop2004-09-23">{{cite news |url=http://blog.seattlepi.nwsource.com/microsoft/archives/003469.html |title=The rest of the motto |date=September 23, 2004 |accessdate=2008-08-18 |publisher=[[Seattle Post-Intelligencer]]|first=Todd |last=Bishop |work=Todd Bishop's Microsoft Blog}}</ref>
 
Microsoft has footholds katika masoko mengine badala ya mifumo ya uendeshaji na ofisi Suites, pamoja na mali kama vile televisheni kabel [[MSNBC]] mtandao, [[MSN]] Web portal, na multimedia [[Microsoft Encarta]] huru. Masoko wa kampuni pia bidhaa zote [[vifaa vya kompyuta]] kama [[Microsoft kipanya]] na [[nyumbani]] bidhaa za [[burudani]] kama vile [[Xbox, Xbox 360, Zune]] na [[MSN TV.]] <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
== User utamaduni ==
Kampuni inaendeshwa na Bodi ya Wakurugenzi likijumuisha watu kumi, linaloundwa na kampuni ya zaidi nje (kama ni kimila kwa makampuni [[kufanyiwa biashara hadharani]]). Hali kwa wajumbe wa [[bodi ya wakurugenzi]] ni: [[Steve Ballmer]], [[James Fedha]], Jr [[Dina Dublon]], [[Bill Gates]], [[Raymond Gilmartin]], [[Reed Hastings]], [[Daudi Marquardt]], [[Charles Noski]], [[Helmut Panke]], na [[Jon Shirley]]. <ref name="MSPR-Board">{{cite press release |url=http://www.microsoft.com/presspass/bod/bod.aspx|title=Microsoft Board of Directors|work=PressPass|publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Kumi ni wajumbe wa bodi kuchaguliwa kila mwaka ifikapo mwaka wanahisa mkutano, na wale ambao hawapati kura wengi lazima kuwasilisha kujiuzulu kwa bodi, ambayo hatimaye kuchagua kama au kukubali kujiuzulu. Kuna kamati tano ndani ya bodi ambayo kusimamia masuala maalum zaidi. Kamati hizi ni pamoja na Kamati ya Ukaguzi, ambayo Hushughulikia masuala ya uhasibu na ukaguzi wa kampuni pamoja na kuripoti; Kamati ya Compensation ambayo laadhimisha fidia kwa Mkurugenzi Mtendaji na wafanyakazi wengine wa kampuni; Kamati ya Fedha, ambayo Hushughulikia masuala ya kifedha kama vile inapendekeza muunganiko na ununuzi ; ya Utawala na Kuteua kamati, ambayo Hushughulikia masuala mbalimbali ikiwa ni pamoja na kuteuliwa ushirika wa bodi, na mhakiki Antitrust Kamati, ambayo majaribio ya kuzuia kutoka kampuni ya mazoea [[Antitrust]] kukiuka sheria. <ref name="MS-Govern">{{cite web |title=Microsoft Corporation Corporate Governance Guidelines |url=http://www.microsoft.com/about/companyinformation/corporategovernance/guidelines.mspx |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=October 9 |accessyear=2005 }}</ref> <ref name="MS-ProxyStmt">{{cite web |title=Microsoft 2005 Proxy Statement |publisher=Microsoft |url=http://www.microsoft.com/msft/reports/proxy2005.mspx |accessdate=2008-08-18 }}</ref>
 
Kuna vipengele vingine kadhaa na muundo wa kampuni ya Microsoft. Kwa masuala duniani kuna Mtendaji wa Timu, linaloundwa na maafisa wa kampuni ya kumi na sita duniani kote, ambayo ni kushtakiwa kwa majukumu mbalimbali ikiwa ni pamoja na kuhakikisha wafanyakazi kuelewa Microsoft's utamaduni wa biashara. Maafisa wa kumi na sita ya Executive Team ni pamoja na Mwenyekiti na [[Afisa Software Hunting]], the CEO, [[Wakili Mkuu]] na Katibu wa [[CFO]], makamu wa kikundi mwandamizi na marais kutoka vitengo vya biashara, na Mkurugenzi Mtendaji wa Ulaya, Mashariki ya Kati na Afrika mikoa; na vichwa vya Worldwide Sales, Masoko na Huduma; Human Resources; na Corporate Masoko. Aidha Timu ya Mtendaji pia kuna Staff Corporate Council, ambayo Hushughulikia wafanyakazi wote kuu utendaji wa kampuni, ikiwa ni pamoja na kuidhinisha kampuni sera. The Corporate Staff Baraza linaloundwa na wafanyakazi kutoka katika Sheria na Corporate Affairs, Finance, Human Resources, Corporate Marketing, na Mkakati na Sera Advanced makundi saa Microsoft. Watendaji wengine ni pamoja na Marais na Makamu wa Marais wa bidhaa mbalimbali divisions, viongozi wa sehemu za masoko, na [[CTO]], miongoni mwa wengine. <ref name="MS-Citizenship">{{cite web |title=Microsoft 2004 Citizenship Report |url=http://www.microsoft.com/about/corporatecitizenship/us/default.mspx |publisher=Microsoft|accessdate=October 9 |accessyear=2005 }}</ref> <ref name="2005annual"></ref>
 
=== Stock ===
[[Picha:MSFT 5years.PNG|frame|right|Microsoft Corp (Powered: MSFT) hisa bei (source: ZenoBank.com)]]
Wakati kampuni ilipata kushika nafasi yake [[IPO]] Machi 13, 1986, bei ya [[hisa]] ilikuwa dola 21. <ref name="stockfaq">{{cite web |title=Microsoft Stock and Shareholder Frequently Asked Questions
|url=http://www.microsoft.com/msft/FAQ/stock.mspx |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2008-08-18 }}</ref> <ref name="stocksheet"> {{cite web |title=Microsoft stock price spreadsheet from Microsoft investor relations |url=http://download.microsoft.com/download/d/a/7/da7e8eca-4410-4475-a211-03327408b655/msftpricehist.xls |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2008-08-18 }} [[(Microsoft Excel]] format)</ref> Kwa karibu ya [[biashara]] ya kwanza ya [[siku]], alikuwa hisa closed at $ 28, sawa na senti 9.7 wakati kurekebishwa kwa kampuni tisa ya kwanza ya [[hisa splits.]] <ref name="stocksheet"></ref> Awali ensuing karibu na kupanda katika miaka inayofuata alifanya Microsoft wafanyakazi kadhaa mamilioni. <ref name="stockrich"></ref> Bei ya hisa peaked mwaka 1999 saa kote US $ 119 (US $ 60.928 kujirekebisha kwa splits). <ref name="stocksheet"></ref> Wakati kampuni ina hisa splits alikuwa tisa ya kwanza ambayo ilikuwa Septemba 18, 1987, kampuni kuanza hawakuwa inatoa [[utdelningen]] mpaka Januari 16, 2003. <ref name="stocksheet"></ref> <ref name="dividendfaq">{{cite web |title=Dividend Frequently Asked Questions |url=http://www.microsoft.com/msft/FAQ/dividend.mspx |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2008-08-18 }}</ref> The dividend kwa [[mwaka]] 2003 ilikuwa senti nane per [[share,]] ikifuatiwa na utdelningen ya senti kumi na sita kwa kushirikisha baadae mwaka. <ref name="dividendfaq"></ref> Kampuni switched kutoka kila mwaka na robo mwaka magawio mwaka 2005, kwa senti nane per robo sehemu [[maalum]] kwa [[wakati mmoja payout]] ya dola tatu kwa kushiriki kwa robo ya pili ya mwaka wa fedha. <ref name="dividendfaq"></ref>
 
Licha ya kampuni tisa kupasuliwa tarehe 2 Februari, 2003 na baadaye kuongezeka utdelningen payouts, bei ya Microsoft's hisa kiasi kikubwa alibakia steady kwa miaka kadhaa ijayo, <ref name="dividendfaq"></ref> <ref name="Yahoo-MSFTchart">{{cite web |title=Yahoo MSFT stock chart |url=http://finance.yahoo.com/q/bc?s=MSFT&t=my |publisher=Yahoo Finance |accessdate=December 13 |accessyear=2008 }}<br />* {{cite web |title=MSN Money MSFT chart with dividend and split info |url=http://moneycentral.msn.com/investor/charts/chartdl.aspx?Symbol=MSFT&C8=2005&CE=0&C5=10&C6=2005&C7=10&D9=1&C9=2&D0=1&CF=1&D4=1&D5=0&D3=0&ShowChtBt=Refresh+Chart&CP=0&PT=9 |publisher=MSN Money |accessdate=December 13 |accessyear=2008 }}<br />* {{cite web |author=Ina Fried and Scott Ard |url=http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-148474.html?tag=st.prev |title=Gates stepping down from full-time Microsoft role, page 2 |date=June 15, 2006 |publisher=ZDNet News |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> na kupanda kwa bei ya hisa kote release ya Windows Vista na kuanguka wakati wa [[mgogoro wa kiuchumi]] wa 2008.
 
=== Diversity ===
Mwaka 2005, Microsoft amepokea 100% rating katika Corporate Usawa Index kutoka [[Kampeni]] ya [[Haki za Binadamu]], en ranking ya makampuni na jinsi maendeleo ya shirika deems sera zao kuhusu [[LGBT]] (lesbian, gay, Bisexual na transsexual) wafanyakazi. Partly kupitia kazi ya [[wasenge na Wasagaji]] Wafanyakazi saa Microsoft (GLEAM) kundi, Microsoft aliongeza [[kujieleza jinsia]] yake kutobagua sera mwezi Aprili 2005, na Haki za Binadamu Kampeni uppdaterade Microsoft's Corporate Usawa Index kutoka sin 86% rating mwaka 2004 hadi sina sasa 100% rating. <ref name="HumanRights-EqIndex">{{cite web |title=Corporate Equality Index: A Report Card on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender Equality in Corporate America |year=2005 |url=http://www.hrc.org/TemplateRedirect.cfm?Template=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=28841 |publisher=Human Rights Campaign Foundation |accessdate=October 13 |accessyear=2005 |format=PDF }}</ref> <ref name="MS-GLEAM">{{cite web |title=Gay and Lesbian Employees at Microsoft (GLEAM) |url=http://www.microsoft.com/about/diversity/programs/dac/gleam.mspx |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2006-06-26}}</ref>
 
Mwezi Aprili 2005, Microsoft alipokea hela avskaffandet kukosolewa kwa msaada kutoka Washington jimbo HB 1515 muswada kwamba ingekuwa kupanuliwa hali ya sasa ya sheria za kutobagua watu kwa Alternate riktlinjer ngono. <ref name="HumanRights-HB1515">{{cite press release |title= HRC Expresses profound disappointment with Microsoft's withdrawal of support for H.B. 1515 |url=http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Press_Room&CONTENTID=26588&TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm |publisher=Human Rights Campaign Foundation |date=April 22, 2005 |accessdate=2008-08-18 }}</ref> Microsoft alikuwa mshitakiwa wa wakiinama na shinikizo kutoka mitaa kiinjili mchungaji [[Ken Hutcherson]] ambaye alikutana na mwandamizi Microsoft mtendaji na kutishia kususia kitaifa ya Microsoft's bidhaa. <ref name="Kaushik"> [http://www.thestranger.com/seattle/Content?oid=21105 Microsoft mapango tarehe Gay Haki]</ref> Microsoft pia yateremsha walikuwa kulipa kiinjili kihafidhina [[Ralph Reed]] 's kampuni Century Mikakati ya $ 20,000 kila mwezi ada. <ref name="Jamieson"> [http://seattlepi.nwsource.com/jamieson/221805_robert27.html Malipo ya Reed Sully Microsoft]</ref> Zaidi ya wafanyakazi 2,000 saini ombi kuuliza Microsoft ili reinstate msaada kwa muswada huo. <ref name="changemind">{{cite news |url=http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/may2005/tc20050512_7358_tc024.htm |title=How Microsoft Changed Its Mind |publisher=[[BusinessWeek]] |date=2005-05-12 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Chini wakali wawili upinzani kutoka nje na ndani ya kampuni kuta, Microsoft waliamua kuunga mkono muswada tena Mei 2005. <ref name="changemind"></ref> <ref name="HumanRights-MSDecision">{{cite press release |title=Microsoft makes right decision renewing support for workplace fairness |url=http://www.hrc.org/Template.cfm?Section=Press_Room&CONTENTID=26803&TEMPLATE=/ContentManagement/ContentDisplay.cfm |publisher=Human Rights Campaign Foundation |date=May 6, 2005 |accessdate=2008-08-18 }}</ref>
 
Microsoft hires wafanyakazi wengi wa kigeni kama vile yale ya ndani, na ni mpinzani wa frispråkig cap on [[H1B viza]] s, ambayo kuruhusu makampuni katika kuajiri Marekani kwa baadhi ya wafanyakazi wa kigeni. Bill Gates juu ya madai ya cap H1B visa kufanya kuwa vigumu kwa kuajiri wafanyakazi wa kampuni, inayosema "I'd shaka kujikwamua ya H1B cap." <ref name="MarkRoy">{{cite web |url=http://www.internetnews.com/bus-news/article.php/3500986 |title=Gates Rakes Congress on H1B Visa Cap|author=Roy Mark |publisher=internetnews.com|date=2005-04-27 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref>
Mwaka 1987, Microsoft antog alama yake ya sasa, kinachojulikana ''"[[Pac-Man]]"'' Rangi", iliyoundwa na Scott Baker. Kulingana na Machi 1987 ''Computer Reseller News Magazine,'' "alama mpya, katika Helvetica italiki typeface, ana slash kati ya ''o'' na kusisitiza ''s"'' laini "sehemu ya jina na kuwasilisha mada na kasi." Dave Norris, a Microsoft mfanyakazi, ulianza an intern joke kampeni ya kuokoa alama ya zamani, ambayo ilikuwa ya kijani, katika uppercase wote, na featured a fanciful barua ''O,'' nicknamed ya ''blibbet,'' lakini ilikuwa kuondolewa. <ref name="Osterman2005-07-14">{{cite web |url=http://blogs.msdn.com/larryosterman/archive/2005/07/14/438777.aspx |title=Remember the blibbet |publisher=Larry Osterman's WebLog |author=Larry Osterman |date=July 14, 2005 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref>
 
Microsoft's alama na ''"Your potential.'' ''Passion yetu.'' "Tagline chini ya shirika kuu jina, ni misingi ya kaulimbiu Microsoft alikuwa kama wa 2008. Mwaka 2002, kampuni ilianza kutumia alama katika Marekani na hatimaye ilianza TV kampeni na kaulimbiu, kubadilishwa kutoka zilizotangulia Tagline ya [["wapi unataka kwenda leo?."|''"wapi unataka kwenda leo?."'']] <ref name="wherego1"></ref> <ref name="potentialpassion1"></ref> <ref name="Reimer">{{cite web |url=http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20060123-6031.html |title=Microsoft set to launch new marketing campaign |publisher=Ars Technica |author=Jeremy Reimer |date=2006-01-23 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref>
 
<div class="center">
 
* Microsoft's newest kujenga kampasi zake katika [[Hyderabad, India]] ilijengwa kama rafiki wa mazingira muundo. Microsoft Utafiti Uhindi yaliyoendelea mradi inayoitwa [[Digital Green]] mwaka 2008, ambayo inalenga kuwaelimisha wakulima nchini India juu ya jinsi ya kutumia azolla - en viumbe Fern kulishwa kwa ng'ombe, maziwa uliongezeka kujitoa uzalishaji. <ref> ''The New York Times'' Microsoft Goes Afield na Masomo ya Mbali Emerging Markets. " Vance, Ashlee. 27 Oktoba 2008.</ref> <ref> [http://www.microsoft.com/India/MSIDC/life/campus.aspx Microsoft Uhindi Development Center]</ref>
* Microsoft has fasas nje matumizi ya plastiki [[polyvinyl hidrojeni]] katika vifungashio wake, kutokana na wasiwasi wa mazingira, na vitendo match kwa washindani. <ref name="PVC"></ref> Polyvinyl chloride, pia inajulikana kama PVC au vinyl, inaweza kutolewa Sumu ndani ya mazingira wakati wa uzalishaji na kama ni kuchomwa moto baada ya uzalishaji. Sumu hizi ni syntetisk kemikali ambazo zinaweza wanaohusishwa na kansa, na masuala ya uzazi na kinga system. Katika muda wa miezi sita, aliweza Microsoft kuondokana takriban £ 361.000 wa polyvinyl ufungaji na ufungaji transitioning kwa utilizing [[polyetentereftalat]] plastiki (PET). Kampuni ya kuchunguza madai kuwa eco-friendly ufungaji alifanya ya nafaka Wanga, sukari, na mafuta ya mboga. <ref name="PVC"> [http://news.cnet.com/Microsoft-to-phase-out-toxic-plastics/2100-1041_3-5985712.html?hhTest=1 ^ Microsoft kwa awamu nje sumu plastiki - CNET News.com]</ref>
* Kampuni ina imewekwa juu [[solpaneler]] 2000 Guinea {{convert|30000|sqft|m2}} juu ya majengo yake katika Bonde la Silicon kampasi yake. <ref> [http://solar.rain-barrel.net/microsoft-solar/ Microsoft Upashajijoto - Solar Times]</ref> Hizi paneler 480 kilowatts ugavi wa nguvu, kuzalisha wastani wa asilimia 15 ya jumla ya nishati zinahitajika kwa kampasi na kukatwa ya [[gasses chafu]] ambayo vinginevyo kuwa imetungwa na ugavi kwamba nguvu. <ref name="news1"></ref>
* Microsoft imejenga mmoja wa walimwengu kubwa basi binafsi system (ya "Connector") kama molekuli transiteringssystem Seattle katika eneo hilo. Wafanyakazi, interns, wachuuzi na makandarasi wanahimizwa kutumia transit molekuli mikoa umma (kama [[King County Metro]] na [[Sound Transit)]] na ruzuku nauli. Kwa juu-kampasi usafirishaji, ya "Shuttle Connect" inatumia flotta kubwa hybrid magari, kuokoa juu galons ya mafuta 20,000 kwa mwaka. <ref name="news1"></ref> <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.microsoft.com/environment/our_commitment/articles/alternative_commuting.aspx |title=Fostering Alternative Ways to Commute at Microsoft |publisher=Microsoft |accessdate=2009-07-06}}</ref>
* Kampuni inatumia mfumo wa umwagiliaji katika kampasi Redmond wake kwamba mabadiliko ya hali ya hewa sinnena ujao, kuokoa galoni milioni 11 za maji kwa mwaka. <ref> [http://www.microsoft.com/environment/our_commitment/articles/building_practices.aspx Microsoft Mazingira:: Microsoft Smart na Endelevu Building Practices]</ref> Kampuni imepokea fedha vyeti kutoka Marekani Green Building Baraza's [[LEED]] mpango kwa mazingira design. <ref name="news1"></ref>
* Mwanzo katika Juni 2008, Microsoft has aliongeza boji Bins cafeterias yote juu yake kampasi Redmond, na badala wote polystyrene mabamba na vikombe na plastiki flatware na biodegradable mbadala. Katika miezi miwili ya kwanza baada ya mpito, kampasi ya Redmond kupunguzwa zake zisizo boji trash pato kwa 50%.
 
 
=== Kupambana na ushindani ===
Tangu miaka ya 1980, Microsoft imekuwa mwelekeo wa kiasi utata katika sekta ya kompyuta. <ref name="ecis-ms-history"> {{cite web|url=http://www.ecis.eu/documents/Finalversion_Consumerchoicepaper.pdf |title=Microsoft A History of Anticompetitive Behavior and Consumer Harm |accessdate=2009-05-25 |date=2009-03-31 |format=PDF |publisher=European Committee for Interoperable Systems }}</ref> Wengi wa upinzani imekuwa mbinu yake ya biashara, mara nyingi hufafanuliwa kwa mbiu [["kukumbatia, kupanua na kuizima."]] Microsoft awali konkurrerande unadhihirisha a standard au bidhaa, kisha inaenea kwa mazao yao wenyewe ambayo ni toleo kisha maunzi na standard, ambayo kwa muda extinguishes ushindani kwamba hana au hawawezi kutumia Microsoft's new version. <ref name="eee">{{cite web |url=http://news.zdnet.com/2100-9595_22-100925.html |title=Intel exec: MS wanted to 'extend, embrace and extinguish' competition |author=Will Rodger |publisher=[[ZDNet]] News |date=1998-11-08 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> Haya na mbinu nyingine yamesababisha lawsuits kuletwa na makampuni na serikali, na mabilioni ya dola domar dhidi ya Microsoft. <ref name="Orlowski2004-03-05">{{cite press release |url=http://www.burst.com/new/newsevents/pressrelease007.htm |title=Microsoft Corp. Licenses Burst.com Patents & Settles Suit |publisher=Burst.com Inc. |date=March 11, 2005 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}<br />* {{cite web |author=Andrew Orlowski |date=2004-03-05 |publisher=theregister.co.uk |url=http://www.theregister.co.uk/2004/03/05/eolas_web_patent_nullified/ |title=Eolas' web patent nullified |accessdate=2006-05-18}}<br />* {{cite web |author=Tony Dennis |url=http://www.theinquirer.net/en/inquirer/news/2002/12/24/sendo--microsoft--it-all-ends-in-tears |title=Sendo & Microsoft — it all ends in tears |date=2002-12-24 |publisher=TheInquirer.net |accessdate=2006-05-18}}<br />* {{cite news |url=http://www.infoworld.com/article/05/12/07/HNmicrosoftfined_1.html |title=Update: Microsoft fined $32M by South Korea |author=Dan Nystedt |publisher=IDG News Service |date=2005-12-07 |accessdate=2008-08-18}}</ref> <ref name="usvms"></ref> <ref name="euantitrust"></ref> Katika Januari 2009, [[Opera Software ASA]] filed malalamiko kwa Tume ya Ulaya na kusema kuwa Microsoft's integration ya [[Internet Explorer]] na makao [[Windows]] kompyuta binafsi, ni ukiukaji wa sheria za Ulaya ushindani. <ref name="Windows 7 Articles">{{cite web |url=http://w7info.com/articles/2009/01/windows-7-bundled-with-firefox-chrome-or-safari/ |title=Windows 7 Bundled with Firefox, Chrome, or Safari?|publisher=Windows 7 Info |year=2009 |accessdate=2009-01-28 |author=Kenneth M Pennington}}</ref>
 
=== Uhuru na faragha ===
* [[Orodha ya Microsoft Office mipango]]
 
== kumbukumbu. ==
{{reflist|2}}
 
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