Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Rais wa Marekani"

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{{Infobox Political post
|post = President
|body = the<br/>United States of America
|insignia = Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of America.svg
|insigniasize = 100px
|insigniacaption = [[Seal of the President of the United States|Official seal]]
|imagesize = 165px
|image = Official_portrait_of_Barack_Obama.jpg
|incumbent = [[Barack Obama]]
|incumbentsince = January 20, 2009
|style = The Honorable<br><small>(Within the U.S.)</small><br>His Excellency<br><small>(Outside the U.S.)</small>
|residence = [[White House]]
|termlength = Four years, renewable once
|formation = [[Constitution of the United States|U.S. Constitution]]<br/>March 4, 1789
|inaugural = [[George Washington]]<br/>April 30, 1789
|website = [http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/ whitehouse.gov/president]
}}
-->
'''Rais wa Marekani''' ni [[mkuu wa nchi]] na [[kiongozi wa serikali]] ya [[Marekani]] na ni rasmi juu ya kisiasa katika Umoja wa Mataifa kwa kuathiriwa na kutambuliwa. Rais analiongoza [[tawi]] la [[serikali]] ya [[shirikisho]] na ni mmoja wa wanaochaguliwa katika uchaguzi wa kitaifa (mwingine akiwa [[makamu]] wa [[rais wa Marekani).]] <ref> [http://www.whitehouse.gov/our_government/executive_branch/ serikali yetu • Mtendaji wa Tawi,] The White House</ref>
 
Kati ya mamlaka na majukumu mengine, [[Ibara ya II ya Katiba ya Marekani]] inampa jukumu rais kutumikia "uaminifu nitafanya" shirikisho sheria, humfanya rais [[kamanda mkuu]] wa [[majeshi]], inaruhusu rais kuteua watendaji na maafisa wa mahakama na [[ushauri na ridhaa]] ya [[kamati]] na inaruhusu rais ruzuku [[anawasamehe na reprieves.]] Kutokana na Marekani 'sasa kama [[superpower]] kukaa tu, rais wa Marekani ni jumla kuonekana kama [[mtu mwenye nguvu zaidi katika dunia.]] <ref>{{cite news |author= Michael Noer and Nicole Perlroth|title=The World's Most Powerful People |work=[[Forbes]] |page= |date=11 November 2009 |accessdate=2009-11-15 |url= http://www.forbes.com/2009/11/11/worlds-most-powerful-leadership-power-09-people_land.html}}</ref>
 
 
Rais ni [[moja]] na watu [[waliochaguliwa]] kupitia [[Electoral College]] kwa muda wa miaka minne. Tangia mwaka 1951, utawala wa marais umemekuwa ni mihula miwili [[kutokana na Marekebisho ya katiba ya ishirini-na mbili .]] [[watu Arobaini na tatu]] wamekuwa rais kwa [[kuchaguliwa ]] na kuhudumia jumla ya mihula hamsini na sita ya muda wa miaka isio zidi minne <ref name="the presidency"> {{cite web|title=The Executive Branch|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/our_government/executive_branch/|publisher=[[Whitehouse.gov]]|accessdate=2009-01-27}} [[Grover Cleveland]] aliwahi mbili mfululizo yasiyo ya sheria na kuhesabiwa kama wote wawili ni ya 22 na 24 rais. Kwa sababu hii, baada ya marais wote 23 listing rasmi yao iliongezeka kwa moja.</ref> Tarehe 20 Januari 2009, [[Barack Obama]] alichaguliwa kuwa [[rais wa arobaini]] na [[nne, na sasa.]]
 
{{TOClimit|3}}
 
==Asili==
[[File:Flag_of_the_President_of_the_United_States_of_America.svg|thumb|left|Ya Bendera ya Rais wa Marekani]]
Mwaka 1783, [[Mkataba ya Paris]] iliwacha Marekani huru kujitegemea na yenye amani, lakini ilikuwa na muundo wa kiserikali duni. [[kongamano la Pili la Congress]] lilikuwa limeanda [[artiklarna wa Shirikisho]] mwakani 1777, kuelezea shirikisho la kudumu, lakini kwa kuipa Congress-uwezo mdogo ki fedha wa kuhakikisha kuwa maazimio yake yangetekelezwa. hii inaonyesha mtazamo wa kipindi cha Mapinduzi, na mfumo mpya wa Marekani uliundwa ili kuzuia kupanda kwa jeuri Marekani.
 
Hata hivyo, wakati wa [[unyogovu wa kiuchumi ]] kutokana na kuanguka kwa [[dola]] ya [[bara]] kufuatia [[Mapinduzi American ,]] uwezekano wa serikali ya Marekani ulitishiwa na machafuko ya kisiasa katika majimbo kadhaa, juhudi za wadeni kutumia serikali maarufu kufuta madeni yao, na kutoweza dhahiri [[ Congress]] ya kukomboa wakastahiki [[majukumu]] ya umma wakati wa vita. Bunge pia haikuweza kuonekana kuwa jukwaa la uzalishaji ushirikiano kati ya Marekani kuhimiza biashara na maendeleo ya kiuchumi. Katika kukabiliana na hayo [[Mkataba ya Katiba ]] yalikutana, na nia ya kurekebisha makala ya ushirikisho, lakini hatimaye ilianza rasimu ya mfumo mpya wa serikali kwamba itakuwa ni pamoja na mtendaji mkuu mwenye nguvu wakati ukiendeleza kontroller na cheki walizodhani kuwa muhimu vizuizi Imperial yeyote tabia katika ofisi ya Rais.
 
Watu ambao rais juu ya Continental Congress wakati wa kipindi cha Mapinduzi chini ya Shirikisho Articles alikuwa na cheo cha [["Rais wa Marekani katika Congress Alipowakusanya,"]] mara nyingi walioteuliwa na "Rais wa Marekani". Ofisi alikuwa mtendaji tofauti kidogo nguvu. 1788 na kuridhiwa ya Katiba, tawi mtendaji tofauti mara umba, wakiongozwa na rais wa Marekani.
 
A rais mtendaji wa mamlaka chini ya Katiba, hasira na kontroller na mizani ya mahakama na sheria ya shirikisho ya matawi ya serikali, mara kadhaa iliyoundwa kwa kutatua matatizo ya kisiasa kwa taifa ya vijana na baadaye wanatarajia changamoto, bado wakati kuzuia kuinuka ya autocrat.
 
==Mamlaka na wajibu==
 
===Kifungu mimi jukumu ubunge===
Nguvu ya kwanza tilldelas rais na [[Marekani Katiba]] ni sheria nguvu ya rais veto. The [[Presentment Klausul]] inahitaji kupitishwa kwa muswada yoyote [[Congress]] kuwakilishwa mbele ya rais inaweza kuwa sheria. Mara baada ya sheria imekuwa yaliyowasilishwa, rais ana chaguzi tatu:
 
# Ishara lagstiftningen; muswada kisha inakuwa sheria.
# Veto ya sheria na kurudi kwa Congress, akielezea umuhimu wowote; muswada doesn't kuwa sheria, isipokuwa kila House wa Congress kwa kura ya veto override na theluthi mbili ya kura.
# Kuchukua hatua yoyote. Katika mfano huu, rais wala dalili wala vetoes sheria. Baada ya siku 10, bila kuhesabu Dominika, wawili iwezekanavyo matokeo ya kuibuka:
#* Kama bado ni ulioitishwa Congress, muswada inakuwa sheria.
#* Kama Congress has iliahirishwa, hivyo kuzuia kurudi kwa sheria, muswada kuwa haina sheria. Hii ni matokeo ya mwisho inayojulikana kama [[pocket veto.]]
 
 
Mwaka 1996, Congress alijaribu kubadilisha rais wa kura ya turufu na [[Veto Line Item Act.]] Inayofulizwa lagstiftning rais kutia saini muswada wa matumizi yoyote katika sheria wakati samtidigt bevarar kutumia vitu fulani ndani ya muswada huo, hasa matumizi yoyote mpya, kiasi cha omfattande krisåtgärder yoyote kutumia, au yeyote mwezi mdogo wa kodi ya faida. Mara rais alikuwa stricken ya item, Congress ingeweza kupitisha kwamba kipengele fulani tena. Kama rais kisha vetoed sheria mpya, Congress ingeweza override ya kura ya turufu kwa maana yake ya kawaida, theluthi mbili ya kura zote za nyumba. [[Clinton v.|''Clinton v.'' ]] katika [[Jiji la New York,|''Jiji la New York,'' ]] {{ussc|524|417|1998}} [[Marekani]] ilitawala [[Mahakama Kuu]] kama ni alteration kura ya turufu ya kuwa na katiba.
 
===Ibara ya II mtendaji wa mamlaka===
 
====Vita na mamlaka masuala ya kigeni====
[[File:Abraham Lincoln head on shoulders photo portrait.jpg|thumb|upright|Abraham Lincoln, Rais wa 16 wa Marekani ambao mafanikio kulinda Muungano wakati wa American Civil War.]]
Labda muhimu zaidi ya yote ni amri ya mamlaka wa rais wa [[Marekani]] kama [[amiri jeshi mkuu.]] Wakati uwezo wa kutangaza vita ni matamanio constitutionally katika Congress, rais amri na anaongoza jeshi na ni wajibu kwa ajili ya kupanga mkakati wa kijeshi. Ya framers ya Katiba alichukua kikomo huduma kwa rais wa mamlaka kuhusu kijeshi; [[Alexander Hamilton]] anaelezea hili katika [[Federalist No 69:]] {{quote|The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States. ... It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces ... while that [the power] of the British king extends to the DECLARING of war and to the RAISING and REGULATING of fleets and armies, all [of] which ... would appertain to the legislature.<ref>[[Alexander Hamilton|Hamilton, Alexander]]. [http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa69.htm ''The Federalist'' #69] (reposting). Retrieved June 15, 2007.</ref>}} Congress, kwa mujibu wa [[Mamlaka]] ya [[Vita resolution,]] lazima troop deployments idhini yoyote zaidi ya siku 60 katika urefu. Kuongeza, Congress hutoa rais kuangalia kwa nguvu za kijeshi kupitia udhibiti wake wa matumizi ya kijeshi na reglering.
 
 
Pamoja na silaha, ni [[sera ya kigeni]] pia iliyoongozwa na rais. Kupitia [[Idara ya Jimbo]] na [[Idara ya Ulinzi,]] rais ni kuwajibika kwa ajili ya ulinzi wa Wamarekani nje ya nchi na raia wa kigeni katika Umoja wa Marekani. Rais anaamua kutambua mpya kama mataifa na serikali mpya, na negotiates mikataba na mataifa mengine, ambao wanakuwa bindande juu ya Marekani wakati kuidhinishwa na theluthi mbili ya Seneti. Rais inaweza pia kujadili "mtendaji mikataba" na mamlaka ya kigeni ambayo si chini ya Seneti Kipaimara.
 
====Administrative mamlaka====
 
Rais ni [[mtendaji mkuu]] wa Marekani, kuweka naye katika mtendaji mkuu wa tawi la serikali, wajibu ambao ni "take care kuwa sheria kuwa uaminifu aliuawa." Kutimiza wajibu huu, yeye ni aliyopewa udhibiti wa wafanyakazi milioni nne mtendaji wa shirikisho tawi.
 
Mbalimbali tawi mtendaji uteuzi ni yaliyotolewa na marais. Hadi 6000 mihadi inaweza kufanywa na rais wa inkommande kabla yeye anachukua ofisi na 8000 zaidi zinaweza kufanywa wakati katika ofisi. [[Balozi]] s, wajumbe wa [[Baraza la Mawaziri,]] na maafisa wa shirikisho nyingine, zote kuteuliwa na rais na [["ushauri na ridhaa"]] ya wengi wa Seneti. Appointments alifanya wakati Seneti ni recess ni muda na inaisha mwishoni mwa kikao kijacho wa Sena.
 
Nguvu ya rais moto maafisa mtendaji kwa muda mrefu imekuwa wagomvi kumweka ya mjadala. Ujumla, rais anaweza kuondoa mtendaji rena maafisa saa yake ya busara. <ref> ''Shurtleff v. Marekani,'' {{ussc|189|311|1903}} [[Myers v. Marekani,|''Myers v. Marekani,'' ]] {{ussc|272|52|1926}}</ref> Hata hivyo, Congress unaweza inverka curtail na rais wa mamlaka ya moto makamishina wa kujitegemea tillsynsmyndigheter na baadhi ya maafisa watendaji dhaifu kwa amri. <ref> [[Humphrey's Executor v. Marekani,|''Humphrey's Executor v. Marekani,'' ]] {{ussc|295|602|1935}} na [[Morrison v. Olson,|''Morrison v. Olson,'' ]] {{ussc|487|654|1988}} kwa mtiririko huo.</ref>
 
====Juridical mamlaka====
Rais pia ina uwezo wa kuteua [[majaji shirikisho,]] pamoja na wajumbe wa [[Marekani mahakama ya rufaa]] na [[Mahakama Kuu ya Marekani.]] Hata hivyo, hizi zinahitaji Seneti Kuchaguliwa kufanya uthibitisho na hii inaweza kutoa kuu kikwazo kwa marais ambao wanataka sura zao katika mahakama ya shirikisho fulani msimamo kiitikadi. Lazima rais kuteua majaji kwa [[mahakama ya wilaya ya Marekani]] s, lakini yeye mara nyingi defer to [[Senatorial fadhila]] katika kufanya maamuzi haya. Yeye pia ruzuku na [[msamaha]] s reprieves, kama ni mara nyingi kufanyika kabla ya mwisho wa muda wa urais.
 
[[Mtendaji]] anatoa [[upendeleo]] rais uwezo zuia habari kutoka kwa umma, Congress, na mahakama katika masuala ya usalama wa taifa. [[George Washington]] kwanza alidai upendeleo wakati Congress aliomba kuona [[Chief Justice John Jay]] 's maelezo kutoka mkataba unpopular maafikiano na [[Mkuu wa Uingereza.]] Wakati si ilivyowekwa katika Katiba, au sheria nyingine yoyote, Washington's action umba watangulizi kwa upendeleo. Wakati [[Richard Nixon]] walijaribu kutumia fursa mtendaji kama sababu si kugeuka juu ushahidi subpoenaed Congress wakati [[kashfa ya Watergate,]] Mahakama Kuu ''[[ya Marekani]]'' ilitawala katika ''[[v. Nixon,]]'' {{ussc|418|683|1974}} kwamba hawakuwa mtendaji kuomba upendeleo katika kesi ambapo rais mara kujaribu kuzuia mashitaka ya jinai. Wakati Rais [[Bill Clinton]] alijaribu kutumia fursa mtendaji kuhusu [[kashfa Lewinsky,]] Mahakama Kuu ilitawala katika ''[[Clinton v. Jones,]]'' {{ussc|520|681|1997}} kwamba upendeleo pia hakuweza kutumiwa katika suti ya kiraia. Hizi kesi imara ya [[kisheria]] mtendaji [[watangulizi]] kwamba upendeleo ni halali, the exact kiwango cha upendeleo bado ifafanuliwe waziwazi.
 
====Legislative Msimamizi====
[[File:SOU2007.jpg|thumb|left|Rais George W. Bush kutoa 2007 State of the Union Address, pamoja na Makamu wa Rais Dick Cheney na Spika wa Baraza Nancy Pelosi nyuma yake.]]
 
Wakati rais moja kwa moja hawezi kuanzisha sheria, anaweza kucheza nafasi muhimu sana katika kuchagiza hilo, hasa kama rais wa chama cha siasa ina wengi katika nyumba moja au wote wa Congress. Wakati wanachama wa tawi mtendaji ni marufuku kuanzia samtidigt kuikopesha viti katika bunge, mara nyingi kuandika sheria na kuruhusu Seneta au Mwakilishi kuanzisha ni kwa ajili yao. Rais anaweza kuathiriwa zaidi ya ubunge tawi kupitia ripoti ya mwaka constitutionally mamlaka ya Congress, ambayo inaweza kuwa aidha written au ya mdomo, lakini katika nyakati za kisasa ni [[Jimbo la anwani ya Muungano,]] ambayo mara nyingi rais skisseras ubunge mapendekezo kwa mwaka ujao.
 
Kulingana na [[Ibara ya II, kifungu 3, Klausul 2]] ya Katiba, rais anaweza kuitisha aidha au wote nyumba za Congress. Kinyume, kama nyumba zote mbili kushindwa kukubaliana juu ya tarehe ya maahirisho, rais anaweza kuteua tarehe ya Congress adjourn.
 
==Uteuzi mchakato==
[[File:Gilbert Stuart Williamstown Portrait of George Washington.jpg|thumb|upright|George Washington, Rais wa kwanza wa Umoja wa Mataifa ya Amerika]]
 
===Kustahiki===
[[Kifungu II, Section 1, Klausul 5]] ya [[Katiba]] anger sifa kuu lazima mmoja kustahili ofisi ya rais. En rais lazima:
 
*[[amezaliwa]] kuwa [[raia]] wa [[asili ya Marekani;]] <ref> Nje-kuzaliwa Wamarekani ambao walikuwa raia wakati Katiba ilipitishwa pia walikuwa wanaotafuta kuwa rais, ilitoa alikutana na umri wao na mahitaji ya kuishi. Hata hivyo, hii posho tangu kuwa obsolete.</ref>
*vara minst thelathini na tano miaka;
*wamekuwa [[mkazi]] wa kudumu [[katika Umoja wa Mataifa]] kwa angalau miaka kumi.
 
Mtu ambaye hukutana sifa hapo juu bado ni kuikopesha awe hana halali kutoka ofisi ya rais chini yoyote ya masharti yafuatayo:
 
*Chini ya [[Ishirini Marekebisho ya pili,]] hakuna mtu anaweza kustahili kuchaguliwa rais zaidi ya mara mbili. Wa Twenty-pili Marekebisho anges pia kwamba kama mtu yeyote wanaotafuta mtumishi kama rais au kaimu rais kwa zaidi ya miaka miwili ya muda ambayo mtu wengine wanaotafuta alichaguliwa rais, basi zamani anaweza tu kuchaguliwa rais mara moja. Scholars hawakubaliani kama mtu yeyote tena kustahili kuchaguliwa rais angeweza kuchaguliwa [[makamu wa rais,]] enligt yaliyowekwa ya sifa chini ya [[Marekebisho Twelfth.]] <ref> Angalia: {{cite journal|last=Peabody|first=Bruce G.|last2=Gant|first2=Scott E.|title=The Twice and Future President: Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment|journal=Minnesota Law Review|volume=83|issue=565|publisher=Minnesota Law Review|location=Minneapolis, MN|date=1999}} mengine, tazama: {{cite journal|last=Albert|first=Richard|title=The Evolving Vice Presidency|journal=Temple Law Review|volume=78|issue=811, at 856–9|publisher=[[Temple University]] of the [[Commonwealth System of Higher Education]]|location=Philadelphia, PA|date=2005}}</ref>
 
*Chini ya [[Kifungu I, Section 3, Klausul 7, Seneti]] ana chaguo, juu ya kushitakiwa, disqualifying hatia ya watu kutoka ofisi ya shirikisho kuikopesha nyingine, pamoja na Urais. <ref> Se [http://www.gpoaccess.gov/constitution/browse2002.html#2002 GPO Annotated Katiba ya Marekani, 2002 Ed.,] Saa 611 &amp; nn.772-73.</ref>
 
*[[Section 3]] chini [[ya Marekebisho ya kumi na nne,]] Katiba inakataza mtu an vinginevyo wanaotafuta kutoka kuwa rais iwapo mtu akaapa kiapo kuunga mkono Katiba, na baadaye waliasi dhidi ya Marekani. Hata hivyo, Congress, na theluthi mbili ya kura za kila nyumba, inaweza kuondoa Kutokuwa na sifa.
 
===Kampeni na kuteuliwa===
Ya kisasa, inaanza kampeni ya urais kabla ya [[uchaguzi]] ya [[msingi,]] ambayo kuu mbili vyama vya siasa kutumia uwanja wa wazi mapema ya wagombea wao [[UTEUZI mikusanyiko ya kitaifa,]] ambapo mafanikio zaidi ni mgombea wa chama alifanya kachaguliwa kwa rais. Vanligtvis, wa chama anachagua mgombea urais wa makamu wa rais kachaguliwa, na hii ni chaguo mpira-iliweka muhuri kwa mkataba.
 
Nominees kushiriki katika [[mijadala televisheni za kitaifa,]] na wakati wa mijadala ya kawaida ni pungufu ya [[Kidemokrasia]] na [[Republican]] nominees, tatu wagombea wa chama inaweza kuwa waalikwa, kama [[Ross Perot]] katika mijadala ya mwaka 1992. Nominees kampeni nchi nzima kueleza maoni yao, kuwashawishi wapiga kura na kukusanya michango. Kubwa ya kisasa mchakato wa uchaguzi ni kushinda na wasiwasi na [[hali gång]] ziara s kupitia mara kwa mara na [[vyombo vya habari]] reklam driver.
 
===Uchaguzi na kiapo===
[[File:US Electoral College Map.PNG|thumb|250px|Ramani ya Marekani kuonyesha idadi ya kura za uchaguzi zilizotengwa kwa kila hali; 270 uchaguzi kura zinazohitajika wengi nje ya 538 jumla.]]
 
Marais waliochaguliwa ni [[moja]] katika Marekani. Idadi ya electors, pamoja inayojulikana kama [[Electoral College,]] teua rasmi rais. [[Siku ya]] tarehe [[ya Uchaguzi,]] wapiga kura katika kila moja ya majimbo na [[wilaya ya Columbia]] kura electors haya. Kila jimbo ni zilizotengwa idadi ya electors, sawa na ukubwa wa ujumbe wake katika Nyumba wawili wa Congress combined. Ujumla, tiketi kwamba wins kura wengi katika hali wins wote kwamba kura ya uchaguzi wa serikali na hivyo ana wake waliochaguliwa electors Slate ya kupiga kura katika Uchaguzi College.
 
Slate ya kushinda ya kukutana saa electors mji mkuu hali yake ya kwanza baada ya Jumatatu ya pili ya Jumatano katika Desemba, kuhusu wiki sita baada ya uchaguzi, kura. Wao kisha kutuma kumbukumbu ya kwamba kura ya Congress. Kura ya electors ni kufunguliwa kwa ameketi makamu wa rais, kaimu katika uwezo wake kama [[Rais wa Seneti]] na kusoma kwa sauti ya [[pamoja]] inkommande [[kikao]] cha bunge, ambayo ilikuwa waliochaguliwa wakati huo huo kama rais.
 
Enligt [[ishirini Marekebisho,]] Rais mandatperiod huanza adhuhuri Januari 20 mwaka uchaguzi yafuatayo. Tidpunkten inayojulikana kama [[INVIGNING Siku]] markerar mwanzo mwaka wa nne upande wa wawili rais na [[makamu]] wa [[rais.]] Kabla ya utekelezaji wa mamlaka ya ofisi ya rais ni constitutionally required [[rais]] kuchukua [[kiapo:]] {{cquote|I do solemnly swear (or [[Affirmation in law|affirm]]) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.<ref>U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 8.</ref>}}
 
Ingawa si required, marais kijadi walitumia [[Biblia]] kuchukua kiapo ya ofisi na suffixed "So help me Mungu!" hadi mwisho wa kiapo. Zaidi, ingawa hakuna sheria inahitaji kuwa ofisi kiapo cha kuwa unasimamiwa na mtu yeyote maalumu, marais ni kijadi katika ameapa kwa [[Jaji Mkuu wa Marekani.]]
 
===Umiliki na mipaka ya muda===
[[File:FDR in 1933.jpg|thumb|upright|[[Franklin D. Roosevelt]] alichaguliwa kwa masharti manne kabla ya kupitishwa kwa Twenty-pili Marekebisho.]]
Muda wa ofisi ya rais na makamu wa rais ni miaka minne. George Washington, rais wa kwanza, kuweka an unofficial watangulizi wa kuwahudumia maneno mawili tu, ambayo baadae marais walimfuata hadi 1940. Kabla [[Franklin D. Roosevelt,]] majaribio katika mrefu wa tatu walikuwa moyo na wafuasi wa [[Ulysses S. Grant]] na [[Theodore Roosevelt,]] wala jitihada hizo wamefanikiwa, hata hivyo. Mwaka 1940, Franklin Roosevelt ulipungua kutafuta tatu mrefu, lakini waliruhusiwa chama wake wa kisiasa na [["rasimu"]] yeye kama mgombea urais wao na hatimaye kuchaguliwa mara tatu mrefu. Mwaka 1941 Marekani akawa kushiriki [[Vita II]] ambayo baadaye wapiga kura lett wateule Roosevelt hadi muhula nne 1944.
 
Baada ya vita, na katika mwitikio Roosevelt's shattering ya watangulizi, wa [[Twenty-pili Marekebisho]] mara ratificerat, barring yeyote kuchaguliwa rais zaidi ya mara mbili au mara moja kama mtu aliwahi kuwa zaidi ya nusu ya rais mwingine muda mrefu. [[Harry S. Truman,]] ambaye alikuwa rais wakati marekebisho antogs, na hivyo kwa marekebisho ya vifungu ruhusa kutoka juu yake, pia walitaka ufupi tatu (a pili kamili) avskaffandet kutoka mrefu kabla [[ya uchaguzi]] wa [[1952.]]
 
Tangu marekebisho's ratificering, marais wanne kuwa aliwahi mbili Matokeo kamili: [[Dwight D. Eisenhower]], [[Ronald Reagan]], [[Bill Clinton]] na [[George W. Bush.]] [[Jimmy Carter]] na [[George HW Bush]] pili wakatafuta mrefu, lakini walikuwa na kushindwa. [[Richard Nixon]] alichaguliwa kwa muda ya pili, lakini alijiuzulu kabla ya kukamilisha hayo. [[Lyndon B. Johnson]] alikuwa rais tu chini ya marekebisho ukastahiki kumtumikia zaidi suala katika jumla mbili, baada ya kutumikia kwa miezi kumi tu zifuatazo [[John F. Kennedy 's kuuawa.]] Hata hivyo, Johnson [[kujiondoa kutoka 1968 Kidemokrasia ya Msingi,]] inashangaza Wamarekani wengi kwa kusema [['Mimi wala kutafuta, na mimi si kukubali, uteuzi wa chama wangu kwa muda mwingine kama rais wako'.]] [[Gerald Ford]] walitaka muda kamili, baada ya kutumikia nje miaka miwili iliyopita na miezi mitano ya pili ya Nixon mrefu, lakini hakuwa kuchaguliwa.
 
===Nafasi au ulemavu===
Vacancies katika ofisi ya rais yanaweza kutokea chini kadhaa iwezekanavyo mazingira: kifo, kujiuzulu na [[kuondolewa kutoka ofisi.]]
 
[[Kifungu II, Section 4]] ya Katiba inaruhusu Baraza la Wawakilishi na maafisa impeach high shirikisho, pamoja na rais, kwa "uhaini, hongo, au nyingine juu ya uhalifu na misdemeanors." [[Kifungu I, Section 3, Klausul]] Seneti [[6]] huwapa nguvu impeached kuondoa maofisa kutoka ofisi, kupewa theluthi mbili ya kura ya hatiani. Marais wawili kuwa hivi sasa imekuwa impeached by the House, [[Andrew Johnson]] mwaka 1868 na [[Bill Clinton]] mwaka 1998. Wala mara hatimaye kuhukumiwa na Seneti; hata hivyo, Johnson kuachiliwa huru kwa kura moja tu.
 
Chini Section 3 ya Ishirini femte Marekebisho, rais huweza kuhamisha rais befogenheter na wajibu till makamu rais ambaye kisha anakuwa [[kaimu rais,]] kwa transmitting taarifa ya [[Spika wa Nyumba]] na [[rais pro tempore|rais ''pro tempore'' ]] inayosema [[ya Seneti]] ya sababu ya uhamisho. Rais ansvarsfrihet wasifu wa mamlaka na wajibu wa rais alipo transmits, kwa wale maafisa wawili, tamko iliyoandikwa na kusema kuwa kuanza. Uhamisho wa nguvu hii inaweza kutokea kwa sababu yoyote rais anser inafaa; mwaka 2002 na tena katika mwaka 2007, Rais [[George W. Bush]] kwa kifupi mamlaka rais alihamishwa Makamu wa Rais [[Dick Cheney.]] Katika kesi zote mbili, hii ilifanyika kwa ajili ya malazi ya matibabu ambayo required Bush utaratibu kuwa sedated; Bush ushuru alirudi baadaye siku hiyo. <ref> ITV, [http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2007/jul/20/usa.dickcheney "Bush colonoscopy ushinzwe Cheney majani",] Julai 20, 2007</ref>
 
Section 4 chini ya Marekebisho ishirini na tano, makamu wa rais na wengi wa [[Inama]] huweza kuhamisha mamlaka na wajibu wa rais kutoka kwa rais na makamu wa rais wao mara moja vidarebefordra ya Spika wa Nyumba na rais ''pro tempore'' wa Sena taarifa deklarera kutojiweza rais befria rais befogenheter na wajibu. Kama hii hutokea, basi makamu wa rais wa mapenzi kudhani rais mamlaka na wajibu kama kaimu rais, hata hivyo, rais anaweza kutangaza kwamba hakuna kama lipo na kutoweza resume ansvarsfrihet wa rais, mamlaka na wajibu. Kama makamu wa rais na mawaziri kugombea dai hili, ni juu ya Congress, ambalo lazima kukutana ndani ya siku mbili kama si tayari katika kikao, kuamua kwa usahihi wa dai.
 
Umoja stater Katiba inataja ya kujiuzulu rais lakini inte reglera form av kama kujiuzulu au uhalali wake masharti. Kwa Sheria ya Bunge, halali tu ushahidi wa rais uamuzi wa kujiuzulu ni chombo written kutangaza kujiuzulu saini na rais na mikononi ofisi ya [[Katibu wa Jimbo.]] <ref>{{usc|3|20}}</ref> Tarehe 9 Agosti, 1974, inakabiliwa na uwezekano impeachment katika katikati ya [[kashfa ya Watergate, Richard Nixon]] akawa rais tu milele kujiuzulu kutoka ofisi. Tu kabla yake ya kujiuzulu, [[Kamati ya Mahakama]] ya [[Nyumba]] walivyoripoti favorably tarehe makala ya impeachment dhidi yake.
 
Katiba inasema kwamba makamu wa rais anakuwa rais juu ya kuondolewa kutoka ofisi, kifo au kujiuzulu rais wa lililotangulia. Kama ofisi ya rais na makamu wa rais wawili ni aidha vacant au wana walemavu wadogowadogo wa ofisi ya pili wa rais afisa katika mstari wa mfululizo, ya Spika wa Baraza, anakuwa kaimu rais. Mstari inavyopanuka rais pro tempore wa Sena baada ya msemaji, ikifuatiwa na kila mwanachama wa baraza la mawaziri katika kuweka utaratibu.
 
==Fidia==
{| class="wikitable" border="1" style="float:right; margin:1ex 0 1ex 1ex;"
|-colspan="3" align="center"
|+ '''Presidential kulipa historia'''
! Tarehe imara !! Mshahara !! Mshahara mwaka 2009 dola
dollars
|-
| Septemba 24, 1789 || align="right"| $25,000 || align="right"| $566,000
|-
| Machi 3, 1873 || align="right"| $50,000 || align="right"| $865,000
|-
| Machi 4, 1909 || align="right"| $75,000 || align="right"| $1,714,000
|-
| Januari 19, 1949 || align="right"| $100,000 || align="right"| $906,000
|-
| Januari 20, 1969 || align="right"| $200,000 || align="right"| $1,175,000
|-
| Januari 20, 2001 || align="right"| $400,000 || align="right"| $487,000
|-
|colspan="3" align="center"| Sources:<ref name="salary history">{{cite web|url=http://www.lib.umich.edu/node/11736/ Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries|accessdate=2009-10-07|publisher=[[University of Michigan]]|title=Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries, 1789+}}</ref><ref name="dollar calc">[http://measuringworth.com/calculators/uscompare/# Uzito Thamani in US Dollars.] ''Kupima Worth.'' Ilirudishwa May 30, 2006.</ref><ref name="Inflation Calculator">[http://data.bls.gov/cgi-bin/cpicalc.pl# ''Mfumuko wa Calculator.'' ilirudishwa 13 Agosti, 2008. Ilirudishwa 13 Agosti, 2008.</ref>
|}
 
Rais chuma $ 400.000 mwaka mshahara, pamoja na gharama ya mwaka $ 50.000 akaunti, a $ 100.000 wasio na akaunti skattskyldiga kusafiri $ 19.000 kwa ajili ya burudani. <ref name="salary details"> [http://people.howstuffworks.com/question449.htm "kiasi rais wa Marekani gani kupata kulipwa?".] ''Howstuffworks.'' Ilir</ref> <ref name="salaries of federal officials"> [http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/98-53.pdf Mishahara wa Shirikisho Maafisa: A Fact Sheet.] ''Seneti ya Marekani'' tovuti. ilirudishwa 13 Agosti, 2008.</ref> Kuongeza karibuni zaidi katika mshahara mara Congress na kupitishwa na Rais [[Bill Clinton]] mwaka 1999 na akaenda athari mwaka 2001.
 
The [[White House]] in [[Washington, DC]] inavyotumika kama mahali pa kuishi rasmi kwa rais; yeye ni haki ya wafanyakazi wake na matumizi ya vifaa, ikiwemo matibabu, burudani, housekeeping, na usalama wa huduma. Till sjöss Support Facility Thurmont, Ikijulikana kama [[Camp David,]] ni mlima msingi katika kambi ya kijeshi Frederick County, Maryland kutumika kama nchi mafungo na kwa ajili high alert ulinzi wa rais na wageni wake. [[Nyumba Blair,]] ziko karibu na [[Old Mtendaji Office Building]] saa ya White House Complex na [[Lafayette Park,]] ni tata ya nne zimeunganishwa townhouses mraba 70,000 mno miguu ya sakafu nafasi ambayo mtumishi kama mgeni rasmi rais nyumba na kama makazi ya sekondari kwa rais iwapo imeelezwa. <ref>{{citeweb|url=http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/buildingView.do?pageTypeId=17109&channelPage=/ep/channel/gsaOverview.jsp&channelId=-25241&bid=724|title=President's Guest House (includes Lee House and Blair House), Washington, DC|accessdate=2009-09-30}}</ref>
 
Kwa kusafiri ardhini, rais anatumia [[gari jimbo rais,]] ambayo ni [[Limousine]] Armored umejengwa juu ya uzito [[Cadillac]] iliyopita makao [[chassi.]] <ref name="USSSPRL"> [http://www.secretservice.gov/press/GPA02-09_Limo.pdf Mpya Presidential Limousine inaingia Secret Service Avril] US Secret Service Press Release (Januari 14, 2009) Rudishwa tarehe 2009/01/20</ref> Moja ya [[Boeing]] mbili identical [[VC-25]] ndege, ambazo sana iliyopita matoleo ya [[Boeing 747-200B]] Airliners, kutumika kama kusafiri umbali mrefu kwa rais, na inajulikana kama ''[[Air Force One]]'' wakati rais ni juu ya ubao. <ref name="af1"> [http://www.whitehouse.gov/whmo/af1.html Air Force One.] White House Jeshi Ofisi. Ilipakuliwa tarehe 15 Juni, 2006.</ref> <ref> Any [[US Air Force]] ndege waliobeba rais atatumia [[wito ishara]] "Air Force One." Vilevile, [["Navy Mmoja", "Jeshi Mmoja",]] na [["Coast Guard Mmoja"]] ni ishara wito kutumika kama rais ni mali ndani ya Craft kwa huduma hizi. [["Mtendaji One"]] inakuwa ishara ya mwito raia yoyote ya ndege wakati rais wa bodi.</ref> Pia rais [[wa Marekani]] hutumia [[Marine Corps]] helikopta, mteule ''[[Marine One]]'' wakati rais ni ndani.
 
[[Umoja States Secret Service]] ni kulinda kushtakiwa kwa rais kukaa na familia yake. Kama sehemu yao ya ulinzi, marais, [[kwanza ladies,]] watoto wao na familia nyingine haraka, na watu wengine na maeneo maarufu wameitwa [[Secret Service Codename]] s. <ref name="junior">{{cite web|url=http://www.nps.gov/archive/eise/secret16.htm|title=Junior Secret Service Program: Assignment 7. Code Names|publisher=[[National Park Service]]|accessdate=2007-08-18}}</ref> Kutumia majina kama awali ilikuwa kwa madhumuni ya usalama na tarehe na wakati nyeti elektroniska mawasiliano hayakuwa encrypted mara kwa mara; leo, majina tu kutumika kwa madhumuni ya brevity, usahihi na utamaduni. <ref name="cbs-codenames">{{cite web|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/16/earlyshow/main4452073.shtml?source=RSSattr=Politics_4452073|title=Candidate Code Names Secret Service Monikers Used On The Campaign Trail|publisher=[[CBS]]|date=2008-09-16|accessdate=2008-11-12}}</ref> <ref name="eurweb-codenames">{{cite web|url=http://www.eurweb.com/story/eur48530.cfm|title=Obama's Secret Service Code Name revealed|publisher=Eurweb|date=2008-09-16|accessdate|2008-11-12}}</ref>
 
<gallery>
File:WhiteHouseSouthFacade.JPG|The White House
File:Camp David.jpg|Kambi Daudi
File:Blair House daylight.jpg|Nyumba Blair
File:GPA02-09 US SecretService press release 2009 Limousine Page 3 Image.jpg|Rais State Car
File:Air Force One over Mt. Rushmore.jpg|Air Force One
File:Marine One (1970).jpg|Marine One
</gallery>
 
==Post-urais==
[[File:FordNixonBushReaganCarter.jpg|thumb|Marais Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, George HW Bush, Ronald Reagan na Jimmy Carter kujitolea wa Ronald Reagan Presidential Library mwaka 1991.]]
Mwanzo mwaka 1959 wote f.d. hai marais walikuwa beviljas pensheni en ofisi fimbo. Pensheni imeongezeka mara kadhaa na Congressional idhini. Marais wastaafu sasa kupokea pensheni misingi ya mshahara wa utawala wa sasa wa baraza la mawaziri makatibu, ambayo ni 191.300 $ kama wa 2008. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/98-249.pdf|title=Former Presidents Act (FPA)|accessdate=2007-01-05|date=1958|publisher=U.S. Senate}}</ref> Baadhi ya marais wa zamani pia [[pensheni]] zilizokusanywa [[Congressional]] s. <ref>{{cite web|url=http://toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070107/NEWS09/70107004|title=Former presidents cost U.S. taxpayers big bucks|accessdate=2007-05-22|date=2007-01-07|publisher=''[[The Blade (newspaper)|Toledo Blade]]''}}</ref> [[Marais]] wa [[zamani wa Sheria,]] kama ilivyorekebishwa, pia hutoa marais wa zamani pamoja na kusafiri [[franking]] fedha na mapendeleo.
 
Mpaka 1997, wote marais wa zamani, na familia zao, walikuwa zinalindwa na Secret Service mpaka rais kifo. Rais wa mwisho kuwa na ulinzi wa Secret Service maisha ni [[Bill Clinton;]] George W. Bush na baadae marais wote watakuwa zinalindwa na Secret Service kwa upeo wa miaka kumi baada ya kuacha ofisi. <ref>{{usc|18|3056}}</ref>
 
Baadhi ya marais wamekuwa muhimu baada ya kuacha kazi ofisi. Maarufu mifano inajumuisha [[William Howard Taft]] 's umiliki kama [[Jaji Mkuu wa Marekani]] na [[Herbert Hoover']] s kazi ya serikali reorganization baada [[World War II. Grover Cleveland,]] ambaye kugombea reelection alishindwa mwaka wa 1888, alichaguliwa rais tena miaka minne baadaye mwaka 1892 . Aliwahi marais wawili wa zamani baada ya kuondoka katika Congress ya White House; [[John Quincy Adams]] alichaguliwa na [[Baraza la Wawakilishi,]] kuwahudumia huko kwa miaka kumi na saba, na [[Andrew Johnson]] alirudi Seneti mwaka 1875. [[John Tyler]] kutumikia katika ugawaji [[Congress ya Marekani ya makundi]] wakati wa [[Civil Vita]] na alichaguliwa kwa makundi Baraza la Wawakilishi, lakini alikufa kabla ulioitishwa. Zaidi hivi karibuni, [[Richard Nixon]] alifanya safari nyingi za kigeni kwa nchi pamoja na China na Urusi, na alikuwa lauded kama mzee Scientist. <ref> [http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/RichardNixon/ Wasifu wa Richard M. Nixon,] The White House</ref> Imekuwa [[Jimmy Carter]] global kampeni [[za haki za binadamu,]] na uchaguzi arbiter kimataifa kufuatilia, na mpokeaji wa [[Tuzo]] ya [[Amani]] ya [[Nobel.]] [[Bill Clinton]] imechukua baadhi ya kazi kama [['mzee Scientist',]] wengi mashuhuri kwa ushiriki wake katika mazungumzo ambayo imesababisha ya kutolewa kwa [[Journalist]] s mbili Marekani, [[Laura Ling]] na [[Euna Lee]] kutoka [[Korea ya Kaskazini.]] Bill Clinton pia imekuwa aktiv kisiasa tangu kumalizika muda wake wa urais, kufanya kazi pamoja na mke wake, [[Hillary Clinton]] tarehe yake ya [[kugombea urais.]]
 
Hivi sasa kuna hai wanne wa zamani wa marais:
 
<gallery>
File:Jimmy Carter Crop.jpg|Jimmy Carter (D), aliwahi 1977-1981
File:George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait cropped.jpg|George HW Bush (R), aliwahi 1989-1993
File:Bill Clinton.jpg|Bill Clinton (D), aliwahi 1993-2001
File:George-W-Bush.jpeg|George W. Bush (R), aliwahi 2001-2009
</gallery>
 
===Rais maktaba===
Kila rais tangu [[Herbert Hoover]] imeunda there inayojulikana kama [[rais maktaba]] ya kuhifadhi na kufanya inapatikana majarida yake, rekodi na nyaraka na vifaa vingine. Maktaba ni zilizokamilika deeded kwenda na iimarishwe na [[National Archives and Records Administration]] (nara); ya awali ya fedha kwa ajili ya kujenga na kununua vifaa vya kila maktaba lazima kuja kutoka binafsi, vyanzo yasiyo ya shirikisho. {{Citation needed|date=September 2009}} Sasa kuna rais tretton nara maktaba katika mfumo. Pia kuna idadi ya rais maktaba iimarishwe na hali serikali na misingi ya kibinafsi, kama vile [[Rais Abraham Lincoln Maktaba na Makumbusho,]] ambayo inaendeshwa na Jimbo la [[Illinois.]]
 
==Ukosoaji wa urais==
Katika historia ya Marekani, kumekuwa na upinzani fulani tu ya marais na sera zao, lakini wa urais yenyewe. Kila moja ya hizi kwa ujumla Ukosoaji kuanguka katika moja ya makundi yafuatayo:
 
* '''Urais ni pia nguvu.''' Wengi wa taifa unatarajiwa [[Framers Congress,]] ambayo ilikuwa ilivyoelezwa katika [[Katiba]] ya kwanza, kuwa dominerande tawi la Serikali; hawakutaka au kutegemea nguvu mtendaji. <ref name="tws9nov09">{{cite news
| author = MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer)
| title = Unchecked and Unbalanced
| quote = the founding fathers had 'scant affection for strong executives' like England’s king, and ... Bush White House’s claims are rooted in ideas “about the ‘divine’ right of kings” ... and that certainly did not find their 'way into our founding documents, the 1776 Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 1787.'
| publisher = New York Times
| date = July 6, 2007
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/06/books/06book.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> Hata hivyo, wakosoaji wengi kuelezea urais leo kama nguvu mno, <ref name="twsSEPnnxcvdf1">{{cite news
| title = The Conquest of Presidentialism
| publisher = The Huffington Post
| date = August 22, 2008
| url = http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-sirota/the-conquest-of-president_b_120582.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-20
}}</ref> <ref name="twsSEPnn5454">{{cite news
| author = interview by David Schimke
| title = Presidential Power to the People -- Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch
| publisher = Utne Reader
| date = September-October 2008
| url = http://www.utne.com/2008-09-01/Politics/Presidential-Power-to-the-People.aspx
| accessdate = 2009-09-20
}}</ref> unchecked na unbalanced <ref name="tws9nov07">{{cite news
| author = Ross Linker
| title = Critical of Presidency, Prof. Ginsberg and Crenson unite
| quote = presidents slowly but surely gain more and more power with both the public at large and other political institutions doing nothing to prevent it.
| publisher = The Johns-Hopkins Newsletter
| date = 2007-09-27
| url = http://media.www.jhunewsletter.com/media/storage/paper932/news/2007/09/27/NewsFeatures/Critical.Of.Presidency.Prof.Ginsberg.And.Crenson.Unite-2997235.shtml
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> na "monarchist" katika maumbile. <ref name="tws9nov08">{{cite news
| author = MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer)
| title = Unchecked and Unbalanced
| quote = UNCHECKED AND UNBALANCED: Presidential Power in a Time of Terror By Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr. and Aziz Z. Huq (authors)
| publisher = New York Times
| date = July 6, 2007
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/06/books/06book.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> Critic [[Dana D. Nelson]] anaamini marais kipindi cha miaka thelathini kazi mot "usiogawanyika udhibiti wa rais wa tawi mtendaji na wakala wake." <ref name="twsSEPrt8jyh5">{{cite news
| author = By Dana D. Nelson
| title = Opinion&ndash;The 'unitary executive' question -- What do McCain and Obama think of the concept?
| publisher = Los Angeles Times
| date = October 11, 2008
| url = http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-nelson11-2008oct11,0,224216.story
| accessdate = 2009-09-21
}}</ref> Hon criticizes proponents [[mtendaji]] wa [[unitary]] kwa kupanua "iliyopo wengi mtendaji uncheckable mamlaka - kama mtendaji maagizo, amri, memorandums, proclamations, usalama wa taifa na wabunge maelekezo kusainiwa kauli - kwamba tayari kuruhusu marais kutunga mpango mzuri wa kigeni na sera ya ndani bila ya misaada, kuingiliwa au ridhaa kutoka kwa Congress. <ref name="twsSEPrt8jyh5"></ref> Kikatiba wasomi wana [[uwezo wa rais]] criticized utokaji <ref name="tws10oct44">{{cite news
| author = Sanford Levinson
| title = “Wartime Presidents and the Constitution: From Lincoln to Obama” -- speech by Sanford Levinson at Wayne Morse Center
| publisher = Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics
| date = February 5, 2009
| url = http://www.uoregon.edu/~morse/democracy.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-10
}}</ref> na ilivyoelezwa marais kama "kikatiba madikteta" na "motisha kutangaza dharura" ta "Quasi-kidikteta mamlaka." <ref name="tws10oct21">{{cite news
| author = ANAND GIRIDHARADAS
| title = Edging Out Congress and the Public
| publisher = New York Times
| date = September 25, 2009
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/26/us/26iht-currents.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-10
}}</ref> [[Daudi Sirota]] kuona ruwaza "ambao unalenga kutoa jurisprudential rationale kwa jumla ya [[White House]] ukuu juu ya serikali yote." <ref name="twsSEPrt03">{{cite news
| author = David Sirota
| title = U.S. moving toward czarism, away from democracy
| publisher = San Francisco Chronicle
| date = January 18, 2009
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/01/18/INGP158S4G.DTL&type=printable
| accessdate = 2009-09-21
}}</ref> <ref name="twsSEPnn4r56">{{cite news
| author = David Sirota
| title = Why cult of presidency is bad for democracy
| publisher = San Francisco Chronicle
| date = August 22, 2008
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/21/EDCQ12G3M0.DTL
| accessdate = 2009-09-20
}}</ref> Critic mwingine aliandika kwamba wigo urais ilikuwa "tishio kubwa milele binafsi kwa uhuru na utawala wa kidemokrasia." <ref name="tws8nov06">{{cite news
| author = SCOTT SHANE
| title = A Critic Finds Obama Policies a Perfect Target
| quote = There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama’s Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals. 'I want to know how these firms are picked and who picked them,' Mr. Wilson, the group’s president, tells his eager researchers.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = September 25, 2009
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/26/us/politics/26activist.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref>
 
* '''Picha na mahusiano ya umma.''' Baadhi wanasema kuwa images wa urais na tabia kuwa manipulated na maafisa wa utawala [[mahusiano ya umma]] pamoja na marais wenyewe. Critic moja alielezea urais kama "propagandized uongozi" ambayo ina "nguvu surrounding mesmerizing ofisi"; <ref name="tws11nov304">{{cite news
| author = Rachel Dykoski
| title = Book note: Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy"
| quote = Dana D. Nelson's book makes the case that we've had 200+ years of propagandized leadership...
| publisher = Twin Cities Daily Planet
| date = November 01, 2008
| url = http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/article/2008/10/29/book-note-presidential-idolatry-quotbad-democracyquot.html?mini=eventcalendar/2009/02/all
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> mwingine alielezea Aura surrounding urais kwa neno "ibada." <ref name="twsSEPnn4r56">{{cite news
| author = David Sirota
| title = Why cult of presidency is bad for democracy
| publisher = San Francisco Chronicle
| date = August 22, 2008
| url = http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/21/EDCQ12G3M0.DTL
| accessdate = 2009-09-20
}}</ref> [[Mahusiano ya umma]] mameneja utawala stegvisa makini-crafted [[photo-Ops]] ya smiling marais pamoja na makutano kwa televisheni smiling kamera; katika moja mfano wa televisheni [[photo-op,]] watazamaji walikuwa kusukumwa na picha na sio kwa hadithi. <ref name="tws11novjopkl">{{cite news
| author = John Neffinger
| title = Democrats vs. Science: Why We're So Damn Good at Losing Elections
| quote = ...back in the 1980s Lesley Stahl of 60 Minutes ran a piece skewering Reagan's policies on the elderly ... But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds ... Deaver thanked ... Stahl...for broadcasting all those images of Reagan looking his best.
| publisher = Huffington Post
| date = April 2, 2007
| url = http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-neffinger/democrats-vs-science-why-_b_44733.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> Critic mmoja aliandika sura ya [[John F. Kennedy]] alikuwa hufafanuliwa kama soma kwa makini "katika undani tajiri" ambayo "akauchomoa juu ya nguvu ya hadithi" kuhusu tukio la [[PT 109]] <ref name="tws11novfddxs">{{cite news
| author = Dana D. Nelson
| title = Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people
| quote = in rich detail how Kennedy drew on the power of myth as he framed his experience during World War II, when his PT boat was sliced in half by a Japanese...
| publisher = U of Minnesota Press
| isbn = 9780816656776
| date = 2008
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=qgAWphms5oMC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=kennedy+image+nelson+%22bad+for+democracy%22&source=bl&ots=BQX6dXpTNw&sig=qbo2XZA-Exl28hYrX2vuwm532BI&hl=en&ei=ZMr6Spr3K8_anAfxk8X9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=kennedy&f=false
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> na alidai kuwa Kennedy walielewa jinsi ya kutumia picha yake ya kuendeleza rais ambitioner. <ref name="tws11novfyyhhxs">{{cite news
| author = Dana D. Nelson
| title = Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people
| quote = Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image... (p.54)
| publisher = U of Minnesota Press
| isbn = 9780816656776
| date = 2008
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=qgAWphms5oMC&dq=kennedy+image+nelson+%22bad+for+democracy%22&q=kennedy#v=snippet&q=kennedy&f=false
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> Hata mazishi urais ni pamoja na masuala stegvisa high uzalishaji maadili kutoa hisia ya "Regal grandeur". <ref name="tws8nov01">{{cite news
| author = ALESSANDRA STANLEY
| title = THE 40TH PRESIDENT: CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK; A Pageant Over 2 Decades in the Making
| quote = If anyone is to be credited for providing regal grandeur to the ceremony it is Mrs. Reagan, who, with the help of the loyal aide Michael K. Deaver, had always managed the stagecraft of her husband's political career.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = June 10, 2004
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/10/us/the-40th-president-critic-s-notebook-a-pageant-over-2-decades-in-the-making.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Kama matokeo, Wamarekani wana matarajio ya marais unrealistic, ambao unatarajiwa "kuendesha uchumi, watawashinda maadui, kuongoza free dunia, faraja Tornado waathirika, kuponya roho ya kitaifa na kulinda siri wakopaji mikopo kutoka kadi ya ada." <ref name="tws9novrfrff">{{cite news
| author = Lexington
| title = The Cult of the Presidency
| quote = Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything ... When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned. Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees.
| publisher = The Economist
| date = 2009-07-21
| url = http://www.economist.com/blogs/lexington/2009/07/the_cult_of_the_presidency.cfm
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref>
 
* '''Upanuzi wa serikali ya shirikisho.''' Marais kutoka [[pande]] zote wamekuwa förstoring av criticized kwa [[serikali]] ya [[shirikisho]] kwa hasara ya [[hali ya serikali.]] <ref name="tws9nov113"></ref> Marais wengi kupanua serikali ya shirikisho, ingawa kumekuwepo na baadhi undantag (se meza). Upanuzi mkubwa, arguably, kilichotokea wakati [[FDR's New Deal]] kama njia ya kukabiliana na [[Unyogovu,]] <ref name="tws8nov13">{{cite news
| author = Kenneth T. Walsh
| title = The First 100 Days: Franklin Roosevelt Pioneered the 100-Day Concept
| quote = FDR quickly won congressional passage for a series of social, economic, and job-creating bills that greatly increased the authority of the federal government...
| publisher = US News & World Report
| date = February 12, 2009
| url = http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/history/2009/02/12/the-first-100-days-franklin-roosevelt-pioneered-the-100-day-concept.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> lakini baada ya Unyogovu kumalizika, serikali didn't shrink nyuma kidogo kawaida. Leo, serikali ya shirikisho ina mashirika mbalimbali na mamlaka na inaajiri watu milioni mbili. <ref name="tws9nov114">{{cite news
| author = Matt Kelley
| title = Stimulus funds boost number of federal jobs
| quote = Overall, there are about 2 million federal workers, the data show.
| publisher = USA TODAY
| date = 2009-09-23
| url = http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2009-09-23-stimfed_N.htm
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
|+ <td>'''Upanuzi wa serikali ya shirikisho tangu 1949''' </td>
|-
!'''Miaka'''
!'''Rais'''
!'''Chama'''
!'''Ukuaji'''
! class="unsortable"|'''Vidokezo'''
|-
| align="left"|1949-52
| align="left"|Truman
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|+8.7%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1953-57
| align="left"|Eisenhower
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|-1.3%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1957-60
| align="left"|Eisenhower
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|-0.2%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1961-64
| align="left"|Kennedy-Johnson
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|+2.1%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1965-68
| align="left"|Johnson
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|+4.3%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1969-72
| align="left"|Nixon
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|-2.8%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1973-76
| align="left"|Nixon-Ford
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|-0.7%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1977-80
| align="left"|Carter
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|+1.0%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1981-84
| align="left"|Reagan
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|+1.1%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1985-88
| align="left"|Reagan
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|+1.7%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1989-92
| align="left"|GHW Bush
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|+0.7%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1993-96
| align="left"|Clinton
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|-2.6%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|1997-00
| align="left"|Clinton
| align="left"|Democrat
| align="right"|{{nts|-0.1%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|2001-04
| align="left"|GW Bush
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|+0.9%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
| align="left"|2005-08
| align="left"|GW Bush
| align="left"|Republican
| align="right"|{{nts|+0.9%}}
| align = "right"
|
|-
|}
Source: [[New York Times]] (2009) <ref name="tws9nov113">{{cite news
| author = Floyd Norris
| title = Big Government Republicans
| quote = It used to be — before Ronald Reagan — that the federal government grew when the Democrats were in office, and became smaller when the Republicans were in the Oval Office. Since then, the relationship has reversed.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = May 6, 2009
| url = http://norris.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/06/big-government-republicans/
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref>
 
* '''Nakisi kutumia.''' Marais wachache katika kipindi cha miaka mia wamekuwa hawatambui jinsi ya kutunza matumizi ya ndani ya mipaka. Marais ambao aliahidi rein katika kudhibiti matumizi alikuwa na ugumu wa bajeti. <ref name="tws9nov11">{{cite news
| author = Justin Ewers
| title = Why Obama Is Leaving the Reagan Era Behind When It Comes to Economic Policy
| quote = Despite his years of lip service to balancing the budget, total discretionary spending had climbed almost 16 percent by the time he left office, dwarfing the Carter budgets he had once criticized. Revenues, limited by Reagan's tax cuts, were never able to keep pace. The result was a spiraling national debt that nearly tripled during his two terms, hitting $2.7 trillion.
| publisher = US News & World Report
| date = April 28, 2009
| url = http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/2009/04/28/why-obama-is-leaving-the-reagan-era-behind-when-it-comes-to-economic-policy.html?PageNr=2
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> Katika muongo wa kwanza wa mwaka 2000, $ 632 bilioni ilikuwa aliongeza kwa bajeti. <ref name="tws8nov14">{{cite news
| author = NICK GILLESPIE
| title = Bush Was a Big-Government Disaster
| quote = Mr. Bush ... increased the size and scope of the federal government to unprecedented levels ... he added a whopping $345 billion (in constant dollars) to the federal budget ... added ... an additional $287 billion on top of that ... Mr. Bush has massively expanded the government
| publisher = Wall Street Journal
| date = JANUARY 24, 2009
| url = http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123275512887811775.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Mwaka 2009, [[Umoja]] wa [[Mataifa]] ina nakisi kubwa ya shirikisho na inaweza kulazimishwa kukopa karibu dola 9.3 trillion zaidi ya miaka kumi ijayo. <ref name="tws9novvbfdc">{{cite news
| author = Lori Montgomery
| title = Deficit Projected To Swell Beyond Earlier Estimates
| quote = Tax collections, meanwhile, would lag well behind spending, producing huge annual budget deficits that would force the nation to borrow nearly $9.3 trillion over the next decade -- $2.3 trillion more than the president predicted when he unveiled his budget request just one month ago.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = March 21, 2009
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/20/AR2009032001820.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> A critic na [[senator]] alionya huu "uwazi inajenga mazingira ambapo nchi yataenda bankrupt." <ref name="tws9novvbfdc"></ref>
 
* '''Ubunge na mamlaka ya bajeti.''' Baadhi ya wakosoaji wana madai kuwa marais usurped muhimu ubunge na mamlaka ambayo bajeti inapaswa kawaida ni kwa [[Congress.]] Marais kudhibiti safu kubwa ya [[mashirika]] ambayo inaweza kufanya kanuni na tillsyn kidogo kutoka Congress. Critic moja walidai kuwa marais anaweza kuteua "virtual jeshi la 'czars' - kila kabisa bado unaccountable kwa Congress waliotunukiwa na sera kuu spearheading juhudi kwa ajili ya [[White House".]] <ref name="tws28sep08">{{cite news
| author = Eric Cantor
| title = Obama's 32 Czars
| publisher = The Washington Post
| date = July 30, 2009
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/29/AR2009072902624.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> Marais wamekuwa criticized [[kusainiwa]] kwa maamuzi [[kauli]] Congressional kusainiwa wakati sheria kuhusu jinsi ya kufahamu mpango muswada au nitafanya hivyo na wachambuzi kuwa vitendo kama ilivyoelezwa hii dhidi ya roho ya [[Katiba.]] <ref name="tws04oct08">{{cite news
| author = Dana D. Nelson
| title = The 'unitary executive' question
| publisher = Los Angeles Times
| date = October 11, 2008
| url = http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-nelson11-2008oct11,0,224216.story
| accessdate = 2009-10-04
}}</ref> Kusainiwa kauli "tip urari wa madaraka kati ya Congress na ya [[White House]] kidogo zaidi katika neema ya mtendaji wa tawi" <ref name="tws04oct01">{{cite news
| author = Christopher Lee
| title = Alito Once Made Case For Presidential Power
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = January 2, 2006
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/01/AR2006010100788.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-04
}}</ref> na zimetumika kwa kipindi cha nne marais. <ref name="tws04oct02">{{cite news
| author = Dan Froomkin
| title = Playing by the Rules
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = March 10, 2009
| url = http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/bush-rollback/playing-by-the-rules.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-04
}}</ref> <ref name="tws04oct05">{{cite news
| author = Charlie Savage
| title = Obama Undercuts Whistle-Blowers, Senator Says
| publisher = New York Times
| date = March 16, 2009
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/17/us/politics/17signing.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-04
}}</ref> Mazoezi hii imekuwa na criticized [[American Bar Association]] kama katiba. <ref name="tws11nov301">{{cite news
| author = Transcript -- Ray Suarez and others
| title = President's Use of 'Signing Statements' Raises Constitutional Concerns
| quote = The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements," which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers. Legal experts discuss the implications.
| publisher = PBS Online NewsHour
| date = July 24, 2006
| url = http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/white_house/july-dec06/signing_07-24.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> Critic mmoja anaona ni "allt kuvimba tawi mtendaji" na "ya kupatwa wa Congress" na alisema kwamba mchakato huu umekuwa unaendelea "kwa miongo" <ref name="tws28sep">{{cite news
| author = George F. Will -- op-ed columnist
| title = Making Congress Moot
| publisher = The Washington Post
| date = December 21, 2008
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/19/AR2008121902929.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> na criticized ya "kubaguliwa" ya [[Congress.]] <ref name="tws28sep">{{cite news
| author = George F. Will -- op-ed columnist
| title = Making Congress Moot
| publisher = The Washington Post
| date = December 21, 2008
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/19/AR2008121902929.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref>
 
* '''Mabaya ya madaraka.''' Marais na wakati mwingine wameamua haramu na ziada ya shughuli za kisheria, hasa wakati wartime. [[Lincoln]] suspended [[habeas Corpus]] wakati wa [[Civil War;]] <ref name="tws9nov201"></ref> [[Wilson]] jela watuhumiwa Wakomunisti bila kesi wakati [[Palmer Raids;]] <ref name="tws9nov201">{{cite news
| author = Albert Gore (CQ Transcripts Wire)
| title = Transcript: Former Vice President Gore's Speech on Constitutional Issues
| quote = GORE: President Lincoln, of course, suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, and some of the worst abuses prior to those of the current administration were committed by President Wilson during and after World War I, with the notorious red scare and "Palmer Raids."
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = JANUARY 16, 2006
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/16/AR2006011600779.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> na [[Roosevelt]] interned zaidi ya laki [[Kijapani-Wamarekani]] wakati [[World War II.]] <ref name="tws9nov201"></ref> Wakaguzi wa shirikisho [[FDR]] kutumika kujifunza kodi na fedha na rekodi ya wanasiasa wa upinzani. <ref name="tws29oct17">{{cite news
| author = Grigg, William Norman
| title = FDR's patriot purge. (Cover Story History)
| quote = federal investigators 'were free to devote a great deal of energy and attention to the tax records and finances of politicians who sought to use anti-Semitic appeals to attack the Roosevelt administration'
| publisher = The New American
| date = Jun 16, 2003
| url = http://www.thefreelibrary.com/FDR%27s+patriot+purge.+(Cover+Story+History).(Franklin+Delano+Roosevelt)-a0103088435
| accessdate = 2009-10-29
}}</ref> [[Nixon]] wakaivunja sheria flertal kumuomba operatives ili burglarize ofisi av politisk mpinzani's tiba liksom [[Kidemokrasia kommittén Taifa]] kisha walijaribu kuficha [[Ikulu]] medverkan med Hush pesa kile akawa [[Watergate kashfa.]] <ref name="tws8nov15">{{cite news
| author = Richard Zoglin
| title = TELEVISION: Nixon Without Nostalgia
| quote = paranoid Nixon White House of the early '70s, so obsessed with political foes that it had a psychiatrist's office burglarized to get dirt on Daniel Ellsberg (who had released the Pentagon papers) and ordered the fateful break-in at the offices of the Democratic National Committee.
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Aug. 08, 1994
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,981225,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Katika jitihada ya kuzuia [[ugaidi,]] rais mamlaka [[warrantless wiretaps]] ambayo yalikuwa baadaye ilitawala [[katiba]] <ref name="tws9nov116">{{cite news
| author = Dan Eggen and Dafna Linzer
| title = Judge Rules Against Wiretaps&ndash;NSA Program Called Unconstitutional
| quote = U.S. District Judge Anna Diggs Taylor ordered a halt to the wiretap program, secretly authorized by President Bush in 2001, but both sides in the lawsuit agreed to delay that action until a Sept. 7 hearing.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = August 18, 2006
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/17/AR2006081700650.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> na pia [[mateso]] na kumkana wafungwa [[kutokana na mchakato.]] <ref name="tws9nov1145">{{cite news
| author = Staff writer
| title = Book World: 'The Dark Side': The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals (by Jane Mayer)
| quote = Since embarking upon its global war on terror, the United States has blatantly disregarded the Geneva Conventions. It has imprisoned suspects, including U.S. citizens, without charge, holding them indefinitely and denying them due process. It has created an American gulag in which thousands of detainees, including many innocent of any wrongdoing, have been subjected to ritual abuse and humiliation.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = July 15, 2008
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2008/07/10/DI2008071001458.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref>
 
* '''Mapya vita bila tamko kutoka kwa Congress.''' Baadhi ya wakosoaji madai kuwa ina [[tawi mtendaji]] usurped Congress's Constitutionally-defined kazi ya kutangaza vita. <ref name="tws12novab">{{cite news
| author = Dana D. Nelson
| title = The 'unitary executive' question
| publisher = Los Angeles Times
| date = October 11, 2008
| url = http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE5406CF20090501
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> <ref name="tws12novcd">{{cite news
| author = Steve Holland
| title = Obama revelling in U.S. power unseen in decades
| publisher = Reuters UK
| date = May 1, 2009
| url = http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE5406CF20090501
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> <ref name="tws12novef">{{cite news
| title = The Law: The President's War Powers
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Jun. 01, 1970
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878290,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> Wakati marais kihistoria alianzisha mchakato wa kwenda vitani, wakawauliza kwa vita na got maazimio rasmi kutoka kwa [[Congress Vita ya 1812,]] ya [[Mexican-American Vita]] ya [[Kihispania-American War, World War I,]] na [[World War II,]] <ref name="tws28sep07">{{cite news
| title = The Law: The President's War Powers
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Jun. 01, 1970
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878290,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> <ref name="tws8nov102">{{cite news
| author = ALISON MITCHELL
| title = The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.
| quote = Presidents have sent forces abroad more than 100 times; Congress has declared war only five times: the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I and World War II.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = May 2, 1999
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/02/weekinreview/the-world-only-congress-can-declare-war-really-it-s-true.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> lakini ''hawakuwa'' marais kupata matamko rasmi kwa matendo mengine ya kijeshi, pamoja na [[Theodore Roosevelt]] 's kijeshi [[Panama]] kuhamia katika 1903, <ref name="tws28sep07"></ref> [[Vita]] ya [[Kikorea,]] <ref name="tws28sep07"></ref> [[Vita]] ya [[Vietnam,]] <ref name="tws28sep07">{{cite news
| title = The Law: The President's War Powers
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Jun. 01, 1970
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878290,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> ya invasions [[Grenada]] <ref name="tws8nov101">{{cite news
| author = ALISON MITCHELL
| title = The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.
| quote = President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing. He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = May 2, 1999
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/02/weekinreview/the-world-only-congress-can-declare-war-really-it-s-true.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> na [[Panama]] (1990). <ref name="tws8nov100">{{cite news
| author = MICHAEL R. GORDON
| title = U.S. TROOPS MOVE IN PANAMA IN EFFORT TO SEIZE NORIEGA; GUNFIRE IS HEARD IN CAPITAL
| quote = It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance. Thomas S. Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = 1990-12-20
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1220.html#article
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Hata hivyo, wakati si kupata tamko rasmi wa vita, marais got Congressional idhini katika [[vita vya Iraq]] kwanza [[(1991)]] <ref name="tws9nov01">{{cite news
| author = Stuart Taylor Jr.
| title = An Invasion of Iraq Requires the Approval of Congress
| quote = Bush may eventually ask for a congressional vote. That would clearly be the wiser course, politically. And that's what Bush's father did in early 1991—notwithstanding his insistence then that he did not need congressional approval as a legal matter and his subsequent boast, "I didn't have to get permission from some old goat in Congress to kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait."
| publisher = The Atlantic
| date = September 4, 2002
| url = http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/taylor2002-09-04.htm
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> <ref name="tws9nov02">{{cite news
| author = Andrew Rosenthal
| title = Bush Halts Offensive Combat; Kuwait Freed, Iraqis Crushed
| quote = The Speaker of the House, Thomas S. Foley, said: 'The majority in Congress voted to give the President the authority, and he has taken that authority and I think conducted this operation brilliantly.'
| publisher = New York Times
| date = 1991-02-28
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0227.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> na [[pili Irak Vita (2003)]] <ref name="tws9nov03">{{cite news
| author = DAVID E. SANGER with JOHN F. BURNS
| title = Bush Declares Start of Iraq War; Missile Said to Be Aimed at Hussein
| quote = Mr. Bush formally informed Congress in... a seven-page message to Congress, he argued that force was now the only way to 'adequately protect the national security of the United States' and that topping the Iraqi government was 'a vital part' of a broader war against terrorism. The message was required under a statute passed last fall explicitly authorizing war against Iraq after the president determined that a diplomatic solution was impossible.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = March 20, 2003
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/20/international/worldspecial/20IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all
| accessdate = 2009-11-09
}}</ref> <ref name="tws28sep09">{{cite news
| title = Time Essay: Where's Congress?
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = May. 22, 1972
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879072-1,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref> Mwaka 1993, mmoja critic aliandika "Congress's nguvu vita imekuwa flagrantly wengi utoaji disregarded katika Katiba. <ref name="tws28sep14">{{cite news
| author = Michael Kinsley
| title = The Case for a Big Power Swap
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Mar. 15, 1993
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977990,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-09-28
}}</ref>
 
* '''Faida ya uchaguzi wa rais marais.''' Marais i ofisi na kutafuta sikt pili yana faida juu challengers na wakosoaji hulipisha illojal kuwa huu ni. Tangu 1936 katika tretton presidentvalet ambapo kulikuwa etablerade, viongozi alishinda mara kumi, mara tatu tu challengers (se meza). Etablerade marais re-uchaguzi kutafuta kufurahia faida kama vile "Aura na uzoefu wa ofisi," maagizo "mediebevakning," kuwa na uwezo wa "ushawishi matukio" na "wanatoa walicho ruzuku ya serikali." <ref name="tws484ikihh">{{cite book
| last = Schantz (editor)
| first = Harvey L.
| quote = The advantages of incumbency are many: presidents have the aura and experience of the office; they command media coverage; they are able to influence events; and they are able to dispense government grants. (p.41)
| title = American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change
| publisher = State University of New York Press
| date = 1996
| location = Albany
| pages = 41
| url = http://books.google.com/books?id=eorXke-cHKIC&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=%22advantages+of+incumbency%22+%22elections%22+president%3F&source=bl&ots=_HyZymEGUX&sig=dfgg14FjbtKvCAMED7M_ZFunF8c&hl=en&ei=s5j4SoiwAsy9lAf81a3xCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CCQQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=%22advantages%20of%20incumbency%22%20%22elections%22%20president%3F&f=false
| isbn = 0-7914-2864-8}}</ref> Ripota mmoja alibainisha "karibu viongozi wote kuongeza mbali zaidi (pesa) kuliko kufanya sina challengers" ambayo huleta faida kubwa kwa [[viongozi.]] <ref name="tws02oct205">{{cite news
| author = Richard E. Cohen
| title = PAC Paranoia: Congress Faces Campaign Spending - Politics: Hysteria was the operative word when legislators realized they could not return home without tougher campaign finance laws.
| publisher = Los Angeles Times
| date = August 12, 1990
| url = http://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-12/opinion/op-739_1_campaign-finance-laws
| accessdate = 2009-10-02
}}</ref> [[PACs]] wengi kutoa pesa zao kwa viongozi kwa sababu wao ni zaidi uwezekano wa kushinda. <ref name="tws02oct216">{{cite news
| author = Joseph A. Califano Jr.
| title = PAC's Remain a Pox
| publisher = The New York Times
| date = May 27, 1988
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/27/opinion/pac-s-remain-a-pox.html
| accessdate = 2009-10-02
}}</ref>
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
|-
|+ <td>'''Presidentvalet tangu mmoja 1936 etablerade''' </td>
|-
!'''mwaka'''
!'''Mgombea'''
!'''Kura'''
!'''Mgombea'''
!'''Kura'''
!'''Mshindi'''
! class="unsortable"|'''Vidokezo'''
|-
| align="left"|1936
| align="left"|Roosevelt
| align="right"|523
| align="left"|Landon
| align="right"|(| [8]
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz01">{{cite news
| author = Staff writer
| title = Alf Landon, G.O.P. Stand-Bearer, Dies at 100
| quote = 523 Electoral Votes to 8 Roosevelt, running for his second term, won 27,747,636 votes to 16,679,543 for his Republican rival. Mr. Landon received 8 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 523.
| publisher = NEW YORK TIMES
| date = October 13, 1987
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0909.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-12
}}</ref>
|-
| align="left"|1940
| align="left"|Roosevelt
| align="right"|449
| align="left"|Willkie
| align="right"|82
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02">{{cite news
| author = MATTHEW ERICSON
| title = THE 2004 ELECTIONS: THE PAST; Electoral College Shifts, In Red and Blue
| quote = The coloring indicates which party's candidate received electoral votes in the state. Darker shades indicate that a different party captured the state than in the previous election. E.V.: Electoral votes received by a candidate P.V.: Share of the popular vote received by a candidate
| publisher = NEW YORK TIMES
| date = November 3, 2004
| url = http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0DE6DE163CF930A35752C1A9629C8B63
| accessdate = 2009-11-12
}}</ref>
|-
| align="left"|1944
| align="left"|Roosevelt
| align="right"|432
| align="left"|Genre
| align="right"|99
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1948
| align="left"|Truman
| align="right"|303
| align="left"|Genre
| align="right"|189
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1956
| align="left"|Eisenhower
| align="right"|457
| align="left"|Stevenson
| align="right"|[66]
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1964
| align="left"|Johnson
| align="right"|486
| align="left"|Goldwater
| align="right"|52
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1972
| align="left"|Nixon
| align="right"|520
| align="left"|McGovern
| align="right"|17
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1976
| align="left"|Carter
| align="right"|297
| align="left"|Ford
| align="right"|240
| align="left"|Challenger
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1980
| align="left"|Reagan
| align="right"|489
| align="left"|Carter
| align="right"|49
| align="left"|Challenger
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1984
| align="left"|Reagan
| align="right"|525
| align="left"|Mondale
| align="right"|13
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|1992
| align="left"|Clinton
| align="right"|370
| align="left"|GHW Bush
| align="right"|168
| align="left"|Challenger
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|(1996).
| align="left"|Clinton
| align="right"|379
| align="left"|Dole
| align="right"|159
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz02"></ref>
|-
| align="left"|2004
| align="left"|GW Bush
| align="right"|286
| align="left"|Kerry
| align="right"|252
| align="left"|Mtawala
| align="right"|<ref name="tws12novz03">{{cite news
| author = Mike Allen
| title = Bush Aides Pushed to Declare Victory
| quote = Even before receiving a concession call from his opponent, President Bush scheduled a victory announcement in Washington today, with officials of his reelection campaign asserting that he has won at least 286 electoral votes
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = November 3, 2004
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21604-2004Nov3.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-12
}}</ref>
|-
|}
Angalia: uchaguzi na hakuna chama etablerade na tatu wagombea walikuwa undantas. Hesabu ni uchaguzi kura chuoni. Kwa habari zaidi: tazama [[matokeo ya uchaguzi.]]
 
* '''Misusing nguvu ya msamaha.''' Marais wamekuwa abusing hii criticized kwa nguvu. Kwa mfano, [[Ford]] yafuta mtu ambaye alikuwa naye mapema kuchaguliwa kuwa makamu wa rais, [[Nixon;]] Ford uamuzi mara criticized kama msamaha matumizi mabaya ya madaraka. <ref name="tws8nov12">{{cite news
| author = DAVID JOHNSTON
| title = Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'
| quote = But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = 1992-12-24
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1224.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Marais wamekuwa msamaha criticized maamuzi mengine pia, ikiwa ni pamoja na watuhumiwa rasmi ya mafichoni inabainisha zinazohusiana na [[Iran-contra]] kashfa, <ref name="tws8nov11">{{cite news
| author = DAVID JOHNSTON
| title = Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'
| quote = The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.'... In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = 1992-12-24
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1224.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Viza 140 anawasamehe Siku ya mwisho katika ofisi, <ref name="tws8nov10"></ref> kusamehe hama <ref name="tws8nov10"></ref> na kampeni maarufu contributors. <ref name="tws8nov10">{{cite news
| author = Peter Eisler
| title = Clinton-papers release blocked
| quote = Former president Clinton issued 140 pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges. Rich's ex-wife, Denise, contributed $2,000 in 1999 to Hillary Clinton's Senate campaign; $5,000 to a related political action committee; and $450,000 to a fund set up to build the Clinton library.
| publisher = USA TODAY
| date = 2008-03-07
| url = http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-06-clinton-library-foia_N.htm
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> En rais commuted hukumu ya staffer ambaye alikuwa kufunikwa up utawala kushiriki katika [[Valerie Plame Wilson]] jambo. <ref name="tws8nov08">{{cite news
| author = Johanna Neuman
| title = Robert Novak dies at 78; syndicated columnist and TV commentator
| quote = President George W. Bush later commuted Libby's 2 1/2 -year sentence.
| publisher = Los Angeles Times
| date = August 19, 2009
| url = http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-robert-novak19-2009aug19,0,4381837.story
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> <ref name="tws8nov09">{{cite news
| author = SHERYL GAY STOLBERG
| title = For President, Libby Case Was a Test of Will
| quote = Indeed, to administration critics, the commutation was a subversion of justice, an act of hypocrisy by a president who once vowed that anyone in his administration who broke the law would 'be taken care of.'
| publisher = New York Times
| date = July 3, 2007
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/03/washington/03bush.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref>
 
* '''Usimamizi wa sera za kigeni.''' Tangu hakuna hitaji kuwa wagombea urais na sera za kigeni au kijeshi au utaalamu kidiplomasia, na marais wa kusimamia sera za kigeni, ubora wa maamuzi ina rais mbalimbali kutoka kwa rais. Tathmini na sera za kigeni orodha wataalam wote mafanikio na kushindwa katika kipindi cha nusu karne. Muhimu mafanikio katika nusu karne iliyopita pamoja na breakup ya [[Umoja]] wa [[Kisovyeti]] na kuepuka [[World War III]] <ref name="tws10nov13">{{cite news
| author = Philip D. Zelikow
| title = The Suicide of the East? 1989 and the Fall of Communism
| quote = There was no World War III ... The Soviet Union and Poland held limited elections in early 1989 ... By the end of 1991, the Soviet empire had disintegrated. Although there had been some bloodshed in China and Romania, there had been no great war.
| publisher = Foreign Affairs Magazine
| date = 2009-11
| url = http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65628/philip-d-zelikow/the-suicide-of-the-east
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> vile vile utunzaji wa [[mgogoro missile Cuba]] mwaka 1962. <ref name="tws11nov01">{{cite news
| title = Essay: The Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis
| quote = Kennedy assembled a task force of advisers. Some of them wanted to invade Cuba. In the end, Kennedy chose a course of artful restraint; he laid down a naval quarantine. After six days, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet missiles would be dismantled.
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Sep. 27, 1982
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925769,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-11
}}</ref> Lakini rais maamuzi kadhaa wamekuwa criticized, pamoja [[Bay ya Nguruwe]] uvamizi wa [[Cuba,]] <ref name="tws10nov01">{{cite news
| title = Essay: BAY OF PIGS REVISITED: Lessons from a Failure
| quote = U.S.-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion that had ended in disaster about a year and a half before.
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Jul. 30, 1965
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834040,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> maalum uchaguzi wa kijeshi, <ref name="tws10nov04">{{cite news
| author = David Ignatius
| title = Protean Leader
| quote = But after suicide bombers destroyed the U.S. Embassy and Marine barracks there in 1983, Reagan decided to cut his losses and evacuate American troops ... The pullout from Lebanon was either an amoral retreat under fire or a prudent exercise of realpolitik, depending on your perspective.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = June 8, 2004
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23587-2004Jun7.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> biashara ya silaha kwa hostages na [[Iran,]] <ref name="tws10nov05">{{cite news
| author = David Ignatius
| title = Protean Leader
| quote = A somewhat more dubious example of the Reagan administration's realpolitik in the Middle East was the decision to trade arms to Iran to secure the release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon. When the secret deal became public, Reagan managed the political fallout partly by insisting he had done nothing of the sort.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = June 8, 2004
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23587-2004Jun7.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> na maamuzi juu ya kuanzisha vita. <ref name="tws10nov05">{{cite news
| author = AMY CHUA
| title = Where Is U.S. Foreign Policy Headed?
| quote = One of Bacevich’s most interesting arguments is that the astronomical costs of the Iraq war — not just unregulated hedge funds and subprime mortgages — contributed directly to the 2008 financial collapse. By 2007, he writes, 'the U.S. command in Baghdad was burning through $3 billion per week. That same year, the overall costs of the Iraq war topped the $500 billion mark.'
| publisher = New York Times
| date = October 22, 2009
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/25/books/review/Chua-t.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> <ref name="tws10nov06">{{cite news
| author = Dennis Ross
| title = The Middle East Predicament
| quote = Iraq is a mess--from which the United States cannot easily extricate itself.
| publisher = Foreign Affairs Magazine
| date = 2005-01
| url = http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/60427/dennis-ross/the-middle-east-predicament
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> <ref name="tws8nov04">{{cite news
| title = Chuck Hagel&ndash;Biography
| quote = A staunch conservative and a Vietnam veteran, Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska is best known as the most outspoken Republican critic of President Bush's policies in Iraq.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = 2009-11-08
| url = http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/h/chuck_hagel/index.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Zifuatazo ya uvamizi wa [[Iraq War]] mara criticized kama "catastrophically unplanned" na mkakati kwa ujumla [[Irak]] ilikuwa inaitwa "self-defeating kutengwa ya washirika." <ref name="tws8nov03">{{cite news
| author = JACOB WEISBERG
| title = All the President's Critics
| quote = But these are largely stand-ins for their opposition to the Bush administration's catastrophically unplanned occupation of Iraq, its self-defeating alienation of allies...
| publisher = New York Times: Books
| date = August 29, 2004
| url = http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/29/books/review/29WEISBER.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref> Critic moja alibainisha mwelekeo wa "militarization wa Marekani sera ya kigeni." <ref name="tws10nov07">{{cite news
| author = Robert G. Kaiser
| title = Iraq Aside, Nominees Have Like Views on Use of Force
| quote = Bacevich, who has endorsed Obama, is a stern critic of what he considers the militarization of U.S. foreign policy, and he regards this consensus as "far more important than any apparent differences" between the candidates and their advisers.
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = October 27, 2008
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/26/AR2008102602179.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> Marais wamekuwa watuhumiwa wa kuunga mkono madikteta kama vile [[Shah wa Iran,]] <ref name="tws10nov08">{{cite news
| title = The Mystic Who Lit The Fires of Hatred
| quote = But the U.S. saw the Shah as a stable and valuable ally. ... the U.S. lent the Shah its all-out support. President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger allowed him to buy all the modern weapons he wanted. Washington also gave its blessing to a flood of American business investment in Iran and dispatched an army of technocrats there.
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = Jan. 7, 1980
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923854,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> [[Musharraf]] wa [[Pakistan,]] <ref name="tws10nov09">{{cite news
| author = Michael Abramowitz and Robin Wright
| title = Bush More Emphatic In Backing Musharraf
| quote = President Bush yesterday offered his strongest support of embattled Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, saying the general 'hasn't crossed the line' and 'truly is somebody who believes in democracy.'
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = November 21, 2007
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/20/AR2007112002304.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> na [[Marcos]] wa [[Ufilipino.]] <ref name="tws10nov10">{{cite news
| author = Henry Grunwald
| title = Essay: Marcos, Baby Doc - Why Not the Rest?
| quote = Some critics blame the U.S. for the existence of just about all the world's non-Communist dictatorships. While it is true that many of these receive U.S. support, the forces that lead to dictatorship are usually beyond American control.
| publisher = Time Magazine
| date = May. 12, 1986
| url = http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,961354,00.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> Mkakati wa jumla kuhusu [[Mashariki]] ya [[Kati]] imekuwa criticized <ref name="tws10nov11">{{cite news
| author = Joshua Micah Marshall
| title = Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives
| quote = In Israel ... After giving a low priority to the peace process during his first two years in office, George W. Bush pushed the 'road map' for peace while relegating Yasir Arafat to the sidelines ... Finding himself stymied, the new Palestinian prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas, resigned; Arafat faces death or expulsion while being lionized among his constituents; bombings continue; and the region is as volatile and violent as ever.
| publisher = Foreign Affairs Magazine
| date = 2003-11
| url = http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59380/joshua-micah-marshall/remaking-the-world-bush-and-the-neoconservatives
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> vile vile utunzaji wa [[Korea ya Kaskazini]] <ref name="tws10nov11"></ref> na [[Iran.]] <ref name="tws10nov14">{{cite news
| title = Iran's Nuclear Program
| quote = American officials and international inspectors are concerned that Iran seems to have made significant progress in the three technologies necessary to field an effective nuclear weapon: enriching uranium to weapons grade; developing a missile capable of reaching Israel and parts of Western Europe; and designing a warhead that will fit on the missile.
| publisher = New York Times
| date = Oct. 21, 2009
| url = http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/iran/nuclear_program/index.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-10
}}</ref> Wakosoaji kuwa [[partisan siasa]] walidai kuwa wana interfered pamoja na sera za kigeni. <ref name="tws8nov07">{{cite news
| author = Eric M. Weiss and Charles Lane
| title = Vice President Sued by Plame And Husband
| quote = Plame and Wilson say that, after Wilson accused Bush of twisting intelligence about Iraq's pursuit of weapons of mass destruction, Cheney, Rove and Libby conspired to 'discredit, punish and seek revenge against the plaintiffs that included, among other things, disclosing to members of the press Plaintiff Valerie Plame Wilson's classified CIA employment.'
| publisher = Washington Post
| date = July 14, 2006
| url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/13/AR2006071301092.html
| accessdate = 2009-11-08
}}</ref>
 
 
 
==Angalia Pia==
 
*[[:Category:Lists relating to the United States presidency]]
*[[:Category:United States presidential history]]
*[[Laana ya Tippecanoe]]
*[[Uongo kuhusu mrithi wa rais wa Marekani]]
*[[Kihistoria Ranking ya Marais wa Marekani]]
*[[Imperial Prezidenti]]
*[[Imperiled urais]]
*[[Orodha Marais Marekani na cheo kijeshi]]
*[[Rais $ 1 Coin Program]]
*[[Kidini Marais wa Marekani]]
*''[[The Imperial Prezidenti]]''
*[[Makamu wa rais wa Marekani]]
 
 
 
==Marejeo==
{{reflist|2}}
 
 
 
==Marejeleo zaidi==
<div class="references-small">
 
*{{cite journal
| last = Bumiller
| first = Elisabeth
| authorlink = Elisabeth Bumiller
| title = Inside the Presidency
| journal = [[National Geographic Magazine|National Geographic]]
| volume = 215
| issue = 1
| pages = 130–149
| date = January 2009
| url = http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/01/president/bumiller-text}}
*Couch, Ernie. ''Rais Trivia.'' Rutledge Hill Press. 1 Machi 1996. ISBN 1-55853-412-1
*Lang, J. Stephen. ''Kukamilisha Kitabu ya Rais Trivia.'' Mwari Publishing. Septemba 2001. ISBN 1-56554-877-9
*Leonard Leo, James Taranto, na William J. Bennett. ''Rais Uongozi: Rating ya Juu na Worst katika White House.'' Simon na Schuster, Juni, 2004, Hardcover, 304 pages, ISBN 0-7432-5433-3
*''Rais Studies Quarterly,'' iliyochapishwa na Synergi Blackwell, ni robo journal kielimu juu ya Rais.
*Waldman, Michael, na George Stephanopoulos. ''Ndugu yangu Wamarekani: Speeches muhimu Marais wa Marekani, kutoka George Washington na George W. Bush.'' Biashara Sourcebooks. Septemba 2003. ISBN 1-4022-0027-7
*Winder, Michael K. ''[[Marais na Manabii:]] The Story of America's Marais na LDS Kanisa.'' Agano Communications. September 2007. ISBN 1-59811-452-2
</div>
 
 
 
==Viungo vya nje==
 
{{Wikisource|President of the United States}}
{{commons|Presidents of the United States|Presidents of the United States}}
 
===Rasmi===
 
*{{cite web|title=Executive Office of the President|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/president/|accessdate=2005-10-07}}
*{{cite web|title=White House|url=http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/|accessdate=2009-01-21}}
 
 
 
===Rais historia===
 
*[http://dca.tufts.edu/features/aas/index.html A New Taifa Votes: Uchaguzi Marekani Returns, 1787-1825] {{ndash}} Presidential Election Returns pamoja na kata ya mji breakdowns.
*{{cite web|title=Life Portraits of the American Presidents|work=C-SPAN|url=http://www.americanpresidents.org/|accessdate=2005-10-07}} {{ndash}} A rafiki tovuti kwa ajili ya C-SPAN televisheni: ''American Marais: Maisha Portraits''
*{{cite web|title=Presidential Documents from the National Archives|url=http://www.footnote.com/us-presidents.php|accessdate=2007-03-21}} {{ndash}} A ukusanyaji wa barua, portraits, photos, na nyaraka nyingine kutoka National Archives
*{{cite web|title=The American Presidency Project|work=UC Santa Barbara|url=http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/|accessdate=2005-10-07}} {{ndash}} A ukusanyaji wa Rais juu ya hati 67,000
 
 
 
===Miscellaneous===
 
*{{cite web|title=All the President's Roles|work=Ask Gleaves|url=http://www.gvsu.edu/hauenstein/index.cfm?id=600041AC-93E7-4378-305E5A2BF6EC3C57|accessdate=2006-10-20}} {{ndash}} An article kuchunguza rais's wengi kofia.
*{{cite web|title=Allpresidents.org|work=Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies|url=http://www.gvsu.edu/hauenstein/|accessdate=2006-10-18}} {{ndash}} An elimu tovuti tarehe urais wa Marekani.
*{{cite web|title=Presidents' Occupations|url=http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768854.html|accessdate=2007-08-20}} Listing ya kila Rais wavamizi (s) kabla na baada ya kuwa Kamanda katika Chief
*{{cite web|title=Presidential Rankings|work=Wall Street Journal|url=http://www.opinionjournal.com/hail/print_rankings.html|accessdate=2005-10-07}} {{ndash}} Opinion uchaguzi wa jinsi kubwa kila Rais ni aliamini kuwa.
*[http://www.friesian.com/presiden.htm Jamhuri Mkuu: Marais na Marekani ya Umoja wa Mataifa ya Amerika, na Comments on American History] [[Classical]] mtazamo [[huria]] ya Rais ya historia.
*{{cite web|title=The Masonic Presidents Tour|work=The Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania|url=http://www.pagrandlodge.org/mlam/presidents/index.html|accessdate=2005-10-07}} {{ndash}} muhtasari historia ya Masonic careers ya Marais ambao walikuwa wanachama wa [[Freemasons.]]
*{{cite web|title=The Presidents|work=American Experience|url=http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/|accessdate=2007-03-04}} {{ndash}} A PBS tovuti ya urais wa Marekani.
*[http://www.loc.gov/rr/program/bib/presidents/index.html Marais wa Marekani: Resource Guides] kutoka [[Library of Congress]]
 
 
{{US Presidents}}
{{USExecutives}}
{{Lists of US Presidents and Vice Presidents}}
{{EOP agencies}}
{{US military navbox}}
{{Uspresidentialelections|state=autocollapse}}
{{United States topics}}
 
 
[[Category:Marais wa Marekani| ]]
 
 
 
{{Link FA|lv}}
{{Link FA|vi}}
 
[[af:President van die Verenigde State van Amerika]]
[[am:የአሜሪካ ፕሬዚዳንት]]
[[an:President d'Estatos Unitos]]
[[ang:Foresittend þāra Ȝeānlǣhtra Rīca]]
[[ast:Presidentes de los Estaos Xuníos]]
[[az:ABŞ prezidentlərinin siyahısı]]
[[bg:Президент на Съединените американски щати]]
[[bn:মার্কিন যুক্তরাষ্ট্রের রাষ্ট্রপতি]]
[[br:Prezidant Stadoù-Unanet Amerika]]
[[bs:Predsjednik Sjedinjenih Američkih Država]]
[[ca:President dels Estats Units]]
[[co:Presidenti di i Stati Uniti d'America]]
[[cs:Prezident Spojených států amerických]]
[[cy:Arlywydd yr Unol Daleithiau]]
[[da:Amerikanske præsidenter]]
[[de:Präsident der Vereinigten Staaten]]
[[en:President of the United States]]
[[eo:Prezidanto de Usono]]
[[es:Presidente de los Estados Unidos]]
[[et:Ameerika Ühendriikide president]]
[[fa:رئیس جمهور ایالات متحده آمریکا]]
[[fi:Yhdysvaltain presidentti]]
[[fo:Forseti Sambandsríki Amerika]]
[[fr:Président des États-Unis]]
[[fy:Presidint fan de Feriene Steaten]]
[[ga:Uachtarán na Stát Aontaithe]]
[[gl:Presidentes dos Estados Unidos de América]]
[[gv:Eaghtyrane ny Steatyn Unnaneysit]]
[[he:נשיא ארצות הברית]]
[[hr:Predsjednik Sjedinjenih Američkih Država]]
[[hu:Az Amerikai Egyesült Államok elnöke]]
[[id:Daftar Presiden Amerika Serikat]]
[[it:Presidente degli Stati Uniti d'America]]
[[ja:アメリカ合衆国大統領]]
[[jv:Daftar Presiden AS]]
[[ka:აშშ-ის პრეზიდენტი]]
[[kn:ಅಮೇರಿಕ ಸಂಯುಕ್ತ ಸಂಸ್ಥಾನದ ರಾಷ್ಟ್ರಪತಿ]]
[[ko:미국의 대통령]]
[[lt:Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų prezidentas]]
[[lv:ASV prezidents]]
[[ml:അമേരിക്കൻ ഐക്യനാടുകളുടെ പ്രസിഡണ്ടുമാരുടെ പട്ടിക]]
[[ms:Presiden Amerika Syarikat]]
[[nl:President van de Verenigde Staten]]
[[nn:President i USA]]
[[no:USAs president]]
[[nrm:Président d's Êtats Unnis]]
[[pl:Prezydenci Stanów Zjednoczonych]]
[[pt:Presidente dos Estados Unidos]]
[[ro:Preşedinte al Statelor Unite ale Americii]]
[[ru:Президент США]]
[[scn:Prisidenti dî Stati Uniti]]
[[sh:Predsjednici Sjedinjenih Američkih Država]]
[[simple:President of the United States]]
[[sk:Prezident Spojených štátov]]
[[sl:Predsednik Združenih držav Amerike]]
[[sq:Kryetari i Shteteve të Bashkuara]]
[[sr:Председник Сједињених Америчких Држава]]
[[sv:USA:s president]]
[[th:ประธานาธิบดีสหรัฐอเมริกา]]
[[tl:Pangulo ng Estados Unidos]]
[[tr:ABD Başkanı]]
[[uk:Президенти США]]
[[uz:AQSh Prezidenti]]
[[vi:Tổng thống Hoa Kỳ]]
[[war:Mangulo han Estados Unidos]]
[[yi:פרעזידענט פון די פאראייניגטע שטאטן]]
[[zh:美国总统]]
[[zh-classical:美國總統]]
[[zh-yue:美國總統]]
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