Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Maana ya maisha"

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Nadharia za akili za kikwontamu hutumia nadharia ya kwontamu katika kuelezea baadhi ya sifa za akili. Kuelezea mchakato wa [[nia huru]] kupitia vifaa vya [[kwontamu|Kikwontamu]] ni mbadala maarufu badala ya uamulizi, kama nadharia hizo ambazo hazijabainishwa huweza kwa njia mbalimbali kuhusisha nia huru na panda-shuka za kikwontamu,<ref name="Bohm & Hiley">{{cite book |author=[[David Bohm]]; Basil J. Hiley |title=The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory |publisher=Routledge |year=1993 |isbn=0415065887}}</ref> kuongezeka kwa kikwontamu,<ref name="Bruce">{{cite book |author=Alexandra Bruce |title=Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!? |publisher=The Disinformation Company |year=2005 |isbn=1932857222}}</ref> nguvu za kikwontamu<ref name="Bohm & Hiley" /> na uwezekano wa kikwontamu.<ref name="Libet, Freeman, Sutherland">{{cite book |author=Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland |title=The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will |publisher=Imprint Academic |year=1999 |isbn=0907845118}}</ref>
 
Ikitegemea hoja ya maelezo ya akili yasiyoweza kuguzika, baadhi ya watu wamependekeza kuwepo kwa fahamu ya kikozmiki, wakidai kwamba fahamu kwa kweli ndio "msingi wa yote kuwepo".<ref name="Walker"/><ref name="Bruce" /><ref name="Ho">{{cite book |author=[[Mae-Wan Ho]] |title=The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms |publisher=World Scientific |year=1998 |pages=218–231 |isbn=9810234279}}</ref> Wanaouunga mkono mtazamo huu wanaelezea kuhusu [matukio yasiyo vya kawaida, haswa uwezo wa kuhisi usio wa kawaida na uwezo wa kuyasoma mawazo kama ushahidi wa kuwepo kwa fahamu ya juu isiyoeleweka. Katika matumaini ya kuthibitisha kuwepo kwa mambo haya yasiyokuwa ya kawaida, wanaelimu nafsia wa mambo yasiyo ya kawaida wamefanya majaribio mbalimbali. Uchambuziwa unaoangalia mambo yote yaliyopo unaonyesha kuwa idadi ya wenye nguvu zisizo za kawaida (ingawa ndogo sana) kwa ulinganishaji imebaki thabiti, hivyo kusababisha takwimu zenye umuhimu kiujumla.<ref name=Radnin97>{{cite book |last=Radin |first=Dean |authorlink = |title=The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena |publisher=HarperSanFrancisco |year=1997 |isbn=0062515020}}</ref><ref name=Dunne>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer |journal=Journal of Scientific Exploration |volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=207–241 |year=2003 |url=http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v17n2a1.php |accessdate=2007-07-31 |format={{Dead link|date=Aprili 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3ADunne+intitle%3ADoes+psi+exist%3F+Replicable+evidence+for+an+anomalous+process+of+information+transfer&as_publication=Journal+of+Scientific+Exploration&as_ylo=2003&as_yhi=2003&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</ref><ref name=Dunne85>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena |journal=Foundations of Physics |volume=16 |issue=8 |pages=721–772 |year=1985 |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/ |doi=10.1007/BF00735378|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref> Ingawa baadhi ya wachambuzi wakosoaji wanahisi kuwa somo la kielimunafsia isiyo ya kawaida ni la [[kisayansi]], hawaridhishwi na matokeo ya majaribio yake.<ref name=Alcock03>{{cite journal |last=Alcock |first=James E. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance |journal=Journal of Consciousness Studies |volume=10 |issue=6-7 |pages=29–50 |year=2003 |url=http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref name=Hyman>{{cite journal |last=Hyman |first=Ray |title=Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |volume=59 |issue=1 |year=1995 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/rv0W|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref>
 
Wanaoyachunguza mambo haya tena upya, wanabaki na wasiwasi kwamba matokeo yanayoonekana kuwa na mafanikio huenda yakawa kutokana na utaratibu mbaya, watafiti wasiokuwa na mafunzo ya kutosha, au mbinu hafifu bali si athari halisi.<ref name=Akers>{{cite paper |author=Akers, C. |title=Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1986 |url=http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html
|accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref>{{cite paper |author=Child, I.L.
|title=Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1987 |url= http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html |accessdate=2007-07-30 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last=Wiseman |first=Richard |authorlink= |coauthors=Smith, Matthew, et al. |title=Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |year=1996 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/9VS8|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Lobach |first=E. |coauthors=Bierman, D. |title=The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects |work=Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention |url=http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf |year=2004 |pages=77–90 |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref>
 
==Mitazamo ya kifalsafa==
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