Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Maana ya maisha"

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[[File:Woher kommen wir Wer sind wir Wohin gehen wir.jpg|thumb|right|355px|''TunatokaTumetoka Wapi? Sisi ni niniNani? Tunaenda Wapi?''<br />MojawapoMmojawapo kati ya michoro maarufu ya msanii [[Paul Gauguin]] wa kipindi cha baada ya uimpreshonisti.]]
 
'''Maana ya maisha''' ni mojawapo ya masualakati ya kifalsafama[[suala]] kuhusu [[madhumuni]] na umuhimu wa [[binadamu]] kuwepo [[duniani]] auna wa [[maisha]] kwa jumla. Suala hilihilo linaweza kujitokeza kupitia maswalima[[swali]] mengi tofauti yanohusianayanayohusiana, kama vile ''Mbona tumekuwepo?'', ''Maisha yanahusu nini?'' na ''Ni nini maana ya haya yote?''
 
Limekuwa suala kuu la [[udadisi]] wakwa [[sayansi]], [[falsafa]] na [[teolojia]] tangu zamani. Kumekuwa na idadi kubwa ya majibu kwa maswali hayahayo kutoka asili mbalimbali za kiitikadiki[[itikadi]] na ki[[utamaduni]].
 
Maana ya maisha imechanganyikana kwa undani na [[dhana]] na [[imani]] za ki[[dini]] na kifalsafafalsafa na hugusia masuala mengine mengi, kama vile maana ya kiisharaki[[ishara]], [[ontolojia]], [[thamani (falsafa)|thamani]], kusudi, [[maadili]], mema na mabaya, [[hiari]], dhana za [[Mungu]], kuwepo kwa Mungu, [[nafsi]], na kinachoendelea baada ya maisha haya.
 
Michango ya sayansi kawaida ni ya moja kwa moja na inaeleza [[ukweli]] kutokana na mambo yanayopimika kuhusu [[ulimwengu]]; sayansi inatoa baadhi ya [[muktadha]] na inaweka mipaka kwa mazungumzo kuhusu [[mada]] zinazohusianazinazohusika.
 
Mbadala, mkabala ambapo binadamu ndiye lengo, na si mtazamio unaotumia nguvu za kikozmiki na za kidini ni swali: "Ni nini maana ya maisha yangu?" Thamani ya swali linalohusu kusudi la maisha huweza kuwiana na kuupata ukweli wa mwisho, au [[hisia]] za [[umoja]], au hisia ya [[utakatifu]].
 
==Maswali na marejeo yake==
[[File:Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijn 038-crop.jpg|thumb|150px|right|''Mwanafalsafa katika kutafakari'' alivyochorwa na msanii [[Rembrandt]].]]
Maswali kuhusu maana ya maisha yameulizwa kwa njia mbalimbali zenye upana, ikiwemoyakiwemo zifuatazoyafuatayo:
 
*Maana ya maisha ni nini? Nini maana ya haya yote? Sisi ni nani? <ref name="Westphal">{{cite book |author=Jonathan Westphal |title=Philosophical Propositions: An Introduction to Philosophy |publisher=Routledge |year=1998 |isbn=0415170532}}</ref><ref name="Nozick">{{cite book |author=[[Robert Nozick]] |title=[[Philosophical Explanations]] |publisher=Harvard University Press |year=1981 |isbn=0674664795}}</ref><ref name="Jewell">{{cite book |author=Albert Jewell |title=Ageing, Spirituality and Well-Being |publisher=Jessica Kingsley
</ref>
 
*Kwa nini tumekuwepo? Sababu yetu ya sisi kuwa hapa ni nini? <ref name="Baggini" /><ref name="Thiemann & Placher">{{cite book |author=[[Ronald F. Thiemann]]; William Carl Placher |title=Why Are We Here?: Everyday Questions and the Christian Life |publisher=Continuum International Publishing Group |year=1998 |isbn=1563382369}}</ref><ref name="Marcellino">{{cite book |author=Dennis Marcellino |title=Why Are We Here?: The Scientific Answer to this Age-old Question (that you don't need to be a scientist to understand) |publisher=Lighthouse Pub |year=1996 |isbn=0945272103}}</ref><ref name="Curtiss">{{cite book |author=F. Homer Curtiss |title=Why Are We Here |publisher=Kessinger Publishing |year=2003 |isbn=0766138992}}</ref><ref name="Badke">{{cite book |author= William B. Badke |title=The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Meaning of Everything |publisher=Kregel Publications |year=2005 |isbn=0825420695}}</ref><ref name="Hua">{{cite book |author=Hsuan Hua |title=Words of Wisdom: Beginning Buddhism |publisher=Dharma Realm Buddhist Association |year=2003 |isbn=0881393029}}</ref>
 
*Asili ya maisha[[uhai]] ni nini? <ref name="Davies">{{cite book |author=[[Paul Davies]] |title=The Fifth Miracle: The Search for the Origin and Meaning of Life |publisher=Simon & Schuster |date=Machi 2000 |url=http://www.simonsays.com/content/book.cfm?tab=1&pid=410133 |accessdate=2007-07-26 |isbn=0-684-86309-X}}</ref><ref name="Fadul">{{cite book |author=[[Jose Fadul]] |title=Lessons in Chess, Lessons in Life: Application of the Psychology of the Game in Real Life |publisher=Lulu Press |date= 2008 |isbn=978-0-557-02158-1}}</ref>
 
*Hali ya maisha ni nini? Hali ya ukweliUkweli ni nini? <ref name="Davies" /><ref name="Christiansen & Baum & Bass-Haugen">{{cite book |author=Charles Christiansen; Carolyn Manville Baum; Julie Bass-Haugen |title=Occupational Therapy: Performance, Participation, and Well-Being |publisher=SLACK Incorporated |year=2005 |isbn=1556425309}}</ref><ref name="Walker">{{cite book |author=[[Evan Harris Walker]] |title=The Physics of Consciousness: The Quantum Mind and the Meaning of Life |publisher=Perseus Books |year=2000 |isbn=0738204366}}</ref>
 
* Madhumuni ya maisha ni nini? Madhumuni ya maisha ya mtu ni nini? <ref name="WITMOL" /><ref name="Baggini" /><ref name="Christiansen & Baum & Bass-Haugen" /><ref name="warren">{{cite book |author=[[Rick Warren]] |title=[[The Purpose Driven Life|The Purpose Driven Life: What on Earth Am I Here For?]] |publisher=Zondervan |year=2002 |isbn=0310255252}}</ref><ref name="Krishnamurti">{{cite book |author=[[Jiddu Krishnamurti]] |title=What Are You Doing With Your Life? |publisher=Krishnamurti Foundation of America |year=2001 |isbn=188800424X}}</ref>
 
*Maana ya maisha ni nini? <ref name="Krishnamurti" />
*Thamani ya maisha ni nini? <ref name="Fadul" /><ref name="Van Hooft">{{cite book |author=Stan Van Hooft |title=Life, Death, and Subjectivity: Moral Sources in Bioethics |publisher=Rodopi |year=2004 |isbn=9042019123}}</ref>
 
*Sababu ya kuishi ni nini? MbonaKwa nini tunaishi? <ref name="Hua" /><ref name="Fadul" /><ref name="Shafer-Landau & Cuneo">{{cite book |author=Russ Shafer-Landau; Terence Cuneo |title=Foundations of Ethics: An Anthology |publisher=Blackwell Publishing |year=2007 |isbn=1405129514}}</ref>
 
==Uchunguzi wa kisayansi==
[[File:DNA Overview.png|thumb|left|140px|[[DNA]] ambayo ina maelekezo ya kijenitikiki[[jenitikia]] kwa ajili ya [[maendeleo]] na [[utendaji]] wa [[uhai|viumbe vyote hai vyote]].]]
 
Kwamba [[sayansi]] inaweza kutusaidia kuelewa zaidi kuhusu masuala ya msingi (kama vile maana ya maisha) ni suala linalozua mabishano mengi katika jamii za sayansi na [[falsafa ya kisayansisayansi]].
 
Hata hivyo, sayansi inaweza kutupa muktadha fulani na huiweka baadhi ya mipaka ya mazungumzo kuhusu mada zinazolinganakama hizo.
 
===Umuhimu wa kisaikolojia na thamani katika maisha===
Sayansi huenda ikashindwa kutuambia nini ni cha thamani muhimu maishani, lakini baadhi ya masomofani zake hugusia maswali yanayohusiana: watafiti katika [[saikolojia chanya]] (na,hutafuta mapemasababu nazinazoleta bilahali umakiniya mwingi, katika [[saikolojia]]ndani ya [[binadamu]]) hufanya utafiti kuhusu sababu zinazoleta kuridhika na maisha,.<ref>E. Diener, J.J. Sapyta, E. Suh (1998). "Subjective Well-Being Is Essential to Well-Being." ''Psychological Inquiry'', Lawrence Earlbaum</ref> kujihusisha vikamilifu katika shughuli,<ref>Csíkszentmihályi, Mihály (1990). ''Flow: The Balls of Optimal Experience''. New York: Harper and Row. ISBN 0-06-092043-2.</ref> kufanya mchango zaidi kwa kutumia vipawa vya kibinafsi,<ref>Peterson, Christopher; Seligman, Martin (2004). ''Character strengths and virtues: A handbook and classification''. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-516701-5.</ref> na maana iliyo na msingi wa kuwekeza katika jambo kubwa kuliko mtu binafsi.<ref>Seligman, M.E.P. (2002). ''Authentic Happiness: Using the New Positive Psychology to Realize Your Potential for Lasting Fulfillment.'' New York: Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2297-0 (Paperback edition, 2004, Free Press, ISBN 0-7432-2298-9)</ref>
 
Aina moja ya mfumo wa thamani uliopendekezwailiyopendekezwa na wanaelimunafsia[[wataalamu]] wa [[elimunafsia ya jamii]], uitwayoiitwayo kwa upana "Nadharia ya Kupambana na Mambo ya Kutisha", inasema kwamba maana yote ya binadamu inatokana na [[hofu]] ya kimsingimsingi ya [[kifo]], ambapo maadili yanachaguliwa yanapotusaidia kuepukana na kumbukumbu ya kifo.
 
[[Sayansi]] ya [[niurolojia]] imetunga [[nadharia]] ya [[malipo]], [[raha]] na [[msukumo]] katika masuala ya kimwiliki[[mwili]] kama shughuli za kupitisha [[ujumbe za kiniuro, hasa katika mfumo wa kilimbi na haswaeneo la kiventrali tegimentali]]. Ikiwa mtu anaamini kwamba maana ya maisha ni kufanya raha iweziwe nyingi iwezekanavyo, basi nadharia zinatoa [[utabiri]] unaozidi kuongezeka, kuhusu jinsi ya kufanya ili kufanikisha hilihilo.
 
[[Somo la kijamii]] linapima thamani katika ngazi ya kijamii kwa kubuni nadharia kama vile nadharia ya thamani kanuni, [[anomi]], n.k.
 
===Asili na hali ya maisha ya kibaiolojia===
Kufanya kazi kwa [[abayojenesisi]] hakueleweki kwa [[ufasaha]]: nadharia mashuhuri ni pamoja na nadharia ya dunia ya [[RNA]] (vitoaji aina sawa katika makao ya RNA) na nadharinadharia ya dunia ya [[chuma]]-[[sulfuri]] ([[umetaboli]] bila JenitikiJenetikia). Nadharia ya [[mabadiliko ya viumbe]] haijaribu kuelezea asili ya maishauhai, bali utaratibu[[mchakato]] ambao viumbe tofauti vimepitia katika kipindi chote cha [[historia]] kupitia [[mabadiliko ya ghafla ya kijenitikikijenitikia]] na [[uteuzi wa kiasili]]<ref>[[Charles Darwin]] (1859). ''[[On the Origin of Species]]''.</ref> Wakati wa mwisho wa [[karne ya 20]], kwa kuzingatia ufahamu kutoka [[mtazamo wa mbadilikomabadiliko waya viumbe unaotegemea [[jeni haswa]] hasa, wanabaiolojia[[wanabiolojia]] [[George C. Williams]], [[Richard Dawkins]], [[David Haig]], miongoni mwa wengine, wanahitimisha kwamba ikiwa kuna kazi msingi ya maisha, ni kujinakilisha kwa DNA na kuendelea kuwa hai kwa jeni za mtu.<ref name="Dawkins selfish gene">{{cite book |author=[[Richard Dawkins]] |title=[[The Selfish Gene]] |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=1976 |isbn=019857519X}}</ref><ref name="Dawkins river">{{cite book |author=[[Richard Dawkins]] |title=[[River out of Eden]] |publisher=Basic Books |location=New York |year=1995 |isbn=0-465-06990-8}}</ref>
 
Hata hivyo, ingawaIngawa wanasayansi wameyachunguza maisha vilivyoyalivyo Dunianiduniani, kuyafafanua [[maisha]] kibayanabayana bado ni changamoto.<ref>[http://www.astrobio.net/news/article226 Astrobiology Magazine: Defining Life]</ref><ref>[http://www.nbi.dk/~emmeche/cePubl/97e.defLife.v3f.html Defining Life, Explaining Emergence<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> Kimwili, mtu anaweza kusema kwamba maisha "hula [[entirofi]] hasi" <ref>{{cite book | last = Schrödinger | first = Erwin | title = What is Life? | publisher = Cambridge University Press | year = 1944 | isbn = 0-521-42708-8}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Margulis | first = Lynn | coauthors = Sagan, Dorion | title = What is Life? | publisher = University of California Press | year = 1995 | isbn = 0-520-22021-8}}</ref> ambayo inahusuwalio utaratibu ambao waliohaihai wanapunguza entirofi yao ya kindanindani kwa [[gharama]] ya aina fulani ya [[nishati]] inayochukuliwa ndani kutoka [[mazingira]].<ref>{{cite book | last = Lovelock | first = James | title = Gaia – a New Look at Life on Earth | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 2000 | isbn = 0-19-286218-9}}</ref><ref>{{cite book | last = Avery | first = John | title = Information Theory and Evolution | publisher = World Scientific | year = 2003 | isbn = 9812383999}}</ref>
 
Wanabiolojia kiujumlakwa jumla wanakubaliana kwamba viumbe mbalimbali ni [[mifumo inayojipanga yenyewe]] inayosimamia mazingira ya ndani ili kudumisha hali hii ya mpango, shughuli za kimetaboliki hutumika kutoa nishati, na [[uzazi]] unaruhusu maishauhai kuendelea kwa vizazi vingi. KawaidaKwa kawaida, maumbilema[[umbile]] huwa sikivu kwa [[uchochezi]] na habari za kijenitikikijenitikia, hivyo huelekea kubadilidakubadilika kutoka [[kizazi]] hadi kizazi ili kuruhusu marekebisho kupitia mabadiliko ya kimwili,. hiziSifa sifahizo huongeza nafasi ya kuishi ya [[kiumbe]] binafsi na wazao wake kwa mtiririko huo.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www2.una.edu/pdavis/BI%20101/Overview%20Fall%202004.htm |title=How to Define Life |accessdate=2008-10-17 |last=Davison |first=Paul G. |publisher=The University of North Alabama }}</ref><ref>Witzany, G. (2007). The Logos of the Bios 2. Bio-Communication. Helsinki, Umweb.</ref>
 
Viwakala visivyokuwa vya seli vinavyozaana, hasa [[virusi]], kwa ujumla sijumla havitazamwi kama viumbe kwa sababu haviwezi kuzaana kwa "kujitegemea" au kuendezakuendesha shughuli za kimetaboliki. [[Pambano]] hilihilo ni tatizo, ingawa, baadhi ya vimelea na visimbayonti vya ndani ya mwili pia vinaweza kuishi maisha ya kujitegemea.
Astrobaiolojia inajihusisha na masomo ya uwezekano wa kuwa na aina tofauti ya viumbe vyenye uhai katika ulimwengu mwingine, kama vile miundo ya kujinakilisha kutoka vifaa vingine visivyo DNA.
 
Astrobaiolojia[[Astrobiolojia]] inajihusisha na masomo ya uwezekano wa kuwa na aina tofauti ya viumbe vyenye uhaihai katika [[ulimwengu]] mwingine, kama vile miundo ya kujinakilisha kutoka vifaa vingine visivyo DNA.
===Asili na hatma ya mwisho ya ulimwengu===
[[File:CMB Timeline75.jpg|right|268px|thumb|[[upanuzi wa kimetriki wa nafasi]]. Enzi ya kupanda ni kupanuka kwa kivuto cha kimetriki kilichoko upande wa kushoto.]]
 
===Asili na hatma ya mwishohatima ya ulimwengu===
Ingawa mfano wa Mlipuko Mkubwa ulipambana na mashaka mengi ulipozinduliwa kwa mara ya kwanza, shaka iliyochangiwa na uhusiano na dhana ya dini ya [[uumbaji]], imekuja kuungwa mkono na uchunguzi kadhaa wa kujitegemea.<ref>{{cite book | author = Helge Kragh | title = Cosmology and Controversy | publisher = Princeton University Press | year = 1996 | isbn=069100546X}}</ref> Hata hivyo, fizikia ya sasa inaweza kuelezea tu ulimwengu wa mapema kutoka sekunde 10<sup>_"43</sup> baada yaMlipuko Mkubwa (ambapo muda sufuri unawiana na kipimo joto kinafikia idadi isiyopimika), nadharia fulani ya mvuto wa kikwontamu huenda ikahitajika kurudi nyakati zazaidi. Hata hivyo wanafizikia wengi wamedadisi kuhusu nini kinachoweza kuwa kimetangulia kikomo hiki, na jinsi ulimwengu ulivyoanza.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle">{{cite book |author=Nikos Prantzos; Stephen Lyle |title=Our Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2000 |isbn=052177098X}}</ref> Baadhi ya wanafizikia hudhani kuwa Mlipuko Mkubwa ulitokea kiajali, na wakati kanuni ya kianthropiki inapozingatiwa, mara nyingi hutafsiriwa kama kuashiria kuwepo kwa ulimwengu maridhawa.<ref name="Edwards">{{cite book |author=Rem B. Edwards |title=What Caused the Big Bang? |publisher=Rodopi |year=2001 |isbn=9042014075}}</ref>
[[File:CMB Timeline75.jpg|right|268px|thumb|[[upanuziUpanuzi wa kimetriki wa nafasi]]. Enzi ya kupanda ni kupanuka kwa kivuto cha kimetriki kilichoko upande wa kushoto.]]
 
Ingawa mfanodhana waya [[Mlipuko Mkubwamkuu]] ulipambanailipozinduliwa namara mashakaya mengikwanza ulipozinduliwailipambana kwana mara[[shaka]] yakwa kwanzawingi, shaka iliyochangiwa na uhusiano na dhanaimani ya dini ya [[uumbaji]], imekuja kuungwa mkono na [[uchunguzi]] kadhaa wa kujitegemea.<ref>{{cite book | author = Helge Kragh | title = Cosmology and Controversy | publisher = Princeton University Press | year = 1996 | isbn=069100546X}}</ref> Hata hivyo, [[fizikia]] ya sasa inaweza kuelezea tu ulimwengu waulivyokuwa mapema kutoka sekunde 10 baada ya kutokea<sup>_"43</sup> baada yaMlipuko Mkubwa (ambapo muda sufuri unawiana na kipimo joto kinafikia idadi isiyopimika), nadharia fulani ya mvuto wa kikwontamu huenda ikahitajika kurudi nyakati zazaidi. Hata hivyo wanafizikia[[Wanafizikia]] wengi wamedadisi kuhusu nini kinachowezainaweza kuwa kimetangulia kikomo hikiimetangulia, na jinsi ulimwengu ulivyoanza.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle">{{cite book |author=Nikos Prantzos; Stephen Lyle |title=Our Cosmic Future: Humanity's Fate in the Universe |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2000 |isbn=052177098X}}</ref> Baadhi ya wanafizikia hudhani kuwa Mlipuko Mkubwamkuu ulitokea kiajaliki[[ajali]], na wakati kanuni ya kianthropiki inapozingatiwa, mara nyingi hutafsiriwa kama kuashiria kuwepouwepo kwawa ulimwengu maridhawa.<ref name="Edwards">{{cite book |author=Rem B. Edwards |title=What Caused the Big Bang? |publisher=Rodopi |year=2001 |isbn=9042014075}}</ref>
Hata hivyo, haijalishi jinsi ulimwengu ulikuja kuwepo, hatma ya binadamu katika ulimwengu huu ni maangamizi kwani - hata kama ubinadamu utaishi muda huo wote - maisha ya kibaiolojia hatimaye yatashindwa kujiendeleza, iwe kupitia Kuthelujika Kukubwa, Kuraruka Kukubwa au Kupasuka Kukubw]. Ni bayana kuwa njia pekee ya kuishi milele itakuwa kuuongoza mtiririko wa nishati kwenye Kiasi cha Kikosimki na kuibadilisha hatma ya ulimwengu.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle" />{{page number}}
 
Hata hivyo, haijalishi jinsi ulimwengu ulikujaulivyokuja kuwepo, hatmahatima ya binadamu katika ulimwengu huu ni [[maangamizi]] kwani - hata kama ubinadamu utaishi muda huo wote - maisha ya kibaiolojiakibiolojia hatimaye yatashindwa kujiendeleza, iwe kupitia Kuthelujika Kukubwa, Kuraruka Kukubwa au Kupasuka Kukubw]. Ni bayana kuwa njia pekee ya kuishi milele itakuwa kuuongoza mtiririko wa nishati kwenye Kiasi cha Kikosimki na kuibadilisha hatma ya ulimwengu.<ref name="Prantzos & Lyle" />{{page number}}
===Maswali ya kisayansi kuhusu akili===
 
===Maswali ya kisayansisayansi kuhusu akili===
Hali ya kweli na asili ya [[fahamu]] na [[akili]] yenyewe pia yanajadiliwa sana katika sayansi. Pengo la maelezo kwa ujumla ni sawia na tatizo gumu la fahamu, na swali la [[nia huru]] pia linaonekana kuwa lenye umuhimu wa kimsingi. Maswala haya hupatikana zaidi katika nyanja ya sayansi koginitivu, [[Sayansi niurolojia]] na [[falsafa ya akili]], ingawa baadhi ya wanabaiolojia wa nyanja ya mabadiliko ya viumbe na wanafizikia wa kinadharia pia wameliashiria swala hilo mno.<ref name="Whitehouse">{{cite book |author=Harvey Whitehouse |title=The Debated Mind: Evolutionary Psychology Versus Ethnography |publisher=Berg Publishers |year=2001 |isbn=1859734278}}</ref><ref name="Gray">{{cite book |author=[[Jeffrey Alan Gray]] |title=Consciousness: Creeping Up on the Hard Problem |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2004 |isbn=0198520905}}</ref>