Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Maana ya maisha"

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===Maswali ya sayansi kuhusu akili===
Hali ya kweli na asili ya [[fahamu]] na [[akili]] yenyewe pia yanajadiliwavinajadiliwa sana katika sayansi. Pengo la maelezo kwa ujumla ni sawia na tatizo gumu la fahamu, na swaliSuala la [[nia huruhiari]] pia linaonekana kuwa lenyena umuhimu wa kimsingimsingi. MaswalaMasuala hayahayo hupatikana zaidi katika nyanja yaza [[sayansi koginitivu]], [[Sayansi niurolojia]] na [[falsafa ya akili]], ingawa baadhi ya wanabaiolojiawanabiolojia wa nyanja[[maendeleo ya uhai|mabadiliko ya viumbe]] na [[wanafizikia wa kinadharia]] pia wameliashiria swalasana hilosuala mnohilo.<ref name="Whitehouse">{{cite book |author=Harvey Whitehouse |title=The Debated Mind: Evolutionary Psychology Versus Ethnography |publisher=Berg Publishers |year=2001 |isbn=1859734278}}</ref><ref name="Gray">{{cite book |author=[[Jeffrey Alan Gray]] |title=Consciousness: Creeping Up on the Hard Problem |publisher=Oxford University Press |year=2004 |isbn=0198520905}}</ref>
 
[[File:Ascent of the Blessed.jpg|125px|right|thumb| ''Kuinuka kwa Watakatifu'' ni [[picha]] iliyochorwa na [[msanii]] [[Hieronymus Bosch]]. Inaonyesha sehemu inayofanana na [[pango]] lenye [[mwanga]] na watu wa kiroho, mara nyingi hutajwa katika ripoti za uzoefu wa kukikaribiawaliokikaribia kifo.]]
Mbinu punguzaji na za kuviondoa vitunyingine, kwa vile Mfano wa Rasimu Nyingi, hudai kwamba fahamu inaweza kuelezewakuelezwa kikamilifu kupitia Sayansina niurolojia, kupitia utendaji kazi wa [[ubongo]] na [[niuroni]] zake, hivyo basi kushikilia ubaiolojiaubiolojia wa kihalisia.<ref name="Gray" /><ref name="Churchland">{{cite book |author=[[Paul Churchland|Paul M. Churchland]] |title=A Neurocomputational Perspective: The Nature of Mind and the Structure of Science |publisher= MIT Press |year=1989 |isbn=0262531062}}</ref><ref name="Dennett">{{cite book |author=[[Daniel Dennett|Daniel Clement Dennett]] |title=[[Consciousness Explained]] |publisher=Little, Brown and Co. |year=1991 |isbn=0316180661}}</ref>
 
Kwa upande mwingine, baadhi ya wanasayansi, kama vile [[Andrei Linde,]] wanadhani kwamba fahamu, kama nafasi-wakati, huenda ikiwa na darajangazi zake za kindanindani za uhuru, na kwamba maoni ya mtu binafsi yanaweza kuwa ya halisi kama (au hata halisi kuliko) vifaa tunavyoweza kuviguzakuvigusa na kuviona.<ref name="Barrow, Davies, Harper">{{cite book |author=[[John D. Barrow]]; [[Paul Davies|Paul C. W. Davies]]; Charles L. Harper |title=Science and Ultimate Reality: Quantum Theory, Cosmology and Complexity |publisher=Cambridge University Press |year=2004 |isbn=052183113X}}</ref>
 
Nadharia ambazo hazijabainishwa za fahamu na nafasi-wakati zinaelezea kuhusu fahamu katika kuelezea "nafasi ya vipengele vyenye fahamu",<ref name="Barrow, Davies, Harper" /> mara nyingi zikijumuisha idadi kubwa ya mitazamo ya ziada.<ref name="Millay, Heinze">{{cite book |author=Jean Millay; Ruth-Inge Heinze |title=Multidimensional Mind: Remote Viewing in Hyperspace |publisher=North Atlantic Books |year=1999 |isbn=1556433069}}</ref> Nadharia za sumakuumeme za fahamu zinatatua tatizo lenye vipengele vingi la fahamu katika kusema kwamba eneo la sumakuumeme linalotokana na ubongo ndilo haswa linalobeba fahamu zoefu, hata hivyo kuna kutokubaliana kuhusu kutekelezwa kwa nadharia kama hiyo inayohusu utendaji kazi kwingine kwa akili.<ref>J. McFadden (2002) "[http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/electromagnetic-field-theory-of-consciousness.htm Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness]". ''Journal of Consciousness Studies'' '''9''' (4) pp. 23-50.</ref><ref name="Buccheri & Di Gesù & Saniga">{{cite book |author=R. Buccheri; V. Di Gesù; Metod Saniga |title=Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy |publisher=Springer |year=2000 |isbn=030646439X}}</ref>
 
Nadharia za [[sumakuumeme]] za fahamu zinatatua tatizo lenye vipengele vingi la fahamu kwa kusema eneo la sumakuumeme linalotokana na [[ubongo]] ndilo hasa linalobeba [[fahamu zoefu]]. Hata hivyo kuna kutokubaliana kuhusu kutekelezwa kwa nadharia kama hiyo inayohusu utendaji kazi kwingine kwa akili.<ref>J. McFadden (2002) "[http://www.mindcontrolforums.com/news/electromagnetic-field-theory-of-consciousness.htm Synchronous Firing and Its Influence on the Brain's Electromagnetic Field: Evidence for an Electromagnetic Field Theory of Consciousness]". ''Journal of Consciousness Studies'' '''9''' (4) pp. 23-50.</ref><ref name="Buccheri & Di Gesù & Saniga">{{cite book |author=R. Buccheri; V. Di Gesù; Metod Saniga |title=Studies on the Structure of Time: From Physics to Psycho(patho)logy |publisher=Springer |year=2000 |isbn=030646439X}}</ref>
Nadharia za akili za kikwontamu hutumia nadharia ya kwontamu katika kuelezea baadhi ya sifa za akili. Kuelezea mchakato wa [[nia huru]] kupitia vifaa vya [[kwontamu|Kikwontamu]] ni mbadala maarufu badala ya uamulizi, kama nadharia hizo ambazo hazijabainishwa huweza kwa njia mbalimbali kuhusisha nia huru na panda-shuka za kikwontamu,<ref name="Bohm & Hiley">{{cite book |author=[[David Bohm]]; Basil J. Hiley |title=The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory |publisher=Routledge |year=1993 |isbn=0415065887}}</ref> kuongezeka kwa kikwontamu,<ref name="Bruce">{{cite book |author=Alexandra Bruce |title=Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!? |publisher=The Disinformation Company |year=2005 |isbn=1932857222}}</ref> nguvu za kikwontamu<ref name="Bohm & Hiley" /> na uwezekano wa kikwontamu.<ref name="Libet, Freeman, Sutherland">{{cite book |author=Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland |title=The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will |publisher=Imprint Academic |year=1999 |isbn=0907845118}}</ref>
 
Nadharia za akili za kikwontamuki[[kwontamu]] hutumia [[nadharia ya kwontamu katika]] kuelezea baadhi ya sifa za akili. Kuelezea mchakato wa [[nia huru]] kupitia vifaa vya [[kwontamu|Kikwontamu]] ni mbadala maarufu badala ya uamulizi, kama nadharia hizo ambazo hazijabainishwa huweza kwa njia mbalimbali kuhusisha nia huru na panda-shuka za kikwontamu,<ref name="Bohm & Hiley">{{cite book |author=[[David Bohm]]; Basil J. Hiley |title=The Undivided Universe: An Ontological Interpretation of Quantum Theory |publisher=Routledge |year=1993 |isbn=0415065887}}</ref> kuongezeka kwa kikwontamu,<ref name="Bruce">{{cite book |author=Alexandra Bruce |title=Beyond the Bleep: The Definitive Unauthorized Guide to What the Bleep Do We Know!? |publisher=The Disinformation Company |year=2005 |isbn=1932857222}}</ref> nguvu za kikwontamu<ref name="Bohm & Hiley" /> na uwezekano wa kikwontamu.<ref name="Libet, Freeman, Sutherland">{{cite book |author=Benjamin Libet; Anthony Freeman; Keith Sutherland |title=The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will |publisher=Imprint Academic |year=1999 |isbn=0907845118}}</ref>
Ikitegemea hoja ya maelezo ya akili yasiyoweza kuguzika, baadhi ya watu wamependekeza kuwepo kwa fahamu ya kikozmiki, wakidai kwamba fahamu kwa kweli ndio "msingi wa yote kuwepo".<ref name="Walker"/><ref name="Bruce" /><ref name="Ho">{{cite book |author=[[Mae-Wan Ho]] |title=The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms |publisher=World Scientific |year=1998 |pages=218–231 |isbn=9810234279}}</ref> Wanaouunga mkono mtazamo huu wanaelezea kuhusu [matukio yasiyo vya kawaida, haswa uwezo wa kuhisi usio wa kawaida na uwezo wa kuyasoma mawazo kama ushahidi wa kuwepo kwa fahamu ya juu isiyoeleweka. Katika matumaini ya kuthibitisha kuwepo kwa mambo haya yasiyokuwa ya kawaida, wanaelimu nafsia wa mambo yasiyo ya kawaida wamefanya majaribio mbalimbali. Uchambuziwa unaoangalia mambo yote yaliyopo unaonyesha kuwa idadi ya wenye nguvu zisizo za kawaida (ingawa ndogo sana) kwa ulinganishaji imebaki thabiti, hivyo kusababisha takwimu zenye umuhimu kiujumla.<ref name=Radnin97>{{cite book |last=Radin |first=Dean |authorlink = |title=The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena |publisher=HarperSanFrancisco |year=1997 |isbn=0062515020}}</ref><ref name=Dunne>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer |journal=Journal of Scientific Exploration |volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=207–241 |year=2003 |url=http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v17n2a1.php |accessdate=2007-07-31 |format={{Dead link|date=Aprili 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3ADunne+intitle%3ADoes+psi+exist%3F+Replicable+evidence+for+an+anomalous+process+of+information+transfer&as_publication=Journal+of+Scientific+Exploration&as_ylo=2003&as_yhi=2003&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</ref><ref name=Dunne85>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena |journal=Foundations of Physics |volume=16 |issue=8 |pages=721–772 |year=1985 |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/ |doi=10.1007/BF00735378|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref> Ingawa baadhi ya wachambuzi wakosoaji wanahisi kuwa somo la kielimunafsia isiyo ya kawaida ni la [[kisayansi]], hawaridhishwi na matokeo ya majaribio yake.<ref name=Alcock03>{{cite journal |last=Alcock |first=James E. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance |journal=Journal of Consciousness Studies |volume=10 |issue=6-7 |pages=29–50 |year=2003 |url=http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref name=Hyman>{{cite journal |last=Hyman |first=Ray |title=Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |volume=59 |issue=1 |year=1995 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/rv0W|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref>
 
Ikitegemea hoja ya maelezo ya akili yasiyoweza kuguzikakugusika, baadhi ya watu wamependekeza kuwepouwepo kwawa [[fahamu ya kikozmiki]], wakidai kwamba fahamu kwa kweli ndiondiyo "msingi wa yote kuwepo".<ref name="Walker"/><ref name="Bruce" /><ref name="Ho">{{cite book |author=[[Mae-Wan Ho]] |title=The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms |publisher=World Scientific |year=1998 |pages=218–231 |isbn=9810234279}}</ref> WanaouungaWanaounga mkono mtazamo huuhuo wanaelezea kuhusu [matukio yasiyo vya kawaida, haswahasa uwezo wa kuhisi usio wa kawaida na uwezo wa kuyasoma mawazo, kama [[ushahidi]] wa kuwepouwepo kwawa fahamu ya juu isiyoeleweka. Katika matumainima[[tumaini]] ya kuthibitisha kuwepouwepo kwawa mambo hayahayo yasiyokuwa ya kawaida, wanaelimu nafsiawanaelimunafsia wa mambo yasiyo ya kawaida wamefanya majaribioma[[jaribio]] mbalimbali. UchambuziwaUchambuzi unaoangalia mambo yote yaliyopo unaonyesha kuwa idadi ya wenye nguvu zisizo za kawaida (ingawa ndogo sana) kwa ulinganishaji imebaki thabiti, hivyo kusababisha takwimu zenye umuhimu kiujumla.<ref name=Radnin97>{{cite book |last=Radin |first=Dean |authorlink = |title=The Conscious Universe: The Scientific Truth of Psychic Phenomena |publisher=HarperSanFrancisco |year=1997 |isbn=0062515020}}</ref><ref name=Dunne>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Does psi exist? Replicable evidence for an anomalous process of information transfer |journal=Journal of Scientific Exploration |volume=17 |issue=2 |pages=207–241 |year=2003 |url=http://www.scientificexploration.org/jse/abstracts/v17n2a1.php |accessdate=2007-07-31 |format={{Dead link|date=Aprili 2009}} &ndash; <sup>[http://scholar.google.co.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=&q=author%3ADunne+intitle%3ADoes+psi+exist%3F+Replicable+evidence+for+an+anomalous+process+of+information+transfer&as_publication=Journal+of+Scientific+Exploration&as_ylo=2003&as_yhi=2003&btnG=Search Scholar search]</sup>}}</ref><ref name=Dunne85>{{cite journal |last=Dunne |first=Brenda J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=On the quantum mechanics of consciousness, with application to anomalous phenomena |journal=Foundations of Physics |volume=16 |issue=8 |pages=721–772 |year=1985 |url=http://www.springerlink.com/content/vtrr87tg356154r7/ |doi=10.1007/BF00735378|accessdate=2007-07-31}}</ref> Ingawa baadhi ya [[wachambuzi wakosoaji]] wanahisi kuwa somo la kielimunafsia[[elimunafsia isiyo ya kawaida]] ni la [[kisayansi]]sayansi, hawaridhishwi na matokeo ya majaribio yake.<ref name=Alcock03>{{cite journal |last=Alcock |first=James E. |authorlink= |coauthors=Jahn, Robert G. |title=Give the Null Hypothesis a Chance |journal=Journal of Consciousness Studies |volume=10 |issue=6-7 |pages=29–50 |year=2003 |url=http://www.imprint.co.uk/pdf/Alcock-editorial.pdf |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref name=Hyman>{{cite journal |last=Hyman |first=Ray |title=Evaluation of the program on anomalous mental phenomena |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |volume=59 |issue=1 |year=1995 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n4_v59/ai_18445600 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/rv0W|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref>
Wanaoyachunguza mambo haya tena upya, wanabaki na wasiwasi kwamba matokeo yanayoonekana kuwa na mafanikio huenda yakawa kutokana na utaratibu mbaya, watafiti wasiokuwa na mafunzo ya kutosha, au mbinu hafifu bali si athari halisi.<ref name=Akers>{{cite paper |author=Akers, C. |title=Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1986 |url=http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html
 
WanaoyachunguzaWanaochunguza mambo haya tena upya, wanabaki na [[wasiwasi]] kwamba matokeo yanayoonekana kuwa na mafanikio huenda yakawa kutokanayanatokana na [[utaratibu]] mbaya, na watafiti wasiokuwa na mafunzo ya kutosha, au mbinu hafifu bali si athari halisi.<ref name=Akers>{{cite paper |author=Akers, C. |title=Methodological Criticisms of Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 4 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1986 |url=http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances4/7_Methodological_Criticisms.html
|accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref><ref>{{cite paper |author=Child, I.L.
|title=Criticism in Experimental Parapsychology, Advances in Parapsychological Research 5 |publisher=PesquisaPSI |year=1987 |url= http://www.pesquisapsi.com/books/advances5/6_Criticism_in_Experimental.html |accessdate=2007-07-30 }}</ref><ref>{{cite journal |last=Wiseman |first=Richard |authorlink= |coauthors=Smith, Matthew, et al. |title=Exploring possible sender-to-experimenter acoustic leakage in the PRL autoganzfeld experiments - Psychophysical Research Laboratories |journal=The Journal of Parapsychology |year=1996 |url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2320/is_n2_v60/ai_18960809 |accessdate=2007-07-30|archiveurl=http://archive.is/9VS8|archivedate=2012-07-09}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |last=Lobach |first=E. |coauthors=Bierman, D. |title=The Invisible Gaze: Three Attempts to Replicate Sheldrake's Staring Effects |work=Proceedings of the 47th PA Convention |url=http://www.parapsych.org/papers/07.pdf |year=2004 |pages=77–90 |format=PDF |accessdate=2007-07-30}}</ref>