Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mtumiaji:Rberetta/mpya"

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Kazi
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{{Uainishaji
| rangi = #D3D3A4
| jina = SaolaPalahala pembe-nne
| picha = Pseudoryx nghetinhensis, bFour-horned_Antelope.PNGJPG
| upana_wa_picha = 250px
| maelezo_ya_picha = SaolaPalahala pembe-nne wa kiume<br><sup>(''PseudoryxTetracerus nghetinhensisquadricornis'')</sup>
| himaya = [[Mnyama|Animalia]] <small>(Wanyama)</small>
| faila = [[Chordata]] <small>(Wanyama wenye ugwe wa neva mgongoni)</small>
| bingwa_wa_familia = [[John Edward Gray|J. E. Gray]], 1821
| nusufamilia = [[Bovinae]] <small>(Wanyama wanaofanana na ng'ombe)</small>
| jenasi = ''[[PseudoryxTetracerus]]'' <small>(Wanyama kama saolapalahala pembe-nne)</small>
| bingwa_wa_jenasi = Dung, Giao, Chinh, Tuoc, Arctander[[William andElford MacKinnonLeach|Leach]], 19931825
| spishi = ''[[SaolaPalahala pembe-nne|PT. nghetinhensisquadricornis]]''
| bingwa_wa_spishi = Dung,([[Henri Giao,Marie Chinh, Tuoc,Ducrotay Arctanderde andBlainville|de MacKinnonBlainville]], 19931816)
| subdivision = Nususpishi 3:
| ramani = Pseudoryx nghetinhensis distribution.png
:''T. q. quadricornis'' <small>(de Blainville, 1816)</small>
| maelezo_ya_ramani = Usambazaji wa saola
:''T. q. iodes'' <small>Hodgson, 1847</small>
:''T. q. subquadricornis'' <small>(Elliot, 1839)</small>
<!--
| ramani = Tetracerus quadricornis map.png
| maelezo_ya_ramani = Usambazaji wa saolapalahala pembe-nne
-->
}}
Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
 
'''SaolaPalahala pembe-nne''' ni mnyamapalahala wa porimdogo wa [[spishi]] ''PseudoryxTetracerus nghetinhensisquadricornis'' katika [[Familia (biolojia)|familia]] Bovidae, aliyeanayeishi mmojamsituni wawazi mamaliakwa adimu[[Uhindi]] zaidina kuliko wote duniani[[Nepal]]. Huyo ndiye mnyama pekee katika jenasi ''PseudoryxTetracerus''. Akiwa na kimo cha sm 55–64 tu mabegani, huyo ni mnyama mdogo kabisa katika familia Bovidae. Madume wa spishi hiyo ndio wa pekee miongoni mwa mamalia wote kwa sababu wana pembe nne za kudumu.
 
== Maelezo ==
Saola huishi misitu ya [[Vietnam]] na [[Laos]]. Saola ana mnasaba na [[ng'ombe]], [[mbuzi]] na [[palahala]],<ref name=DoiscienceMissing/> na spishi hiyo iliainishwa baada ya mzoga wake umegunduliwa na kikosi cha pamoja cha Wizara ya Misitu na "[[w:World Wide Fund for Nature|WWF]]", mnamo 1992 katika Hifadhi ya [[Vũ Quang]], Vietnam.<ref name=cite/> Kikosi hicho kiliona fuvu tatu za kichwa zenye pembe nyofu ndefu zisizo za kawaida, zilizowekwa nyumbani mwa wawindaji. Katika makala yao, kikosi kilipendekeza kufanywa "uchunguzi wa miezi mitatu kuangalia mnyama hai", lakini tupo miaka 20 baadaye, na bado hakuna mwanasayansi yeyote ambaye amemwona saola porini. Lakini saola hai alipigwa picha porini, mnamo Septemba ya 2013, na mtego wa kamera. Van Ngoc Thinh, mkurugenzi wa taifa wa WWF Vietnam, alisema "Huu ni ugunduzi muhimu na umetoa tena matumaini kwa ajili ya kufufua kwa spishi hiyo."<ref name=guardian/><ref name=wwf/> Idadi ya Saola wanaoishi haijuliwi, kama wanyama 11 tu wamerekodiwa wakiwa hai.
[[Picha:Vierhornantilope.jpg|thumb|left|Palahala pembe-nne wa kike]]
 
Palahala pembe-nne is among the smallest Asian bovids, standing just {{convert|55|to|64|cm|abbr=on}} tall at the shoulder, and weighing {{convert|17|to|22|kg|abbr=on}}. It has a generally slender build, with thin legs and a short tail. The coat is yellow-brown or reddish, fading to a whitish colour on the underparts and the insides of the legs. A black stripe of hair runs down the anterior surface of each leg, with black patches on the muzzle and the backs of the ears. Females have four teats, located far back on the abdomen.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
The most distinctive feature of the animal is the presence of four horns; a feature unique among extant mammals. Only the males grow horns, usually with two between the ears and a second pair further forward on the forehead. The first pair of horns appear at just a few months of age, and the second pair generally grow after 10 to 14 months. The horns are never shed, although they may be damaged during fights. Not all adult males have horns; in some individuals, especially those belonging to the subspecies ''T. q. subquadricornis'', the forward pair of horns is absent or represented only by small, hairless bumps. The hind pair of horns reaches {{convert|7|to|10|cm|abbr=on}} in length, while the forward pair is usually smaller, at just {{convert|2|to|5|cm|abbr=on}}.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
== Usambazaji na makazi ==
[[Picha:Tetracerus quadricornis map.png|thumb|Usambazaji wa palahala pembe-nne]]
Most wild four-horned antelope are found in [[India]], with small, isolated populations in [[Nepal]]. Their range extends south of the [[Ganges|Gangetic]] plains down to the state of [[Tamil Nadu]], and east as far as [[Odisha]]. They also occur in the [[Gir Forest National Park]] of western India.<ref name=iucn/><ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
Four-horned antelope live in a variety of habitats across their range, but prefer open,<ref name=Krishna2008/><ref name=Krishna2009/> dry, deciduous forests in hilly terrain. They tend to remain in areas with significant vegetation cover from tall grasses or heavy undergrowth, and close to a supply of water. They generally stay away from human-inhabited areas.<ref name=Leslie2009/> Predators of four-horned antelopes include [[tiger]]s,<ref name=Biswas2006/> [[leopard]]s, and [[dhole]]s.<ref name=Karanth1992/>
 
== Mwenendo ==
Four-horned antelope are generally solitary animals, although they are occasionally found in groups of up to four individuals. They are sedentary, rather than nomadic, and may defend exclusive [[territory (animal)|territories]]. Males tend to become very aggressive towards other males during mating seasons. Adults make alarm calls that sound like a husky 'phronk', and other, quieter calls to communicate with young or other adults. They also communicate through [[scent marking]], leaving piles of droppings in their territories, and marking vegetation using large scent glands in front of the eyes.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
They are herbivorous, feeding on soft leaves, fruits, and flowers. Although the precise details of their diets in the wild are unknown, they have been observed to prefer plants such as [[Ziziphus mauritiana|Indian plum]], [[Phyllanthus emblica|Indian gooseberry]], ''[[Bauhinia]]'', and ''[[Acacia]]'' in artificial trials.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
== Uzazi ==
[[Picha:ChousinghaHead.jpg|left|thumb|Kichawa cha palahala pembe-nne]]
The breeding season lasts from May to July, and males and females generally remain apart for the remainder of the year. Courtship behaviour consists of the male and female kneeling and pushing at each other with intertwined necks, followed by ritual strutting by the male. [[Gestation]] lasts about eight months, and results in the birth of one or two young. At birth, the young are {{convert|42|to|46|cm|abbr=on}} long, and weigh {{convert|0.74|to|1.1|kg|abbr=on}}. Young remain with the mother for about a year, and reach sexual maturity at around two years.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
== Mabadiliko ==
[[Picha:Em - Tetracerus quadricornis - GMZ 1.jpg|thumb|right|Fuvu la kichwa la ''Tetracerus quadricornis'']]
The four-horned antelope is currently regarded as the only species in the genus ''Tetracerus''. Both genetic and morphological studies, however, confirm it as one of only two living members of the tribe [[Boselaphini]], with its closest living relative being the [[nilgai]]. This group originated at least 8.9 million years ago, in much the same area where the four-horned antelope lives today, and may represent the most "primitive" of all living bovids, having changed the least since the origins of the family.<ref name=Bibi2007/>
 
== Hifadhi ==
Living in a densely populated part of the world, the four-horned antelope is threatened by loss of its natural habitat to agricultural land. In addition, the unusual four-horned skull has been a popular target for [[trophy hunting|trophy hunters]]. Only around 10,000 four-horned antelope are estimated to remain alive in the wild, although many are in protected animal conservation areas. The species is protected under the [[Wildlife Protection Act of 1972|Indian Wildlife Protection Act]] and the Nepalese population is listed in Appendix III of [[CITES]].
 
Mnamo mwisho wa Agosti 2010, saola mmoja alikamatwa na wanakijiji Laos, lakini alikufa wakati alipokuwepo hali ya kufungwa, kabla ya wanahifadhi wa serikali hawajapanga kumwacha saoga kurudi porini. Mzoga unachunguzwa kuboresha ujuzi wa kisayansi wa saola.<ref name=BBCNews/><ref name=livescience/> Mara nyingine, wanyama hao wategwa katika mitego ambayo imewekwa kushika wanyama kama nguruwe mwitu wajao kula mimea ambayo imepandwa na wakulima. Zaidi ya mitego 26,651 imeondolewa kutoka makazi ambapo saola ameishi kwa miaka mingi.<ref name = save/>
 
Hadi sasa, saola wote ambao wamekamatwa wamekufa; hayo yamesababisha mawazo kwamba spishi hiyo haiwezi kuishi kwa kufungwa.
 
== Hali ya sasa ==
 
SaolaPalahala pembe-nne wameainishwa na IUCN kama spishi katikainayoweza hatarikudhuriwa, yakwa kipeosababu namaangamizi IUCNya makazi.<ref name=iucn/>
 
== Marejeo ==
{{reflist|refs=
<ref name=iucn>{{cite web|title=IUCN Red List|date=2014|url=http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/1859721661/0}}</ref>
<ref name=DoiscienceMissingLeslie2009>{{cite journal |doi author =10 Leslie, D.1126/scienceM.314.5804.1380 |title=The& Saola'sSharma Last StandK. | year=2006 |last1=Stone 2009 |first1 title =R. ''Tetracerus quadricornis'' (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) | journal =Science Mammalian Species | volume =314 |issue=5804843 | pages =1380–3 1–11 |pmid doi =17138879 10.1644/843.1 }}</ref>
<ref name=citeKrishna2008>{{cite journal |doi=10.1038/363443a0 |titleauthor =A newKrishna, speciesC.Y, ofKrishnaswamy, livingJ bovid& fromKumar, VietnamN.S. | year=1993 |last1=Dung 2008 |first1=Vu Vantitle |last2=Giao |first2=PhamHabitat Mongfactors |last3=Chinhaffecting |first3=Nguyensite Ngococcupancy |last4=Tuocand |first4=Dorelative |last5=Arctanderabundance |first5=Peterof |last6=MacKinnonfour |first6=Johnhorned antelope | journal =Nature Journal of Zoology | volume =363 276 | issue =6428 1 | pages =443 63–70 | doi = 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00470.x }}</ref>
<ref name=Krishna2009>{{cite journal | author = Krishna, C.Y, Clyne, P, Krishnaswamy, J & Kumar, N.S. | year = 2009 | title = Distributional and ecological review of the four horned antelope ''Tetracerus quadricornis'' | journal = Mammalia | volume = 73 | issue = 1 | pages = 1–6 | doi = 10.1515/MAMM.2009.003 }}</ref>
<ref name=guardian>[http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/nov/13/saola-sighting-vietnam-rare-mammal "Saola sighting in Vietnam raises hopes for rare mammal's recovery: Long-horned ox photographed in forest in central Vietnam, 15 years after last sighting of threatened species in wild", ''The Guardian,'' (November 13 2013).]</ref>
<ref name=Biswas2006>{{cite journal | author = Biswas, S. & Sankar, K. | year = 2002 | title = Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (''Panthera tigris tigris'') in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India | journal = Journal of Zoology | volume = 256 | issue = 3 | pages = 411–420 | doi = 10.1017/S0952836902000456}}</ref>
<ref name=wwf>[http://worldwildlife.org/stories/saola-rediscovered-rare-photos-of-elusive-species-from-vietnam "Saola Rediscovered: Rare Photos of Elusive Species from Vietnam", World Wildlife Federation (February 13 2013).]</ref>
<ref name=Karanth1992>{{cite journal | author = Karanth, K.U. & Sunquist, M.E. | year = 1992 | title = Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarhole, India | journal = Journal of Tropical Ecology | volume = 8 | issue = 1 | pages = 21–35 | doi = 10.1017/S0266467400006040}}</ref>
<ref name=BBCNews>{{cite news|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-11328123|title=Rare antelope-like mammal caught in Asia|work=BBC News|accessdate=16 September 2010|date=16 September 2010}}</ref>
<ref name=Bibi2007>{{cite journal | author = Bibi, F. | year = 2007 | title = Origin, paleoecology, and paleobiogeography of early Bovini | journal = Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | volume = 248 | issue = 1 | pages = 60–72 | doi = 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.009}}</ref>
<ref name=livescience>{{cite web|url=http://www.livescience.com/animals/asian-unicorn-saola-100916.html|title=Rare Asian 'Unicorn' Sighted, Dies in Captivity|work=livescience.com|accessdate=16 September 2010}}</ref>
<ref name = save>[http://www.savethesaola.org/ " Home - Saola Working Group ."] N.p., n.d. Web. 18 April 2013</ref>
}}
 
{{Commons category|PseudoryxTetracerus nghetinhensisquadricornis}}
 
{{mbegu-mnyama}}
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