Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Mtumiaji:Rberetta/mpya"

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Kazi
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{{Uainishaji
| rangi = #D3D3A4
| jina = Palahala pembe-nneLama
| picha = Four-horned_AntelopeLlama lying down.JPGjpg
| upana_wa_picha = 250px
| maelezo_ya_picha = PalahalaLama pembe-nne wa kiumeanayelala<br><sup>(''TetracerusLama quadricornisglama'')</sup>
| himaya = [[Mnyama|Animalia]] <small>(Wanyama)</small>
| faila = [[Chordata]] <small>(Wanyama wenye ugwe wa neva mgongoni)</small>
| ngeli = [[Mamalia]] <small>(Wanyama wenye viwele wanaonyonyesha wadogo wao)</small>
| oda = [[Artiodactyla]] <small>(Wanyama wenye vidole viwili au vinne mguuni)</small>
| nusuoda = [[RuminantiaTylopoda]] <small>(Wanyama wanaocheuawenye miguu inayovimba)</small>
| familia = [[BovidaeCamelidae]] <small>(Wanyama walio na mnasaba na [[ng'ombengamia]])</small>
| bingwa_wa_familia = [[John Edward Gray|J. E. Gray]], 1821
| nusufamiliajenasi = ''[[BovinaeLama (jenasi)|Lama]]'' <small>(Wanyama[[Lama wanaofanana(mnyama)|Lama]] na ng'ombe[[Guanako]])</small>
| bingwa_wa_jenasi = [[WilliamGeorges Elford LeachCuvier|LeachCuvier]], 18251800
| jenasi = ''[[Tetracerus]]'' <small>(Wanyama kama palahala pembe-nne)</small>
| spishi = ''[[L. glama]]'' <small>(Lama)</small>
| bingwa_wa_jenasi = [[William Elford Leach|Leach]], 1825
| bingwa_wa_spishi = ([[Carl Linnaeus|Linnaeus]], 1758)
| spishi = ''[[Palahala pembe-nne|T. quadricornis]]''
| ramani = Lama glama Vicugna pacos range.png
| bingwa_wa_spishi = ([[Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville|de Blainville]], 1816)
| maelezo_ya_ramani = Usambazaji wa palahalalama pembe-nnena vikunya
| subdivision = Nususpishi 3:
:''T. q. quadricornis'' <small>(de Blainville, 1816)</small>
:''T. q. iodes'' <small>Hodgson, 1847</small>
:''T. q. subquadricornis'' <small>(Elliot, 1839)</small>
<!--
| ramani = Tetracerus quadricornis map.png
| maelezo_ya_ramani = Usambazaji wa palahala pembe-nne
-->
}}
Kutoka Wikipedia, kamusi elezo huru
 
'''Palahala pembe-nneLama''' ni palahalamnyama mdogowa kufugwa wa [[spishi]] ''TetracerusLama quadricornisglama'' katika [[Familia (biolojia)|familia]] BovidaeCamelidae, anayeishi msituni wazi kwa [[Uhindi]]Amerika na [[NepalKusini]]. HuyoLama ndiyeametumiwa mnyamakwa pekeeupana katikakwa jenasi ''Tetracerus''.nyama Akiwayake na kimokubeba chamizigo smna 55–64[[Inca tuempire|Andean mabegani,cultures]] huyosince ni mnyama mdogo kabisa katika familia Bovidae. Madume wa spishi hiyo ndio wa pekee miongoni mwa mamalia wote kwa kuwa wana pembe nne za[[pre-Hispanic]] kudumutimes.
 
[[Picha:Domestic llama (2009-05-19).jpg|thumb|left|Lama wa kufugwa]]
== Maelezo ==
[[Picha:Vierhornantilope.jpg|thumb|left|Palahala pembe-nne wa kike]]
 
OLD: Akiwa na kimo cha sm 55–64 tu mabegani, huyo ni mnyama mdogo kabisa katika familia Bovidae. Madume wa spishi hiyo ndio wa pekee miongoni mwa mamalia wote kwa kuwa wana pembe nne za kudumu.
Palahala pembe-nne ni miongoni mwa wanyama wadogo zaidi wa familia bovidae wa Asia, akiwa na kimo cha sm 55–64 tu mabegani, na uzito wa kilo 17–22. Ana umbo dogo wenye miguu myembamba na mkia mfupi. Manyoya yake ni kahawia au kahawianyekundu, yakibadili kuwa meupe katika sehemu za ndani za miguu. Mchirizi mweusi wa nywele upo nje ya kila mguu, na ana maeneo meusi puani na sehemu za nyuma za masikio. Majike wana matiti manne, yaliyopo nyuma katika fumbatio.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
The height of a full-grown, full-size llama is 1.7 to 1.8&nbsp;m (5.5 to 6.0&nbsp;ft) tall at the top of the head, and can weigh between 130 and 200&nbsp;kg (280 to 450&nbsp;lb). At birth, a [[cria|baby llama]] (called a ''cria'') can weigh between 9 and 14&nbsp;kg (20 and 30&nbsp;lb). Llamas typically live for 15-25 years, with some individuals surviving 30 years or more.<ref name=Characteristics/><ref name=Facts/><ref name=FAQ/>
Kipengele cha mnyama huyo kisicho cha kawaida ni kuwepo kwa pembe nne; kipengele cha pekee miongoni mwa wanyama hai. Madume tu wana pembe, kwa kawaida wakiwa na pembe mbili kati ya masikio na mbili zaidi mbele yao pajini. Pembe za kwanza hutokea alipo na umri wa miezi michache tu, na za pili hutokea baada ya miezi 10 au 14. Pembe hizo haziambuliwi kamwe, ingawa labda zitadhuriwa wakati wa kupigana. Madume wazima wengine hawana pembe; hasa kwa nususpishi ''T. q. subquadricornis'' jozi ya pembe za mbele hazipo, au zipo kama nundu ndogo bila nywele. Jozi ya pembe za nyuma hufika urefu wa sm 7–10, huku jozi ya mbele ni kwa kawaida ndogo zaidi, sm 2–5 tu.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
[[Picha:Emmett and evie.JPG|thumb|left|Jika na ndama wake]]
== Usambazaji na makazi ==
[[Picha:Tetracerus quadricornis map.png|thumb|Usambazaji wa palahala pembe-nne]]
 
They are very social animals and live with other llamas as a [[herd]]. The wool produced by a llama is very soft and [[lanolin]]-free. Llamas are intelligent and can learn simple tasks after a few repetitions. When using a [[Backpack|pack]], they can carry about 25% to 30% of their body weight for 8–13 [[kilometre|km]] (5–8 [[mile]]s).<ref name="OK State"/>
Palahala pembe-nne wengi sana wa pori wapo [[Uhindi]], na makundi ya wanyama wachache yapo [[Nepal]]. Usambazaji wao huenea kusini ya tambarare ya [[Ganges|Gangetic]] mpaka jimbo la [[Tamil Nadu]], na mashariki mpaka [[Odisha]]. Wapo pia katika Hifadhi ya Taifa ya Msitu wa Gir, ya Uhindi ya magharibi.<ref name=iucn/><ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
The name ''llama'' (in the past also spelled 'lama' or 'glama') was adopted by [[European colonization of the Americas|European settlers]] from [[Indigenous people in Peru|native Peruvians]].<ref>Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition, "''llama''"</ref>
Palahala pembe-nne huishi katika makazi mbalimbali mahali kokote ndani ya usambazaji wao, lakini hupendelea misitu wazi,<ref name=Krishna2008/><ref name=Krishna2009/> mikavu, na ya kupukutika majani milimani. Palahala pembe-nne hubaki katika maeneo yenye uoto mwingi wa manyasi marefu au vichaka vizito, na karibu na maji. Wao hukaa mbali na maeneo ya binadamu.<ref name=Leslie2009/> Wanyama wawawindao palahala pembe-nne ni pamoja na [[chui milia]],<ref name=Biswas2006/> [[chui]], na [[dhole]] (mbwa pori wa Uhindi).<ref name=Karanth1992/>
 
Llamas appear to have originated from the central plains of [[North America]] about 40 million [[year]]s ago. They migrated to South America about three million years ago. By the end of the last [[Quaternary glaciation|ice age]] (10,000–12,000 years ago), camelids were extinct in North America.<ref name="OK State"/> As of 2007, there were over seven million llamas and [[alpaca]]s in South America, and due to importation from South America in the late 20th century, there are now over 158,000 llamas and 100,000 alpacas in the [[United States]] and [[Canada]].<ref name=Numbers/>
== Mwenendo ==
Palahala pembe-nne kwa kawaida ni wanyama wa upweke, ingawa mara chache wako katika makundi ya hadi wanne. Wao hupendelea kukaakaa, badala ya kuhamahama, na mara nyingi watakinga eneo lao kuwawekea wenyewe hilo. Madume huweza kuwa wagomvi kwa madume wengine wakati misimu ya kupandana. Wanyama wazima hufanya mlio wa kugutusha ulio na sauti kama "froank", na sauti nyingine zilizo tulivu zaidi kuwasiliana na watoto au wazima wengine. Wawasiliana pia kutumia harufu, wakiacha chungu za kinyesi barani mwao na kutia alama uoto kutumia tezi za harufu zilozopo mbele ya macho yao.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
They are herbivorous, feeding on soft leaves, fruits, and flowers. Although the precise details of their diets in the wild are unknown, they have been observed to prefer plants such as [[Ziziphus mauritiana|Indian plum]], [[Phyllanthus emblica|Indian gooseberry]], ''[[Bauhinia]]'', and ''[[Acacia]]'' in artificial trials.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
== Uzazi ==
[[Picha:ChousinghaHead.jpg|left|thumb|Kichawa cha palahala pembe-nne]]
The breeding season lasts from May to July, and males and females generally remain apart for the remainder of the year. Courtship behaviour consists of the male and female kneeling and pushing at each other with intertwined necks, followed by ritual strutting by the male. [[Gestation]] lasts about eight months, and results in the birth of one or two young. At birth, the young are {{convert|42|to|46|cm|abbr=on}} long, and weigh {{convert|0.74|to|1.1|kg|abbr=on}}. Young remain with the mother for about a year, and reach sexual maturity at around two years.<ref name=Leslie2009/>
 
== Mabadiliko ==
[[Picha:Em - Tetracerus quadricornis - GMZ 1.jpg|thumb|right|Fuvu la kichwa la ''Tetracerus quadricornis'']]
The four-horned antelope is currently regarded as the only species in the genus ''Tetracerus''. Both genetic and morphological studies, however, confirm it as one of only two living members of the tribe [[Boselaphini]], with its closest living relative being the [[nilgai]]. This group originated at least 8.9 million years ago, in much the same area where the four-horned antelope lives today, and may represent the most "primitive" of all living bovids, having changed the least since the origins of the family.<ref name=Bibi2007/>
 
== Hifadhi ==
Living in a densely populated part of the world, the four-horned antelope is threatened by loss of its natural habitat to agricultural land. In addition, the unusual four-horned skull has been a popular target for [[trophy hunting|trophy hunters]]. Only around 10,000 four-horned antelope are estimated to remain alive in the wild, although many are in protected animal conservation areas. The species is protected under the [[Wildlife Protection Act of 1972|Indian Wildlife Protection Act]] and the Nepalese population is listed in Appendix III of [[CITES]].
 
 
 
== Hali ya sasa ==
 
Palahala pembe-nne wameainishwa na IUCN kama spishi inayoweza kudhuriwa, kwa sababu maangamizi ya makazi.<ref name=iucn/>
 
== Marejeo ==
{{reflist|refs=
<ref name=Characteristics>
<ref name=iucn>{{cite web|title=IUCN Red List|date=2014|url=http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21661/0}}</ref>
{{cite web
<ref name=Leslie2009>{{cite journal | author = Leslie, D.M. & Sharma K. | year = 2009 | title = ''Tetracerus quadricornis'' (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) | journal = Mammalian Species | volume = 843 | pages = 1–11 | doi = 10.1644/843.1 }}</ref>
|url=http://www.nose-n-toes.com/characts.htm
<ref name=Krishna2008>{{cite journal | author = Krishna, C.Y, Krishnaswamy, J & Kumar, N.S. | year = 2008 | title = Habitat factors affecting site occupancy and relative abundance of four horned antelope | journal = Journal of Zoology | volume = 276 | issue = 1 | pages = 63–70 | doi = 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2008.00470.x }}</ref>
|title=Llama Characteristics
<ref name=Krishna2009>{{cite journal | author = Krishna, C.Y, Clyne, P, Krishnaswamy, J & Kumar, N.S. | year = 2009 | title = Distributional and ecological review of the four horned antelope ''Tetracerus quadricornis'' | journal = Mammalia | volume = 73 | issue = 1 | pages = 1–6 | doi = 10.1515/MAMM.2009.003 }}</ref>
|publisher=Nose-n-Toes
<ref name=Biswas2006>{{cite journal | author = Biswas, S. & Sankar, K. | year = 2002 | title = Prey abundance and food habit of tigers (''Panthera tigris tigris'') in Pench National Park, Madhya Pradesh, India | journal = Journal of Zoology | volume = 256 | issue = 3 | pages = 411–420 | doi = 10.1017/S0952836902000456}}</ref>
|date=2007-06-25}}</ref>
<ref name=Karanth1992>{{cite journal | author = Karanth, K.U. & Sunquist, M.E. | year = 1992 | title = Population structure, density and biomass of large herbivores in the tropical forests of Nagarhole, India | journal = Journal of Tropical Ecology | volume = 8 | issue = 1 | pages = 21–35 | doi = 10.1017/S0266467400006040}}</ref>
<ref name=Facts>
<ref name=Bibi2007>{{cite journal | author = Bibi, F. | year = 2007 | title = Origin, paleoecology, and paleobiogeography of early Bovini | journal = Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | volume = 248 | issue = 1 | pages = 60–72 | doi = 10.1016/j.palaeo.2006.11.009}}</ref>
{{cite web
|url=http://www.llamasofatlanta.com/llama_facts.htm
|title=Llama Facts 1
|publisher=Llamas of Atlanta
|date=2007-06-25}}</ref>
<ref name=FAQ>
{{cite web
|url=http://www.twincreeksllamas.com/faq/FAQs.htm
|publisher=Twin Creeks Llamas
|title=Llama FAQ
|date=2007-06-25}}</ref>
<ref name="OK State">
{{cite web
|url=http://www.ansi.okstate.edu/breeds/other/llama/
|publisher=[[Oklahoma State University]]
|title=Llama
|date=2007-06-25}}</ref>
<ref name=Numbers>
{{cite web
|url=http://www.scla.us/llamafacts.html
|author=South Central Llama Association
|title=Llama Facts 2
|date=2009-01-22}}</ref>
}}
 
{{Commons category|TetracerusLama quadricornisglama}}
 
{{mbegu-mnyama}}
{{Artiodactyla|RT.4}}
 
[[Jamii:Wanyama wa kufugwa]]
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