Tofauti kati ya marekesbisho "Kulturkampf"

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(Ukurasa ulianzishwa kwa kuandika 'thumb|200px|Papa Pius IX (1878 hivi). File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R29818, Otto von Bismarck.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Bismarck (1875...')
 
 
[[File:IX. Piusz pápa.jpg|thumb|200px|[[Mwenye heri]] Papa Pius IX (1878 hivi).]]
[[File:Bundesarchiv Bild 183-R29818, Otto von Bismarck.jpg|thumb|left|upright|Chansela Otto von Bismarck (1875 hivi).]]
'''Kulturkampf''' (kwa [[Kijerumani]] "[[Vita]] vya [[utamaduni]]") ni jina la ushindani kati ya [[serikali]] za nchi kadhaa, hasa [[Dola la Ujerumani]] chini ya [[kanselachansela]] [[Otto von Bismarck]], na [[Kanisa Katoliki]] katika [[karne ya 19]]<ref>Josef L. Altholz, "The Vatican Decrees Controversy, 1874-1875." ''Catholic Historical Review'' (1972): 593-605. [http://www.jstor.org/stable/25018950 in JSTOR]</ref><ref>Ramet, Sabrina in: Obstat, Nihil. Religion, Politics, and Social Change in East-Central Europe and Russia, Duke University Press, 1998, ISBN 978-0-8223-2070-8, p 107</ref><ref>Dittrich, Lisa in: Antiklerikalismuns in Europa: Öffentlichkeit und Säkularisierung in Frankreich, Spanien und Deutschland (1848-1914), Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1914, ISBN 9783525310236</ref><ref>Borst, William in: "The Mexican Kulturkampf. The Christeros and the Crusade for the greater Glory of God", ''Mindszenty Report'' 54#8 August 2012:</ref><ref>Morton, Adam in: ''Revolution and State in Modern Mexico'' (Rowman & Littlefield, 2011), p. 50, ISBN 9780742554900</ref><ref>Martin, Percy in: ''Causes of the Collapse of the Brazilian Empire'', The Hispanic American Historical Review, Duke University Press, 1921, Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 4-48</ref><ref>Dittrich, Lisa in: Antiklerikalismuns in Europa: Öffentlichkeit und Säkularisierung in Frankreich, Spanien und Deutschland (1848-1914), Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, Göttingen, 1914, ISBN 9783525310236</ref>.
 
Serikali nyingi zilitaka kushika [[mamlaka]] zote juu ya [[raia]] zake, wakati [[Papa]] na [[Askofu|maaskofu]] hawakupenda kupotewa na athira zao za muda mrefu juu ya waumini katika masuala ya kijamii.
 
Ushindani huo ulipata nguvu ya pekee Ujerumani baada ya nchi hiyo kuunganishwa chini ya [[Prussia]] na kutenga [[Austria]]. Hapo dola jipya lilijikuta kuwa na [[asilimia]] ya [[Waprotestanti]] kubwa kuliko awali ambapo [[Wakatoliki]] walikuwa wengiwengi. Hasa Prussia iliyoongoza dola hilo ilikuwa ya Kiprotestanti kabisa.
 
Mgongano ulisababisha serikali ya Prussia na ya Dola lote kutunga mfululizo sheria za kubana Kanisa Katoliki, na pia kufunga maaskofu wake.
 
==Tanbihi==