HMS Royal Oak (08)

Hii ni picha ya HMS Royal Oak.

HMS Royal Oak ilikuwa manowari iliyotengenezwa nchini Uingereza kabla ya Vita Kuu ya Kwanza ya Dunia. Ilikamilika mnamo mwaka 1916 na kutumika mara baada ya kukamilika katika mapigano ya Jutland dhidi ya manowari za Ujerumani.

Baada ya vita iliona matengenezo kadhaa yaliyolenga kuboresha uwezo wake lakini ilishindikana kuongeza kasi yake kwa hiyo haikufaa tena kwa matumizi ya mapigano wakati wa vita ya pili ya Dunia.

Mnamo 14 Oktoba 1939 HMS Royal Oak ilizamishwa wakati ilikaa katika hori ya Scapa Flow huko Orkney upande wa kaskazini wa Uskoti. Ilishambuliwa na nyambizi ya Ujerumani iliyojulikana kama U-47. Katika usiku ule walifariki wanamaji 835. Kuzama kwa meli hiyo kuliipa wakati mgumu Uingereza na washirika wake katika vita na kwa kufanya hivyo kulipunguza idadi ya meli za kivita za Uingereza na kuleta madhara ambayo yalionekana wakati wa vita. Kuzama kwa meli hiyo kulileta faida kwa kamanda wa kijerumani kutoka katika ile nyambizi ambaye aiitwa Günther Prien, na kutunukiwa cheo cha Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross, na kumfanya kuwa kamanda wa kwanza kutunukiwa cheo hicho katika jeshi la Ujerumani. Kabla ya kuzama kwa meli hii Uingereza haikuwahi kufikiria kuwa meli zao zingeweza kuzamishwa katika hori ya Scapa Flow kwa kushambuliwa na nyambizi, lakini hii ilionesha kuwa Ujerumani ilikua na uwezo wa kuleta mashambulizi karibu zaidi na Uingereza. Baada ya kushtushwa na hilo , Waingereza waliamua kujenga vizuizi katika Scapa Flow ambavyo waliviita Churchill Barriers.

Mabaki ya manowari hiyo bado yanapatikana katika maji ya hori yakitunzwa kama kumbukumbu ya vita na kaburi la wanamaji waliokufa ndani yake na kubaki mle[1] .


MarejeoEdit

  1. Wrecks designated as Military Remains, Maritime and Coastguard Agency, archived from the original on 19 February 2012, retrieved 27 December 2006 
  • Admiralty (1939), ADM199/158: Board of Enquiry into Sinking of HMS Royal Oak, HM Stationery Office 
  • Burt, R. A. (2012), British Battleships, 1919–1939 (2nd ed.), Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 978-1-59114-052-8 
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  • Campbell, John (1998), Jutland: An Analysis of the Fighting, London: Conway Maritime Press, ISBN 978-1-55821-759-1 
  • Chesneau, Roger, ed. (1980), Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1922–1946, Greenwich, UK: Conway Maritime Press, ISBN 0-85177-146-7 
  • Colledge, J. J.; Warlow, Ben (2006) [1969], Ships of the RoyalNavy: The Complete Record of all Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy (Rev. ed.), London: Chatham Publishing, ISBN 978-1-86176-281-8 
  • Dönitz, Karl (1959), Memoirs: Ten Years and Twenty Days, English translation by R.H. Stevens, Da Capo Press, ISBN 0-306-80764-5 
  • Gardiner, Leslie (1965). The Royal Oak Courts Martial. Edinburgh: William Blackwood & Sons. OCLC 794019632. 
  • Glenton, Robert (1991), The Royal Oak Affair: The Saga of Admiral Collard and Bandmaster Barnacle, Leo Cooper, ISBN 0-85052-266-8 
  • Gretton, Peter (1984), The Forgotten Factor: The Naval Aspects of the Spanish Civil War, Oxford University Press 
  • Halpern, Paul G. (1995), A Naval History of World War I, Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 1-55750-352-4 
  • Hayward, James (2003), Myths and Legends of the Second World War, Sutton Publishing, ISBN 0-7509-3875-7 
  • Herwig, Holger (1998) [1980], "Luxury" Fleet: The Imperial German Navy 1888–1918, Amherst: Humanity Books, ISBN 978-1-57392-286-9 
  • Kriegsmarine (1939), Log of the U-47, reproduced in Snyder and Weaver 
  • Massie, Robert K. (2003). Castles of Steel: Britain, Germany, and the Winning of the Great War at Sea. New York: Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-45671-1. 
  • Miller, James (2000), Scapa: Britain's Famous War-time Naval Base, England: Birlinn, ISBN 1-84158-005-8 
  • McKee, Alexander (1959), Black Saturday: The Royal Oak Tragedy at Scapa Flow, England: Cerberus, ISBN 1-84145-045-6 
  • Prien, Günther (1969), Mein Weg nach Scapa Flow, Translated into English by Georges Vatine as I sank the Royal Oak, Wingate-Baker, ISBN 0-09-305060-7 
  • Raven, Alan & Roberts, John (1976), British Battleships of World War Two: The Development and Technical History of the Royal Navy's Battleship and Battlecruisers from 1911 to 1946, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, ISBN 0-87021-817-4 
  • Sarkar, Dilip (2010), Hearts of Oak: The Human Tragedy of HMS Royal Oak, Amberley, ISBN 978-1-84868-944-2 
  • Smith, Peter (1989), The Naval Wrecks of Scapa Flow, The Orkney Press, ISBN 0-907618-20-0 
  • Snyder, Gerald (1976), The Royal Oak Disaster, Presidio Press, ISBN 0-89141-063-5 
  • Tarrant, V. E. (1995), Jutland: The German Perspective, London: Cassell Military Paperbacks, ISBN 0-304-35848-7 
  • Taylor, David (2008), Last Dawn: The Royal Oak Tragedy at Scapa Flow, Argyll, ISBN 978-1-906134-13-6 
  • Weaver, H.J. (1980), Nightmare at Scapa Flow: The Truth About the Sinking of HMS Royal Oak, England: Cressrelles, ISBN 0-85956-025-2