Kofia nyeusi (usalama wa kompyuta)
Asili ya neno hilo mara nyingi huhusishwa na nadharia ya utamaduni wa wadukuzi Richard Stallman (ingawa yeye anakanusha kuitunga) kulinganisha wadukuzi wa kinyonyaji na wadukuzi wa kofia nyeupe ambao hufunga kinga kwa kutumia udhaifu katika mifumo ya kompyuta ambayo inahitaji ukarabati.
- Silic, Mario; Lowry, Paul Benjamin (2019-09-04). "Breaking Bad in Cyberspace: Understanding why and how Black Hat Hackers Manage their Nerves to Commit their Virtual Crimes". Information Systems Frontiers. 23 (2): 329–341. doi:10.1007/s10796-019-09949-3. ISSN 1387-3326.
- Laskow, Sarah (January 27, 2017). "The Counterintuitive History of Black Hats, White Hats, And Villains". Atlas Obscura. Archived from the original on June 29, 2018. Retrieved June 29, 2018. In early hacking circles, there was a whole separate term to refer to malicious hacking: those people were called crackers. Across the internet, Richard Stallman, who founded the GNU Project and Free Software Foundation, is often credited with coining the term 'black hat' hacker, but he says that’s not correct. 'I have never used the terms 'X-hat hacker' because I reject the use of 'hacking' to refer to breaking security,' he says. Where did the term come from then? 'I don't know where,' he says.
- O'Brien, Marakas, James, George (2011). Management Information Systems. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/ Irwin. pp. 536–537. ISBN 978-0-07-752217-9.