Jinai ni kitendo kinachofanywa na mtu ambacho ni kinyume sana na sheria za nchi au eneo. Kwa hiyo jinai inafafanuliwa na sheria inayotaja matendo maalum kuwa vile[1].

Matendo yanayotajwa kama jinai hutazamwa kuwa hatari kwa amani katika jamii na pia kuvunja haki za watu. Kwa hiyo katika mifumo ya sheria ya kisasa dola linalenga kulinda amani na haki kwa kutunga sheria zinazokataza jinai. Kwa hiyo si kazi ya mtu aliyepata madhara kufuatilia jinai, bali ni kazi ya dola.[2]

Kwa kawaida tendo fulani linahitaji kutendwa pamoja na nia ya kuvunja sheria ili kutajwa kama jinai. Hata hivyo, pia matendo maalum yanayotendwa "kwa namna ya kutokuwa mwangalifu au kupuuza kwa kiasi cha kuhatarisha maisha ya binadamu au kusababisha dhara kwa mtu mwingine yeyote"[3] yanaweza kuangaliwa kama jinai.

Ilhali kila jinai inavunja sheria, siyo kila uvunjaji wa sheria unahesabiwa kama jinai. Kuvunja sheria za biashara na mikataba baina ya watu inaweza kufuatiliwa kwa kesi za madai mbele ya mahakama, lakini mara nyingi hazifuatiliwi mara moja na vyombo vya dola.

Kutokea kwa jinai kunahitaji kuthibitishwa na mahakama au jaji anayeangalia mashtaka dhidi ya mtu na kutoa hukumu ambako hatia fulani kulingana na sheria inathibitishwa au kukataliwa. Kama mkosaji anahukumiwa kuwa na hatia, jaji ataamua kuhusu adhabu yake. Sheria za jinai hutaja adhabu maalumu kwa kila aina ya kosa, ilhali jaji kwa kawaida ana chaguo fulani kuamulia kiwango cha adhabu.

Marejeo hariri

  1. [https://sheriakiganjani.co.tz/page.php?key=226 Nini maana ya jinai?], tovuti ya Sheria Kiganjani, inayotolewa na Tanganyika Law Society
  2. Wakili Manace Ndoroma: Kosa la jinai, maelezo na ufafanuzi
  3. Kanuni ya Adhabu Tanzania (Penal Code , Chapter 16 of the Laws (revised), Jinai kwa kutojali na kupuuza, ss. 233.

Kujisomea hariri

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  • Foucault, Michel (1975). Discipline and Punish: the Birth of the Prison, New York: Random House.
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  • Kramer, Samuel Noah. (1971). The Sumerians: Their History, Culture, and Character. Chicago: University of Chicago. ISBN 0-226-45238-7
  • Maine, Henry Sumner. (1861). Ancient Law: Its Connection with the Early History of Society, and Its Relation to Modern Ideas. Reprint edition (1986). Tucson: University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1006-7
  • Oppenheim, A. Leo (and Reiner, Erica as editor). (1964). Ancient Mesopotamia: Portrait of a Dead Civilization. Revised edition (September 15, 1977). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-63187-7
  • Pennington, Kenneth. (1993). The Prince and the Law, 1200–1600: Sovereignty and Rights in the Western Legal Tradition. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07995-7
  • Polinsky, A. Mitchell. (1980). "Private versus Public Enforcement of Fines". The Journal of Legal Studies, Vol. IX, No. 1, (January), pp. 105–127.
  • Polinsky, A. Mitchell & Shavell, Steven. (1997). On the Disutility and Discounting of Imprisonment and the Theory of Deterrence, NBER Working Papers 6259, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Skaist, Aaron Jacob. (1994). The Old Babylonian Loan Contract: Its History and Geography. Ramat Gan, Israel: Bar-Ilan University Press. ISBN 965-226-161-0
  • [http://web.archive.org/20150208092207/http://www.cliothemis.com/Atrocitas-enormitas-Esquisse-pour Archived 8 Februari 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Théry, Julien. (2011). "Atrocitas/enormitas. Esquisse pour une histoire de la catégorie de 'crime énorme' du Moyen Âge à l'époque moderne", Clio@Themis, Revue électronique d'histoire du droit, n. 4]
  • Tierney, Brian. (1979). Church Law and Constitutional Thought in the Middle Ages. London: Variorum Reprints. ISBN 0-86078-036-8
  • Tierney, Brian (1988) [1964]. The Crisis of Church and State, 1050–1300: with selected documents (toleo la Reprint). Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-0-8020-6701-2.
  • Vinogradoff, Paul. (1909). Roman Law in Medieval Europe. Reprint edition (2004). Kessinger Publishing Co. ISBN 1-4179-4909-0
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