Solon (630 KK- 560 KK hiv) alikuwa mwanasiasa na kiongozi wa serikali katika Athens kwenye Ugiriki ya Kale. Hutazamwa kama mmoja wa "Wahenga wa Kale" wa Ugiriki, kwa sababu ya matengenezo yake ya sheria za Athens. [1]

Solon
Σόλων
Sanamu ya kale ya Solon.

Mabadiliko mengi aliyoanzisha yalisaidia watu maskini. Alianzisha mfumo wa mahakama na majaji. Mnamo 594 KK, baraza la wazee lilimchagua Solon kuongoza Athens. Mabadiliko aliyoanzisha yalisaidia kuzuia uasi na umaskini. Kwanza alikomesha utumwa wa deni na kuwaachilia huru watu ambao walikuwa watumwa kwa sababu ya deni. Sheria yake ilikataza raia kuwa mtumwa.

Solon pia alipanga raia katika makundi manne kulingana na utajiri, sio tena ukoo na hali ya kuzaliwa kama awali. Hivyo alifungua njia kwa watu wapya kufikia kwenye uongozi.

Solon aliruhusu raia wote kuhudhuria mkutano wa wananchi na kushiriki katika uchaguzi wa viongozi. Sheria zake zilipunguza ukali wa adhabu.

MarejeoEdit

  1. Solon from Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia. credoreference.com (2011). Iliwekwa mnamo May 12, 2011. “Solon. (2004). Iin Science in the Ancient World: An Encyclopedia. Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com/entry/abcsciaw/solon”

BibliografiaEdit

  • A. Andrews, Greek Society, Penguin, 1967
  • J. Blok and A. Lardinois (eds), Solon of Athens: New Historical and Philological Approaches, Leiden, Brill, 2006
  • Buckley, T. Aspects of Greek History. London: Routledge, 1996.
  • Cary, Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. III, Cambridge Uni. Press, 1925
  • Connor, The New Politicians of Fifth-Century Athens, Princeton, 1971
  • W. Connor et al. Aspects of Athenian Democracy, Copenhagen, Museum Tusculanam P., 1990
  • R. Develin, Historia, Vol. 26, 1977
  • Dillon, M and L Garland. Ancient Greece: Social and Historical Documents from Archaic Times to the Death of Alexander the Great. London: Routledge, 2010.
  • V. Ehrenberg, From Solon to Socrates: Greek History and Civilization, Routledge, 1973
  • J. Ellis and G. Stanton, Phoenix, Vol. 22, 1968, 95–99
  • W.R. Everdell, The End of Kings: A History of Republics and Republicans, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  • G. Forrest, 'Greece: The History of the Archaic Period', in The Oxford History of the Classical World, ed. Boardman J., Griffin J. and Murray O., Oxford University Press, New York, 1995
  • Frost, 'Tribal Politics and the Civic State', AJAH, 1976
  • P. Garnsey, Famine and Food Supply in Graeco-Roman World, Cambridge Uni. Press, 1988
  • J. Goldstein, Historia, Vol. 21, 1972
  • M. Grant, The Rise of the Greeks. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988
  • E. Harris, 'A New Solution to the Riddle of the Seisachtheia', in The Development of the Polis in Archaic Greece, eds. L. Mitchell and P. Rhodes, Routledge, 1997
  • C. Hignett, A History of the Athenian Constitution to the End of the Fifth Century B.C., Oxford University Press, 1952
  • K. Hubbard, Homosexuality in Greece and Rome: a sourcebook of basic documents, Uni. California Press, 2003
  • H. Innis, Empire and Communications, Rowman and Littlefield, 2007
  • G. Kirk, Historia, Vol. 26, 1977
  • D. Lewis, 'Cleisthenes and Attica', Historia, 12, 1963
  • M. Miller, Arethusa, Vol. 4, 1971
  • I. Morris, The Growth of City States in the First Millennium BC, Stanford, 2005
  • C. Mosse, 'Comment s'elabore un mythe politique: Solon', Annales, ESC XXXIV, 1979
  • M. Ostwald, From Popular Sovereignty to the Sovereignty of the Law: Law, Society and Politics in Fifth-Century Athens, Berkeley, 1986
  • P. Rhodes, A History of the Greek City States, Berkeley, 1976
  • P. Rhodes, A Commentary on the Aristotelian Athenian Politeia, Oxford University Press, 1981
  • K. Robb, Literacy and Paideia in Ancient Greece, Oxford University Press, 1994
  • B. Sealey, 'Regionalism in Archaic Athens', Historia, 9, 1960
  • G. R. Stanton, Athenian Politics c. 800–500 BC: A Sourcebook, London, Routledge, 1990
  • M. L. West (ed.), Iambi et elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati2: Callinus. Mimnermus. Semonides. Solon. Tyrtaeus. Minora adespota, Oxford University Press: Clarendon Press, 1972, revised edition, 1992
  • W. Woodhouse, 'Solon the Liberator: A Study of the Agrarian Problem', in Attika in the Seventh Century, Oxford University Press, 1938

Mikusanyo ya mabaki ya mashairi yakeEdit

  • Martin Litchfield West, Iambi et elegi Graeci ante Alexandrum cantati2 : Callinus. Mimnermus. Semonides. Solon. Tyrtaeus. Minora adespota,, Oxonii: e typographeo Clarendoniano 1972, revised edition 1992 x + 246 pp.
  • T. Hudaon-Williams, Early Greek Elegy: Ekegiac Fragments of Callinus, Archilochus, Mimmermus, Tyrtaeus, Solon, Xenophanes, and Others, # Taylor and Francis (1926), ISBN|0-8240-7773-3.
  • H. Miltner Fragmente / Solon, Vienna (1955)
  • Christoph Mülke, Solons politische Elegien und Iamben : (Fr. 1–13, 32–37 West), Munich (2002), ISBN|3-598-77726-4.
  • Noussia-Fantuzzi, Maria, Solon the Athenian, the Poetic Fragments. Brill (2010).
  • Eberhard Preime, Dichtungen : Sämtliche Fragmente / Solon Munich (1940).
  • Eberhard Ruschenbusch Nomoi : Die Fragmente d. Solon. Gesetzeswerkes, Wiesbaden : F. Steiner (1966).
  • Kathleen Freeman, The Work and Life of Solon, with a translation of his poems, Cardiff, University of Wales Press Board 1926. OCLC 756460254

MengineyoEdit

  • Hall, Jonathan. 2013. "The Rise of State Action in the Archaic Age." In A Companion to Ancient Greek Government. Edited by Hans Beck, 9–21. Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Lewis, John. 2006. Solon the Thinker: Political Thought in Archaic Athens. London: Duckworth.
  • Owens, Ron. 2010. Solon of Athens: Poet, Philosopher, Soldier, Statesman. Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic.
  • Schubert, Charlotte. 2012. Solon. Tübingen, Germany: Francke.
  • Wallace, Robert W. 2009. "Charismatic Leaders." In A Companion to Archaic Greece. Edited by Kurt Raaflaub and Hans van Wees, 411–426. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.

Viungo vya njeEdit

Wikiquote ina mkusanyiko wa dondoo kuhusu:
Wikimedia Commons ina media kuhusu: