Kifafa (kwa Kiingereza Epilepsyis, kutoka kitenzi cha Kigiriki ἐεπιλαμβάνειν, eepilambanein, kuteka au kutesa[1]) ni kundi la maradhi ya neva yanayofanana kwa dalili za matukio ya kupatwa,[2] ambayo yanaweza kudumu muda mfupi sana karibu bila kugundulika hadi muda mrefu wa kutikisika kwa nguvu mwili mzima.[3] Matukio hayo yanaelekea kurudiarudia bila sababu inayoeleweka kwa kila tukio[2] wakati matukio ya namna hiyo yenye sababu inayoeleweka si ya kifafa kweli.

Picha za video kuhusu matukio ya kifafa.
Majeraha ulimini yaliyosababishwa na anguko.

Visababishi hariri

Sababu ya kesi nyingi haijulikani, ingawa baadhi ya watu wanapatwa na kifafa kutokana na jeraha la ubongo, kiharusi, saratani ya ubongo na matumizi mabaya ya dawa. Mabadiliko ya DNA yanahusiana moja kwa moja na asilimia ndogo za kesi zote.[4]

Matukio ya kifafa yanatokana na utendaji mkubwa mno wa neva za ubongo.[5]

Ili kusema ni kifafa, daktari anapaswa kwanza kutambua hakuna sababu zinazoeleweka za dalili kama hizo, kwa mfano kuzimia.[4] Mara nyingi kifafa kinaweza kuthibitishwa na electroencephalogram (EEG).[4]

Tiba hariri

Katika 70% za matukio inawezekana kuyadhibiti.[6] Isipowezekana tiba, pengine upasuaji, uchocheaji wa neva na mabadiliko ya ulaji vinatumika. Si kila mara kifafa kinadumu maisha yote: kuna watu wanaopata nafuu kiasi cha kutohitaji tena dawa.

Uenezi hariri

Karibu 1% ya watu wote duniani (milioni 65) wana kifafa,[7] na karibu 80% za kesi zinatokea katika nchi zinazoendelea.[3]

Mwaka 2013 vilitokea vifo 116,000, ambavyo ni vingi kuliko vile 112,000 vya mwaka 1990.[8]

Kifafa kinazidi kutokea kadiri watu wanavyokua.[9][10][11][12]

Tazama pia hariri

Tanbihi hariri

  1. Magiorkinis E, Kalliopi S, Diamantis A (Januari 2010). "Hallmarks in the history of epilepsy: epilepsy in antiquity". Epilepsy & behavior : E&B. 17 (1): 103–108. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.10.023. PMID 19963440.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  2. 2.0 2.1 Chang BS, Lowenstein DH (2003). "Epilepsy". N. Engl. J. Med. 349 (13): 1257–66. doi:10.1056/NEJMra022308. PMID 14507951.
  3. 3.0 3.1 "Epilepsy". Fact Sheets. World Health Organization. Oktoba 2012. Iliwekwa mnamo Januari 24, 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Longo, Dan L (2012). "369 Seizures and Epilepsy". Harrison's principles of internal medicine (toleo la 18th). McGraw-Hill. uk. 3258. ISBN 978-0-07-174887-2.
  5. Fisher R, van Emde Boas W, Blume W, Elger C, Genton P, Lee P, Engel J (2005). "Epileptic seizures and epilepsy: definitions proposed by the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) and the International Bureau for Epilepsy (IBE)". Epilepsia. 46 (4): 470–2. doi:10.1111/j.0013-9580.2005.66104.x. PMID 15816939.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. Eadie, MJ (Desemba 2012). "Shortcomings in the current treatment of epilepsy". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 12 (12): 1419–27. doi:10.1586/ern.12.129. PMID 23237349.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  7. Thurman, DJ; Beghi, E; Begley, CE; Berg, AT; Buchhalter, JR; Ding, D; Hesdorffer, DC; Hauser, WA; Kazis, L; Kobau, R; Kroner, B; Labiner, D; Liow, K; Logroscino, G; Medina, MT; Newton, CR; Parko, K; Paschal, A; Preux, PM; Sander, JW; Selassie, A; Theodore, W; Tomson, T; Wiebe, S; ILAE Commission on, Epidemiology (Septemba 2011). "Standards for epidemiologic studies and surveillance of epilepsy". Epilepsia. 52 Suppl 7: 2–26. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2011.03121.x. PMID 21899536.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  8. GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 Desemba 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". Lancet. 385 (9963): 117–71. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61682-2. PMC 4340604. PMID 25530442. {{cite journal}}: |first1= has generic name (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  9. Brodie, MJ; Elder, AT; Kwan, P (Novemba 2009). "Epilepsy in later life". Lancet neurology. 8 (11): 1019–30. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(09)70240-6. PMID 19800848.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  10. Holmes, Thomas R. Browne, Gregory L. (2008). Handbook of epilepsy (toleo la 4th). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. uk. 7. ISBN 978-0-7817-7397-3.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  11. Wyllie's treatment of epilepsy : principles and practice (toleo la 5th). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2010. ISBN 978-1-58255-937-7.
  12. Berg, AT (2008). "Risk of recurrence after a first unprovoked seizure". Epilepsia. 49 Suppl 1: 13–8. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2008.01444.x. PMID 18184149.

Marejeo hariri

  • World Health Organization, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, Programme for Neurological Diseases and Neuroscience; Global Campaign against Epilepsy; International League against Epilepsy (2005). Atlas, epilepsy care in the world, 2005 (pdf). Geneva: Programme for Neurological Diseases and Neuroscience, Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse, World Health Organization. ISBN 92-4-156303-6.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)

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