Towashi (kutoka neno la Kiajemi) ni mwanamume asiyeweza tendo la ndoa, kwa mfano yule aliyehasiwa.

Towashi mkuu wa ikulu ya Sultani wa Uturuki aliyekabidhiwa wake zake.

Katika historia ilitokea mara nyingi na kwa sababu mbalimbali kwamba watu wa namna hiyo walihitajiwa, kwa mfano ili kutunza wake wa mfalme, kufanya kazi kama mtumwa bila kuzaa watoto, kubaki na sauti ndogo ya kabla ya ubalehe ili kuimba vizuri, n.k.

Siku hizi watu wanakubaliana katika kulaani upasuaji kama huo kwa kuwa ni kinyume cha hadhi ya binadamu ambaye ni haki yake ya msingi kuwa na mwili mtimilifu na kutofanywa chombo cha wengine.

Katika Injili (Math 19:12), Yesu alifananisha watu ambao kama yeye kwa ajili ya ufalme wa Mungu wanajinyima kwa hiari ndoa na uzazi na matowashi waliozaliwa na ubovu katika viungo vya uzazi na wale waliohasiwa. Sababu ni kwamba uamuzi wao wa moja kwa moja unawanyima tunu hizo, hivyo ni sadaka ambayo wanamtolea Mungu ili kueneza zaidi utawala wake.

Ingawa katika Agano la Kale matowashi hawakuruhusiwa kujiunga na dini ya Israeli, Isaya wa Tatu alitabiri kwamba siku za mbele hali yao itakuwa tofauti.

Hivyo katika Matendo ya Mitume (sura ya 8) inasimuliwa jinsi Towashi Mwethiopia alivyobatizwa na Filipo mwinjilisti.

Nukuu kutoka katika Mathayo 19:12

"Maana wako matowashi waliozaliwa hali hiyo toka matumboni mwa mama zao; tena wako matowashi waliofanywa na watu kuwa matowashi; tena wako matowashi waliojifanya kuwa matowashi kwa ajili ya ufalme wa mbinguni. Awezaye kulipokea neno hili, na alipokee." Mathayo 19:12 SUV

Marejeo hariri

  • English translation of Rudople Guilland's essay on Byzantine eunuchs "Les Eunuques dans l'Empire Byzantin: Étude de titulature et de prosopographie byzantines", in 'Études Byzantines', Vol. I (1943), pp. 197–238 with many examples
  • Bauer, Susan Wise (2010). The History of the Medieval World: From the Conversion of Constantine to the First Crusade (toleo la illustrated). W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393078175. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Cooke, Nola; Li, Tana; Anderson, James, whr. (2011). The Tongking Gulf Through History (toleo la illustrated). University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 0812243366. Iliwekwa mnamo 4 Januari 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Keay, John (2010). China: A History. HarperCollins UK. ISBN 0007372086. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Lary, Diana (2007). Diana Lary (mhr.). The Chinese State at the Borders (toleo la illustrated). UBC Press. ISBN 0774813334. Iliwekwa mnamo 4 Januari 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • McMahon, Keith (2013). Women Shall Not Rule: Imperial Wives and Concubines in China from Han to Liao. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. ISBN 1442222905. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Peterson, Barbara Bennett, mhr. (2000). Notable Women of China: Shang Dynasty to the Early Twentieth Century (toleo la illustrated). M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 0765619296. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Tsai, Shih-Shan Henry (1996). The Eunuchs in the Ming Dynasty (Ming Tai Huan Kuan) (toleo la illustrated). SUNY Press. ISBN 0791426874. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Januari 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Tuotuo. Liaoshi [History of Liao]. Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974 (or Tuotuo, Liaoshi (Beijing: Zhonghua shuju, 1974))
  • Toqto'a; na wenz. (1344). Liao Shi (宋史) (kwa Kichina). {{cite book}}: Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (|trans-title= suggested) (help)
  • Van Derven, H. J., mhr. (2000). Warfare in Chinese History. Juz. Volume 47 of Sinica Leidensia / Sinica Leidensia (toleo la illustrated). BRILL. ISBN 9004117741. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013. {{cite book}}: |volume= has extra text (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Wade, Geoff (2005). "Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource". Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore. Iliwekwa mnamo 6 Novemba 2012Kigezo:Inconsistent citations {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) CS1 maint: postscript (link)
  • Wang, Yuan-Kang (2013). Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics (toleo la illustrated). Columbia University Press. ISBN 0231522401. Iliwekwa mnamo 5 Septemba 2013.{{cite book}}: CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • English language Abstracts of the thesis of 祝建龙 (Zhu Jianlong), Jilin University, April 2009: 辽代后宫制度研究 二〇〇九年四月, Research on the System of Imperial Harem in the Liao Dynasty

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