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Wawindaji-wakusanyaji

Mwanamume wa Wasan wa Namibia, ambao wengi wao wanaendelea kuwa wawindaji-wakusanyaji.
Mgawo wa nyama kati ya Wambendjele.

Wawindaji-wakusanyaji ni jina wanalopewa makundi ya watu wanaoishi bila kuzalisha chakula chao kwa njia ufugaji na kilimo kama ilivyozidi kuwa kawaida ya wengi tangu uzalishaji huo ulipoanza milenia kumi na mbili iliyopita[1].

Kwa kusongwa na wafugaji na wakulima, mara nyingi wawindaji-wakusanyaji wameishia katika maeneo yasiyofaa kwa uzalishaji, wanapoishi kwa kuhamahama, na wametazamwa na kudharauliwa kama watu wasioendelea, ingawa wanaweza kuwazidi wengine kwa maadili[2][3][4][5][6][7][8]

Kwa sababu ya kujali usawa kati yao, Karl Marx aliita mtindo wao wa kuishi Ukomunisti wa awali.[9]

Matarajio ya kuishi ni kufikia kwa wastani umri wa miaka 21-37 tu[10].

Kati ya makabila ya Afrika yaliyo maarufu kwa mtindo huo wa maisha wapo Wahadza wa mkoa wa Singida, Tanzania.

TanbihiEdit

  1. Groeneveld, Emma (9 December 2016). "Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Societies". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
  2. Erdal, D.; Whiten, A. (1994). "On human egalitarianism: an evolutionary product of Machiavellian status escalation?". Current Anthropology 35 (2): 175–183. doi:10.1086/204255 .
  3. Erdal, D. and A. Whiten 1996. Egalitarianism and Machiavellian intelligence in human evolution. In P. Mellars and K. Gibson (eds), Modelling the early human mind. Cambridge: McDonald Institute Monographs.
  4. Christopher Boehm (2001), Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  5. Gowdy, John M. (1998). Limited Wants, Unlimited Means: A Reader on Hunter-Gatherer Economics and the Environment. St Louis: Island Press, 342. ISBN 1-55963-555-X. 
  6. Dahlberg, Frances (1975). Woman the Gatherer. London: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02989-6. 
  7. Erdal, D. & Whiten, A. (1996) "Egalitarianism and Machiavellian Intelligence in Human Evolution" in Mellars, P. & Gibadfson, K. (eds) Modelling the Early Human Mind. Cambridge MacDonald Monograph Series
  8. Karen Endicott 1999. "Gender relations in hunter-gatherer societies". In R.B. Lee and R. Daly (eds), The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Hunters and Gatherers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 411–8.
  9. Scott, John; Marshall, Gordon (2007). A Dictionary of Sociology. USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-860987-2Script error: No such module "check isxn"..
  10. Guenevere, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard (2007). "Longevity amongst Hunter-gatherers". Population and Development Review 33 (2): 326. doi:10.1111/j.1728-4457.2007.00171.x . http://www.anth.ucsb.edu/faculty/gurven/papers/GurvenKaplan2007pdr.pdf.

MarejeoEdit

Vitabu
Makala
     . http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/asi/summary/v046/46.2mudar.html.
     . PMC 4843228
     . http://rsbl.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/12/3/20160028. "Our results suggest that the mortality due to violence was low and spatio-temporally highly restricted in the Jomon period, which implies that violence including warfare in prehistoric Japan was not common.".
  • Hunter Gatherers (Foragers). Human Relations Area Files. Iliwekwa mnamo 22 February 2018. “Most cross-cultural research aims to understand shared traits among hunter-gatherers and how and why they vary. Here we look at the conclusions of cross-cultural studies that ask: What are recent hunter-gatherers generally like? How do they differ from food producers? How and why do hunter-gatherers vary?”

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