Mwanateolojia wa Ufaransa
Paskasi Radberti, O.S.B. (Soissons, leo nchini Ufaransa, 792 hivi - Corbie, leo nchini Ufaransa, 26 Aprili, 865) alikuwa padri mmonaki chini ya kanuni ya Mt. Benedikto, maarufu kama mwanateolojia na kwa maandishi yake.
- His works are edited in Patrologia Latina vol. 120 (1852) and his important tract on the Eucharist, De Corpore et Sanguine Domini, in a 1969 edition by B. Paulus, published by Brepols (Corpus Christianorum, Continuatio Mediaevalis 16). It was originally written as an instructional manual for the monks under his care at Corbie, and is the first lengthy treatise on the sacrament of the Eucharist in the Western world. In it, Paschasius agrees with Ambrose in affirming that the Eucharist contains the true, historical body of Jesus Christ. According to Paschasius, God is truth itself, and therefore, his words and actions must be true. Christ's proclamation at the Last Supper that the bread and wine were his body and blood must be taken literally, since God is truth. He thus believes that the transubstantiation of the bread and wine offered in the Eucharist really occurs. Only if the Eucharist is the actual body and blood of Christ can a Christian know it is salvific. Paschasius believed that the presence of the historical blood and body of Christ allows the partaker a real union with Jesus in a direct, personal, and physical union by joining a person's flesh with Christ's and Christ's flesh with his. To Paschasius, the Eucharist's transformation into the flesh and blood of Christ is possible because of the principle that God is truth; God is able to manipulate nature, as he created it. The book was given to Charles the Bald, the Frankish king, as a present in 844, with the inclusion of a special introduction. The view Paschasius expressed in this work was met with some hostility; Ratramnus wrote a rebuttal by the same name, by order of Charles the Bald, who did not agree with some of the views Paschasius held. Ratramnus believed that the Eucharist was strictly metaphorical; he focused more on the relationship between faith and the newly emerging science. Shortly thereafter, a third monk joined the debate, Rabanus Maurus, which initiated the Carolingian Eucharist Controversy. Ultimately, however, the king accepted Paschasius' assertion, and the substantial presence of Christ in the Eucharist became the authoritative belief in the Roman Catholic faith.
- Martyrologium Romanum
- Radbertus, Paschausuis. "The Lord’s Body and Blood." Early Medieval Theology: The Library of Christian Classics.ed. McCracken, George E. (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1957).
- Appleby, David. "Beautiful on the Cross, Beautiful in his Torments: The Place of the Body in the Thought of Paschasius Radbertus," Traditio; studies in ancient and medieval history, thought, and religion 60 (2005): 1-46.
- Cabaniss, Allen. Charlemagne's Cousins: Contemporary Lives of Adalard and Wala. Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1967.
- Chazelle, Celia. "Figure, Character, and the Glorified Body in the Carolingian Eucharistic Controversy," Traditio; studies in ancient and medieval history, thought, and religion 47 (1992): 1-36.
- Ginther, James. Westminster Handbook to Medieval Theology, (Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 2009), 155-6.
- Matter, Anne E. "The Lamentations Commentaries of Hrabanus Maurus and Paschasius Radbertus," Traditio; studies in ancient and medieval history, thought, and religion 38 (1982): 137-163.
- Migne (ed.), Sancti Paschasii Radberti Abbatis Corbeiensis Opera Omnia, PL vol. 120 (1852).
- Phelan, Owen M. "Horizontal and Vertical Theologies: "Sacraments" in the Works of Paschasius Radbertus and Ratramnus of Corbie" Harvard Theological Review 103:3 (2010) 271-289.
- Pohle, Joseph. "St. Paschasius Radbertus", The Catholic Encyclopedia Vol. 11. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1911.
- Zirkel, Patricia McCormick. "The Ninth Century Eucharistic Controversy: a Context for the Beginnings of the Eucharistic Doctrine in the West," Worship 68 (January 1994): 2-23.
- Frank, Karl Suso. "Arsenios der Grosse : vom Apophthegma zum hagiographischen Text," Mémorial Dom Jean Gribomont (1920-1986). 271-287. Rome: Institutum Patristicum "Augustinianum", 1988.
- Gnaninathan, P. The doctrine of the real presence in the "De corpore et Sanguine Domini" of St Paschasius Radbert, 786-860. Kumbakonam: St Joseph's Press, 1942.
- Härdelin, Alf. "An epithalamium for nuns : imagery and spirituality in Paschasius Radbertus' "Exposition of Psalm 44(45)"," In Quest of the Kingdom. 79-107. Stockholm: Almquist & Wiksell Int, 1991.
- Härdelin, Alf. "Renässans för karolingertiden," Kyrkohistorisk arsskrift. 22-39 (1987).
- Maus, Cyrin. A phenomenology of Revelation : Paschasius Radbert's way of interpreting Scripture. Dayton, Ohio: St. Leonard College, 1970.
- Navarro Girón, María Angeles, La carne de Cristo: El misterio eucarístico a la luz de la controversia entre Pascasio Radberto, Ratramno, Rabano Mauro y Godescalco. Madrid: Univ Pontificia, 1989.
- Paschasius Radbertus, Saint. De corpore et sanguine Domini ; cum appendice Epistola ad Fredugardum, Ed. B. Paulus, Corpus Christianorum Continuatio Mediaevalis 16, Turnhout: Brepols, 1969.
- Paschasius Radbertus, Saint. Expositio in Lamentationes Hieremiae libri quinque. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1988.
- Pitchers, Alrah L M. "The Eucharist: concepts in the Western church from the ninth century to the twelfth century and their present relevance," Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae 30 (January 2004): 140-150.
- Reinhold, H A. "St Radbert and St Bernard," Orate Fratres 23 (April 17, 1949): 260-265.
- Stoltz, Travis D. "Paschasius Radbertus and the sacrifice of the Mass: a medieval antecedent to Augustana XXIV," Logia 10 (2001): 9-12.
- Tavard, George H. "The Church as Eucharistic communion in medieval theology," Continuity and Discontinuity in Church History. 92-103. Leiden: Brill, 1979.
- Vuolo, Antonio. "Memoria epigrafica e memoria agiografica : la "Uita sancti Paschasii confessoris" (secc XI-XII)," Florentissima proles ecclesiae. 553-583. Trento: Civis, 1996.
- Ward, Elizabeth. "Agobard of Lyons and Paschasius Radbertus as critics of the Empress Judith," Women in the Church. 15-25. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990.
- Yarnold, Edward. "De Benedictionibus Patriarcharum Jacob et Moysi; Instrumenta Lexicologica," Journal of Theological Studies. 45 (April 1994): 368-369.
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