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Hati ya Thesalonike

Hati ya Thesalonike (maarufu pia kwa jina la Cunctos populos) ilitolewa tarehe 27 Februari 380 BK. Iliagiza raia wote wa Dola la Roma kukiri imani ya maaskofu wa Roma na Aleksandria, ikifanya Ukristo wa Kikatoliki kuwa dini rasmi ya dola hilo.[1]

YaliyotanguliaEdit

Kaisari Konstantino I aliongokea Ukristo mwaka 312.

KUfikia mwaka 325 uzushi wa padri Ario kuhusu Yesu Kristo ulikuwa umeshaenea kiasi cha kuvuruga Kanisa na hata jamii nzima.

Ili kurudisha amani katika dola, Konstantino aliitisha Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Nisea ili uamue imani sahihi ni ipi. Mtaguso mkuu huo ulitoa Kanuni ya imani ya Nisea iliyokanusha Uario kwa kumkiri Kristo kuwa "Mungu kweli" mwenye "hali moja na Baba".[2]

Hata hivyo mabishano hayakuisha, hivyo Konstantino alidhani amekosea kuunga mkono imani ya Nisea akasimama upande wa Waario akivuta wengi upande huo. Hatimaye, alipobatizwa (337), alimchagua askofu wa Kiario Eusebio wa Nikomedia kumbatiza.[2]

Mrithi wake upande wa mashariki, mwanae Constantius II, alikuwa vilevile mtetezi wa Uario akawa anafukuza maaskofu Wakatoliki.

Mwandamizi wake Kaisari Juliani aliasi kabisa Ukristo na kurudia Upagani wa Ugiriki, pamoja na kulinda dini na madhehebu yoyote.

Aliyemfuata, Kaisari Joviano, alitawala miezi 8 tu, akafuatwa na Kaisari Valens, muumini wa Uario.[2]

Mwaka 379, Valens aliporithiwa na Theodosius I, Uario ulikuwa umeenea sana mashariki, lakini si magharibi. Theodosius, aliyezaliwa Hispania, alikuwa na imani kubwa katika mafundisho ya Nisea. Mnamo Agosti, Gratian, mtawala wa magharibi, alianza kudhulumu wazushi.[2]

HatiEdit

Makaisari Theodosius I, Gratian na Valentinian II kwa pamoja tarehe 27 Februari 380 walitoa hati hii:[1]

IMPPP. GR(ATI)IANUS, VAL(ENTINI)ANUS ET THE(O)D(OSIUS) AAA. EDICTUM AD POPULUM VRB(IS) CONSTANTINOP(OLITANAE).

Cunctos populos, quos clementiae nostrae regit temperamentum, in tali volumus religione versari, quam divinum Petrum apostolum tradidisse Romanis religio usque ad nunc ab ipso insinuata declarat quamque pontificem Damasum sequi claret et Petrum Aleksandriae episcopum virum apostolicae sanctitatis, hoc est, ut secundum apostolicam disciplinam evangelicamque doctrinam patris et filii et spiritus sancti unam deitatem sub pari maiestate et sub pia trinitate credamus. Hanc legem sequentes Christianorum catholicorum nomen iubemus amplecti, reliquos vero dementes vesanosque iudicantes haeretici dogmatis infamiam sustinere ‘nec conciliabula eorum ecclesiarum nomen accipere’, divina primum vindicta, post etiam motus nostri, quem ex caelesti arbitro sumpserimus, ultione plectendos.

DAT. III Kal. Mar. THESSAL(ONICAE) GR(ATI)ANO A. V ET THEOD(OSIO) A. I CONSS.

[3]

UmuhimuEdit

Hati ilitolewa kwa athira ya Acholius, na hivyo ya Pope Damasus I aliyemteua. Ilisisitiza imani moja tu kuwa halali katika dola la Roma, ile "katholiki" (yaani, isiyo ya sehemu) na "orthodoksi" (yaani, sahihi).

Tangu hapo, Theodosius alitumia nguvu nyingi kuzima aina zote za Ukristo tofauti na hiyo, hasa Uario.[4]

Hati ilifuatwa mwaka 381 na Mtaguso wa kwanza wa Konstantinopoli, uliothibitisha na kuongezea ungamo la Nisea katika Kanuni ya imani ya Nisea-Konstantinopoli.[5]

Mwaka 383, Kaisari alidai madhehebu mengine yote yampatie maungamo yao ya imani, akayachambua na kuyachoma yote isipokuwa ya Wanovasyani. Hivyo madhehebu hayo hawakuruhusiwa tena kukutana, kuweka mapadri wala kueneza mafundisho yao.[6] Theodosius alikataza wazushi wasiishi tena Konstantinopoli, na miaka 392-394 alitaifisha maabadi yao.[7]

TanbihiEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 (1967) Church and State Through the Centuries: A Collection of Historic Documents with Commentaries, 6. ISBN 9780819601896. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Williams & Friell, (1994) pp. 46–53
  3. EMPERORS GRATIAN, VALENTINIAN AND THEODOSIUS AUGUSTI. EDICT TO THE PEOPLE OF CONSTANTINOPLE.
    It is our desire that all the various nations which are subject to our Clemency and Moderation, should continue to profess that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter, as it has been preserved by faithful tradition, and which is now professed by the Pontiff Damasus and by Peter, Bishop of Alexandria, a man of apostolic holiness. According to the apostolic teaching and the doctrine of the Gospel, let us believe in the one deity of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, in equal majesty and in a holy Trinity. We authorize the followers of this law to assume the title of Catholic Christians; but as for the others, since, in our judgment they are foolish madmen, we decree that they shall be branded with the ignominious name of heretics, and shall not presume to give to their conventicles the name of churches. They will suffer in the first place the chastisement of the divine condemnation and in the second the punishment of our authority which in accordance with the will of Heaven we shall decide to inflict.
    GIVEN IN THESSALONICA ON THE THIRD DAY FROM THE CALENDS OF MARCH, DURING THE FIFTH CONSULATE OF GRATIAN AUGUSTUS AND FIRST OF THEODOSIUS AUGUSTUS

  4.   "Theodosius I". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
  5. Boyd (1905), p. 45
  6. Boyd (1905), p. 47
  7. Boyd (1905), p. 50

VyanzoEdit