Upatanisho wa imani na sayansi

(Elekezwa kutoka Mtu wa kwanza alitoka wapi)

Upatanisho wa imani na sayansi ni juhudi zinazofanywa na watu wa dini mbalimbali kuondoa mzozo uliotokea kati ya imani na sayansi, hasa kuhusu suala la uumbaji kuhusiana na mageuko ya spishi. Juhudi hizo zinaitwa pengine kwa Kiingereza: theistic evolution, theistic evolutionism, evolutionary creationism, divine direction, au God-guided evolution[1].

Ieleweke mapema kwamba juhudi hizo hazilengi kutunga au kupitisha nadharia yoyote katika sayansi, ila kuonyesha uwezekano wa kukubali kweli zilizothibitishwa na utafiti wa sayansi pamoja na kweli zilizosadikiwa kwa kupokea ufunuo wa Mwenyezi Mungu.

Juhudi zinapingwa na wanasayansi wanaoshikilia uyakinifu na vilevile na watu wenye itikadi kali katika dini.

Asili ya suala hiloEdit

Mzozo wa uumbaji-mageuko unahusisha mjadala unaoendelea na kuendeshwa hata katika utamaduni na siasa kuhusu asili ya Dunia, mwanadamu na wengineo. Zamani iliaminika bila shaka kuwa vyote vilivyopo viliumbwa vile vilivyo na vinavyoonekana. Katika enzi za sasa, na haswa baada ya mabadiliko ya karne ya 19, mageuko ya spishi kutokana na uteuzi maalumu unaotenda kazi kiasili katika viumbe au katika makundi ya viumbe yamethibitishwa na sayansi kuwa ndiyo msingi au chipuko na sababu ya dhati ya uhai na sifa zinazopatikana katika viumbe hivyo vya sasa au zilizopatikana katika viumbe enzi za kale. Kwa namna hiyo wapo wanasayansi wanaopinga imani na wapo wahubiri wa dini wanaopinga sayansi.

Kumbe watetezi wa upatanisho wa imani na sayansi wanaona si lazima uwepo upinzani kati ya hizo mbili kwa sababu kila moja inakabili masuala yake kwa namna yake. Yaani sayansi inachunguza ulimwengu na vyote vilivyomo kwa vipimo na utafiti wa kitaalamu, wakati imani inataka kupokea ufunuo wa Mungu ambao hauwezi kukanusha ukweli wowote[2][3][4].

 
Sura ya Homo sapiens wa zamani (kushoto) na ya Homo neanderthalensis (kulia) zinavyoonyeshwa huko Neanderthal Museum.

Suala linavyojitokeza kwa kawaidaEdit

Mtu wa kwanza alitoka wapi ni swali ambalo wengi wanajiuliza bila kupata jibu la hakika. Kwa namna ya pekee wanafunzi wa shule wanapofundishwa katika historia kuwa mtu wa kwanza alitokana na kiumbehai mwenye asili moja na sokwe. Kumbe katika dini zao wanafundishwa kwamba mtu aliumbwa na Mungu. Hivyo wanajiuliza, lipi sahihi? Wapo wengi wanaodhani ni lazima kuchagua moja katika ya hayo mawili: ama kwamba mtu ametokana na kiumbehai aliyetangulia ama kwamba Mungu alimuumba mtu wa kwanza kama tulivyo sisi leo.

Katika sayansiEdit

Sayansi imechunguza viumbehai waliopo duniani sasa na mabaki ya wale waliokuwepo zamani. Hasa baada ya kugundua DNA imeweza kuona uhusiano kati ya hao viumbehai mbalimbali. Hivyo imethibitisha kwamba mwili wa binadamu na ule wa sokwe imetokana na kiumbehai wa zamani (miaka milioni 5 au zaidi iliyopita) katika mlolongo wa mageuko ya spishi.

Lakini sayansi haiwezi kusema kitu juu ya roho, kwa sababu si mata, hivyo haipimiki. Zaidi sana haiwezi kusema lolote juu ya Mungu, kwa sababu si wa ulimwengu huu. Hata hivyo wapo wanasayansi wengi ambao walisadiki na wanasadiki dini fulani bila shida yoyote.

Katika imani na diniEdit

Tofauti na itikadi kali katika dini, kuna mitazamo inayolenga kujumuisha au kupatanisha ujuzi kutoka maeneo haya mawili, yaani imani na sayansi. Ni kwamba wanaomuamini Mungu kama muumba wa vitu vyote, vinavyoonekana na visivyoonekana, si lazima wasadiki kwamba aliviumba vyote kama vilivyo sasa[5][6][7]. La sivyo wangeshindwa kueleza kwa nini watu wa leo wametofuatiana hivi kati yao, wakati wanaaminika wote kuwa watoto wa Adamu na Eva. Mabadiliko yaliweza kutokea kadiri ya maisha na mazingira yao, na bado yanazidi kutokea: kwa mfano leo watoto wanakuwa warefu zaidi.

Jambo la msingi kwa imani ni kwamba vyote asili yake ni Mungu tu aliyeviumba kwa hiari yake[8]. Hata leo Mungu anazidi kuumba watu na viumbe vingine, lakini anatumia wazazi wao, hawaumbi moja kwa moja. Ni vilevile kuhusu mtu wa kwanza: hata kama Mungu alitumia kiumbehai aliyetangulia katika kumuumba Adamu anabaki muumba wake kwa sababu hata kiumbe huyo alikuwa kazi yake kama ulimwengu wote ulivyo kadiri ya imani[9].[10]

Katika falsafaEdit

Kuna wakati ni vigumu kulinganisha sayansi na dini. Dini inamhusu Mungu ambaye ndiye Mwanzo wa vitu vyote. Mwanafalsafa Emmanuel Kant alisema kinachoanza ni kitu kisichoonekana, na ndicho kinasababisha kitu cha wazi kutokea. Kama ni hivyo basi, sayansi na dini ni vitu viwili tofauti, ingawa vina uhusiano kama vile baba na mama ni watu wawili tofauti ingawa wanahusiana.

TanbihiEdit

  1. According to Eugenie Scott: "In one form or another, Theistic Evolutionism is the view of creation taught at the majority of mainline Protestant seminaries, and it is the official position of the Catholic church." Studies show that acceptance of evolution is lower in the United States than in Europe or Japan; among 34 countries sampled, only Turkey had a lower rate of acceptance than the United States. Miller, J. D.; Scott, E. C.; Okamoto, S. (2006). "Science Communication: Public Acceptance of Evolution". Science 313 (5788): 765–6. doi:10.1126/science.1126746 . PMID 16902112 .
  2. Pope John Paul II, 3 October 1981 to the Pontifical Academy of Science, "Cosmology and Fundamental Physics"
  3. An Open Letter Concerning Religion and Science. University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 12 March 2005.
  4. Glover, Gordon J. (2007). Beyond the Firmament: Understanding Science and the Theology of Creation. Chesapeake, VA: Watertree. ISBN 978-0-9787186-1-9. 
  5. "Building bridges". Nature 442 (7099): 110. 2006. doi:10.1038/442110a . PMID 16837980 .
  6. Stipe, Claude E., "Scientific Creationism and Evangelical Christianity", American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 87, No. 1 (Mar., 1985), p. 149, Wiley on behalf of the American Anthropological Association, JSTOR
  7. (2007) The Language of God. New York: Free Press, 200. 
  8. Denis O. Lamoureux (2003). Evolutionary Creation: A Christian Approach to Evolution. University of Alberta. Iliwekwa mnamo 25 April 2012. “The most important word in the term evolutionary creation is the noun "creation". These Christian evolutionists are first and foremost thoroughly committed and unapologetic creationists. They believe that the world is a creation that is absolutely dependent for every instant of its existence on the will and grace of the Creator. The qualifying word in this category is the adjective "evolutionary", indicating simply the method through which the Lord made the cosmos and living organisms. This view of origins is often referred to as "theistic evolution". However, such a word arrangement places the process of evolution as the primary term, and makes the Creator secondary as merely a qualifying adjective.”
  9. Evolution Vs. Creationism, Eugenie Scott, Niles Eldredge, p62-63
  10. Lamoureux, Denis O.. "Evolutionary Creation: Moving Beyond the Evolution vs Creation Debate". Christian Higher Education 9: 28–48. doi:10.1080/15363750903018231 . https://sites.ualberta.ca/~dlamoure/evolutionary_creation.pdf.

VyanzoEdit

Marejeo mengineEdit

Mitazamo ya kisasaEdit

  • Collins, Francis; (2006) The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief ISBN|0-7432-8639-1
  • Michael Dowd (2009) Thank God for Evolution: How the Marriage of Science and Religion Will Transform Your Life and Our World ISBN|0-452-29534-3
  • Falk, Darrel; (2004) Coming to Peace with Science: Bridging the Worlds Between Faith and Biology ISBN|0-8308-2742-0
  • Miller, Kenneth R.; (1999) Finding Darwin's God: A Scientist's Search for Common Ground Between God and Evolution ISBN|0-06-093049-7
  • Miller, Keith B.; (2003) Perspectives on an Evolving Creation ISBN|0-8028-0512-4
  • Corrado Ghinamo; (2013) The Beautiful Scientist: a Spiritual Approach to Science ISBN|1621474623; ISBN|978-1621474623

Historia ya suala hiloEdit

  • Appleby, R. Scott. Between Americanism and Modernism; John Zahm and Theistic Evolution, in Critical Issues in American Religious History: A Reader, Ed. by Robert R. Mathisen, 2nd revised edn., Baylor University Press, 2006, ISBN|1-932792-39-2, ISBN|978-1-932792-39-3. Google books
  • Harrison, Brian W., Early Vatican Responses to Evolutionist Theology, Living Tradition, Organ of the Roman Theological Forum, May 2001.
  • Morrison, John L., "William Seton: A Catholic Darwinist", The Review of Politics, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Jul., 1959), pp. 566–584, Cambridge University Press for the University of Notre Dame du lac, JSTOR
  • O'Leary, John. Roman Catholicism and modern science: a history, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN|0-8264-1868-6, ISBN|978-0-8264-1868-5 Google books

Viungo vya njeEdit

Taasisi za kutetea upatanisho wa imani na sayansiEdit

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