Waorthodoksi

(Elekezwa kutoka Kanisa la Orthodox)


Waorthodoksi ni Wakristo wanaofuata mapokeo ya Mitume wa Yesu jinsi yalivyostawi kihistoria katika Ukristo wa Mashariki upande wa mashariki wa Dola la Roma iliyoitwa pia Bizanti na nje ya mipaka yake. Leo hii ni nchi za Ulaya ya Mashariki pamoja na nchi za Mashariki ya Kati ulipoenea baadaye dini ya Uislamu.

Maeneo ya Waorthodoksi katika Ulaya na Mashariki ya Kati
Asilimia ya Waorthodoksi duniani nchi kwa nchi:      Zaidi ya 75%      50–75%      20–50%      5–20%      1–5%      Chini ya 1%, lakini wenye haki ya kujitegemea

Jina hariri

Kanisa la Orthodoksi ni jina linalotumika hasa kumaanisha Kanisa la Kikristo linalokubali mamlaka ya kiroho ya mitaguso saba ya kiekumeni tu. Leo, hasa kwa sababu ya uhamiaji, Kanisa la Orthodoksi lipo katika dunia nzima, likijumuisha watu milioni 200 hivi, lakini bado lina idadi kubwa ya waumini katika Ulaya ya Mashariki.

Jina hilo ("Orthodoksi") lina asili ya Kigiriki likitokana na maneno όρθος ("orthos", yaani "nyofu", "sahihi") na δόξα ("doksa", yaani "rai", "fundisho") yaani "wenye fundisho sahihi".

Jina hilo lilitungwa ili kutofautisha Wakristo waliofuata mafundisho rasmi ya imani yaliyotolewa na Mitaguso ya kiekumene dhidi ya mikondo mingine ya wakati ule.

Kwa namna ya pekee jina hilo lilitumika upande wa mashariki, hivi kwamba lilipotokea farakano la mwaka 1054, likabaki kama jina maalumu la makanisa yenye ushirika na Patriarki wa Konstantinopoli (leo Istanbul katika Uturuki).

Muundo hariri

Makanisa ya kujitegemea ya Kiorthodoksi yanayotambuliwa na wote ni kama yafuatayo:

Makanisa mengine yaliyojitenga na hayo hayajakubalika.

Uhusiano na Waorthodoksi wa Mashariki na Wakatoliki wa Mashariki hariri

Hivi karibuni hata makanisa mengine ya mashariki yamechagua kujiita hivyo, ingawa yanaendelea kutofautiana kuhusu maazimio kadhaa ya mitaguso mikuu iliyokubaliwa na Wakristo walio wengi. Leo hii wanatofautisha kwa kutumia majina

  • "Waorthodoksi" kwa makanisa yaliyotokana na kanisa rasmi la Bizanti (Roma Mashariki) (kwa Kiingereza: Eastern Orthodox)
  • "Waorthodoksi wa Mashariki" kwa makanisa yaliyojitenga na kanisa hili la Bizanti (kwa Kiingereza: Oriental Orthodox)

Hata hivyo pande hizo mbili zinafanana katika teolojia, liturujia na staili za fahari za ibada zao, pia katika sheria kuhusu maaskofu (wasiooa), makasisi na mashemasi (wanaoweza kuwa watu wa ndoa), tena katika umuhimu wa umonaki na maisha ya kiroho.

Ni vilevile kuhusu Wakatoliki wa Mashariki ambao wana ushirika kamili na Papa wa Kanisa la Roma bila kuacha mapokeo ya Ukristo wa Mashariki.

Marejeo hariri

Vitabu hariri

  • St. Athanasius; Lewis, C.S. (1982), On the Incarnation (PDF), Crestwood, New York: St. Vladimir's Orthodox Theological Seminary, ISBN 9780913836408, iliwekwa mnamo 3 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (|trans-title= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Binns, John (4 Julai 2002), An Introduction to the Christian Orthodox Churches, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-66738-8, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Chrysostom, St. John (c. 400), Paschal Homily, Wikisource, iliwekwa mnamo 2016-02-20
  • Cleenewerck, Laurent (2009), His Broken Body: Understanding and Healing the Schism Between the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, Washington, D.C., USA: Euclid University Press, ISBN 978-0-6151-8361-9, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link) Kigezo:Self-published source
  • De Vie, D. Charles (1945), The Eastern Orthodox-Catholic Church and the Anglican Church: Their Union, Tufts University, OCLC 190830032, ilihifadhiwa kwenye nyaraka kutoka chanzo mnamo 2015-09-03, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help); Unknown parameter |dead-url= ignored (|url-status= suggested) (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Diamond, Larry Jay; Plattner, Marc F.; Costopoulos, Philip J., whr. (2005), World Religions and Democracy, Johns Hopkins University and the National Endowment for Democracy, ISBN 0-8018-8080-7, OCLC 58807255, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Fitzgerald, Thomas E. (30 Septemba 1998), The Orthodox Church, Westport, CT, USA: Praeger Publishers, ISBN 978-0-275-96438-2, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Fortescue, Adrian (1908), The Orthodox Eastern Church (toleo la 2nd), London: Catholic Truth Society / University of Virginia (ilichapishwa mnamo 11 Desemba 2008), iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • George, Archimandrite (2006), Theosis: The True Purpose of Human Life (PDF) (toleo la 4th), Mount Athos, Greece: Holy Monastery of St. Gregorios, ISBN 960-7553-26-8, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Check |first1= value (help); Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Greek Orthodox Church (1875), The marriage service of the Holy Orthodox Catholic Church, trans. from Greek by Rev. Athanasius Richardson, London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Harakas, Stanley S. (1 Mei 1987), The Orthodox Church: 455 Questions and Answers, Light & Life Publishing Company, Minneapolis, MN, USA, ISBN 978-0-937032-56-5 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Hardon, John (1981), Catholic Catechism, New York, NY, USA: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-08045-X, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Hierotheos, Metropolitan of Nafpaktos (1998), The Mind of the Orthodox Church, Levadia, Greece: Birth of the Theotokos Monastery, ISBN 960-7070-39-9 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Leith, John H. (1982), Creeds of the Churches (toleo la 3rd), Westminster: John Knox Press, ISBN 978-0-8042-0526-9, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Losch, Richard R. (3 Mei 2002), The Many Faces of Faith: A Guide to World Religions and Christian Traditions, Wm. B. Eerdmans, ISBN 978-0-8028-0521-8, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Nielsen, Stevan L.; Johnson, W. Brad; Ellis, Albert (1 Mei 2001), Counseling and Psychotherapy With Religious Persons: A Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy Approach, Taylor & Francis, ISBN 978-1-4106-0070-7, iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Orthodox Eastern Church (1909), The Shorter Catechism of the Eastern Orthodox Catholic Church, Rincon Publishing Co., iliwekwa mnamo 2 Juni 2014 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)
  • Ware, Bishop Kallistos (Timothy) (1991) [first published 1964], The Orthodox Church (toleo la revised original), New York, NY, USA: Penguin Books, ISBN 0-14-013529-4 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)
  • Ware, Bishop Kallistos (Timothy) (29 Aprili 1993), The Orthodox Church (toleo la new), New York, NY, USA: Penguin Books, ISBN 978-0-14-014656-1 {{citation}}: Invalid |ref=harv (help)CS1 maint: date auto-translated (link)

Marejeo mengine hariri

Marejeo mengine tena hariri

  • Aderny, Walter F. The Greek and Eastern Churches (1908) online
  • Hussey, Joan Mervyn. The orthodox church in the Byzantine empire (Oxford University Press, 2010) online Archived 1 Agosti 2020 at the Wayback Machine.
  • Krindatch, Alexei D. ed., Atlas of American Orthodox Christian Churches (Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 2011) online.
  • Mascall, Eric Lionel (1958). "The Example of Orthodoxy", in his The Recovery of Unity: a Theological Approach (London: Longmans, Green, and Co.), p. 52-64. N.B.: Caption title; concerns especially the place and example of Eastern Orthodoxy in the Ecumenical Movement.
  • McGuckin, John Anthony, mhr. (2011). The Encyclopedia of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Juz. 2 vols. Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, W. Sussex, UK. ISBN 978-1-4051-8539-4.
  • Parry, Ken. ed., The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity (2010); Comprehensive global coverage.
  • Stanley, Arthur Penrhyn (1869). Lectures on the History of the Eastern Church: with an Introduction on the Study of Ecclesiastical History. Fourth ed. London: J. Murray.

Viungo vya nje hariri

 
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