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AsiliEdit

Kiasili neno la Kilatini "Papa" linamaanisha "Baba", nalo likawa cheo kutokana na nia ya kumtaja askofu wa Roma kwa heshima ya pekee. Msingi wa heshima hiyo ni imani ya Wakatoliki kuwa askofu wa Roma ni mwandamizi wa Petro, mkuu wa mitume wa Yesu.

Wakatoliki huamini ya kwamba Petro alipewa na Yesu kazi ya kuongoza Kanisa lote kwa niaba yake na ya kwamba jukumu hilo linaendelea kati ya waandamizi wa Petro kwenye kiti cha askofu wa Roma ambacho kwa heshima kinaitwa Ukulu mtakatifu.

HistoriaEdit

Upapa ni kati ya vyeo vya zamani zaidi duniani na umeathiri sana historia ya binadamu kwa miaka karibu 2000.[4]Athari hiyo iliweza kuwa nzuri au mbaya, kadiri ya matendo ya mhusika.[5][6][7]

Kwa muda mrefu mamlaka ya Papa upande wa siasa, hasa juu ya mikoa ya Italia ya Kati, ilisababisha nchi nyingine na koo tajiri za Roma zijiingize katika uchaguzi ili kupitisha watu wao, hata wasiofaa. Upande mwingine, Mapapa waliathiriwa na utamaduni na mazingira ya nyakati zao, hasa tapo la Renaissance, kiasi cha kuzama katika anasa.

Baada ya Dola la Papa kutekwa na Ufalme wa Italia (1860-1870), Mapapa wameweza kushughulikia zaidi mambo ya kiroho na kujitokeza kwa ubora.[8][9]Kwa miaka ya karibuni inatosha kumfikiria Papa Yohane Paulo II na mchango wake katika kuangusha ukomunisti katika Ulaya Mashariki.

Majina ya mapapaEdit

Papa huchaguliwa na makardinali wa Kanisa Katoliki baada ya mtangulizi wake kufa au kung'atuka. Baada ya kuchaguliwa papa mpya anaweza akajipatia jina jipya. Tangu tarehe 13 Machi 2013 ni Papa Fransisko, ambaye awali aliitwa Jorge Mario Bergoglio, kutoka Argentina.

Majina ya mapapa wengine wa Kanisa Katoliki yanapatikana katika orodha ya mapapa.

Mkuu wa VatikanoEdit

Papa ni pia mkuu wa nchi huru ya Mji wa Vatikano iliyopo ndani ya mji wa Roma (ambao ni mji mkuu wa Italia).[10]

Cheo cha "Papa" penginepoEdit

Cheo cha Papa hutumiwa pia na baadhi ya madhehebu mengine ya Kikristo kwa viongozi wao, hasa kwa mkuu wa Kanisa la Kikopti huko Misri.

Tazama piaEdit

TanbihiEdit

  1. American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Education.yahoo.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2010-08-11.
  2. Liddell and Scott. Oxford University Press. Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-02-18.
  3. Christ's Faithful - Hierarchy, Laity, Consecrated Life: The episcopal college and its head, the Pope. Catechism of the Catholic Church. Libreria Editrice Vaticana (1993). Iliwekwa mnamo 14 April 2013.
  4. Collins, Roger. Keepers of the keys of heaven: a history of the papacy. Introduction (One of the most enduring and influential of all human institutions, (...) No one who seeks to make sense of modern issues within Christendom - or, indeed, world history - can neglect the vital shaping role of the popes.) Basic Books. 2009. ISBN 978-0-465-01195-7.
  5. Faus, José Ignacio Gonzáles. "Autoridade da Verdade - Momentos Obscuros do Magistério Eclesiástico". Capítulo VIII: Os papas repartem terras - Pág.: 64-65 e Capítulo VI: O papa tem poder temporal absoluto – Pág.: 49-55. Edições Loyola. ISBN 85-15-01750-4. Embora Faus critique profundamente o poder temporal dos papas ("Mais uma vez isso salienta um dos maiores inconvenientes do status político dos sucessores de Pedro" - pág.: 64), ele também admite um papel secular positivo por parte dos papas ("Não podemos negar que intervenções papais desse gênero evitaram mais de uma guerra na Europa" - pág.: 65).
  6.   Jarrett, Bede (1913). "Papal Arbitration". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  7. Such as regulating the colonization of the New World. See Treaty of Tordesillas and Inter caetera.
  8. História das Religiões. Crenças e práticas religiosas do século XII aos nossos dias. Grandes Livros da Religião. Editora Folio. 2008. Pág.: 89, 156-157. ISBN 978-84-413-2489-3
  9. último Papa - Funções, eleição, o que representa, vestimentas, conclave, primeiro papa. Suapesquisa.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2013-02-18.
  10. Vatican City State - State and Government. Vaticanstate.va. Iliwekwa mnamo 2010-08-11.

MarejeoEdit

  • Barry, Rev. Msgr. John F. (2002). One Faith, One Lord: A Study of Basic Catholic Belief. New York: William H. Sadlier. ISBN 0-8215-2207-8. 
  • Bokenkotter, Thomas (2004). A Concise History of the Catholic Church. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-50584-1. 
  • Chadwick, Henry (1990). "The Early Christian Community". In John McManners. The Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-822928-3
      .

Marejeo mengineEdit

  • Brusher, Joseph S. (1959). Popes Through the Ages. Princeton, N.J: Van Nostrand. OCLC 742355324. 
  • Chamberlin, E. R. (1969). The Bad Popes. New York: Dial Press. OCLC 647415773. 
  • Dollison, John (1994). Pope-pourri. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-88615-8. 
  • Maxwell-Stuart, P. G. (1997). Chronicle of the Popes: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Papacy from St. Peter to the Present. London: Thames and Hudson. ISBN 0-500-01798-0. 
  • Norwich, John Julius (2011). The Popes: A History. London: Chatto & Windus. ISBN 978-0-7011-8290-8. 

Viungo vya njeEdit

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