Mwandiko wa Kichina

Mwandiko wa Kichina ni jumla ya alama zinazotumiwa kuandika lugha za Kichina. Mwandiko huo hutumia alama moja kwa neno lote kwa hiyo kila mtu anaelewa mwandiko hata akisoma na kutamka tofauti katika lahaja mbalimbali.

Mwandiko wa Kichina

Mwandiko wa alamaEdit

Kichina huandikwa kwa alama zinazomaanisha neno moja. Alama hizo hazimaanishi herufi fulani wala silabi jinsi ilivyo katika miandiko mingine. Kwa hiyo watu wawili wanaweza kusoma alama hizohizo na kutamka tofauti wakitumia lahaja tofauti au hata aina za Kichina tofauti; hata wasipoelewana wakati wa kuongea, wote wanaelewa maana ya alama hata wakitamka maneno tofauti.

Maneno mengi ya Kichina yana silabi moja tu. Kamusi kubwa ya lugha ina alama zaidi ya 40,000- Wachina wasomi wenye elimu nzuri hujua takriban alama 6,000 hadi 7,000. Gazeti la kawaida hutumia alama 3,000. Serikali inasema mtu ajua kuandika na kusoma kama ameshika angalau alama 2,000.

Tangu mapinduzi ya China ya 1949 serikali imeeneza alama zilizorahisishwa. Kuna pia mipango ya kulatinisha lugha yaani kuendeleza namna ya kuandika lugha kwa herufi za Kilatini.

Mwandiko wa Kichina ulikuwa pia msingi wa mwandiko wa Korea na Japani.

Kutoka picha kuwa alamaEdit

Chanzo cha alama kwenye mwandiko wa Kichina ni picha. Vyanzo hivyo vinafanana na mitindo iliyotumiwa kwingineko duniani kama Babeli. Lakini ilhali katika mifumo mingine picha zilirahisishwa na kutumiwa kwa silabi au sauti tu na kuwa herufi, China ilibaki na picha moja kwa neno moja ilhali picha zilirahisishwa na kuwa alama kwa urahisi wa kuandika haraka.

Tangu maungano ya kwanza ya China serikali kuu iliratibu usanifishaji wa alama. Alama jinsi zilivyosanifishwa miaka 1800 hutumiwa hadi leo hii.

Mabadiliko ya alama kwa "farasi" katika mwandiko wa Kichina tangu kale hadi leo
Mnamo mwaka 1500 KK - 1200 KK:
picha ya farasi
Mnamo mwaka 1200-700 KK:
picha ya farasi iliyorahisishwa
Mnamo mwaka 300 KK:
picha iliyorahisishwa zaidi
Kuanzia mwaka 200 KK:
alama rasmi ya maandishi
Tangu mwaka 200 BK:
alama sanifu (za zamani )
Tangu 1950:
alama sanifu zilizorahisishwa
           

Alama zilizorahisishwaEdit

Katika karne ya 20 kulikuwa na majadiliano nchini China kurahisisha namna ya kuandika maana Wachina wengi hawakuweza kuandika na kusoma au walijua alama chache tu. Wengine walipendekeza kuachana kabisa na alama za kidesturi na badala yake kuhamia alfabeti ya Kilatini. Wengine waliona itasaidia kupunguza idadi ya mistari na nukta katika alama zinazohitajika mara kwa mara.

Baada ya mapinduzi ya 1949 serikali ya Kikomunisti ilitangaza orodha ya alama zilizorahisishwa. Hizo zinafundishwa shuleni lakini zinatumiwa pamoja na alama za zamani ambazo ni tata zaidi, hasa kwa ajili ya istilahi ambazo hazitumiwi mara kwa mara.

Nchini Japani alama nyingi za Kichina zinatumiwa pamoja na alama za ziada kwa kuandika Kijapani. Pia Japani serikali ilifanya mabadiliko katika mwonekano wa alama kwa shabaha za kuzirahisisha ili zishikwe haraka zaidi na wanafunzi.

Hapo chini mifano kadhaa ya alama zinazotumiwa upande wa Kichina na Kijapani, pamoja na mabadiliko yao kwa lengo la kuzirahisisha:

Ulinganishi wa Alama Sanifu (za Zamani), Alama Sanifu Zilizorahisihwa na Alama sanifu za Kijapani za Kisasa
Kichina Kijapani Maana yake
Alama Sanifu za Kichina (za zamani) Alama za Kichina zilizorahisishwa
Alama zilizorahisishwa China Bara tu, lakini siyo Japani
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Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kununua
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). gari
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). nyekundu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). hamna, hakuna kitu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mashariki
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). farasi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). upepo
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). upendo
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). wakati
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ndege
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kisiwa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). lugha, neno
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kichwa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). samaki
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). bustani
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ndefu, kukua
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). karatasi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kitabu, hati
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). angalia, tazama
Alama zilizorahisishwa katika Japani lakini si China Bara
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). bandia, kukopa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). Buddha
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). maadili
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kusali, kuabudu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). nyeusi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). barafu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). sungura
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kila
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). udongo
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). hatua
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). neema
Alama zilizorahisishwa tofauti katika China na Japani
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). duara
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). sikia
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). halisi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). uthibitisho
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuuza
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kobe
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). sanaa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). vita, kupigana
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). taswira, picha
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). chuma
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kundi, kikosi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). Kugeuka
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ubaya, chuki
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). tele, kwa wingi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ubongo
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). shinikizo
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value)./Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuku
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). bei
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). muziki
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). hewa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ukumbi, ofisi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kazi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). upanga
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). umri, miaka
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuwaka
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kusifu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mbili
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). tafsiri
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuangalia, kutazama
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). meno
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). dawa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kusoma
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). uso
Alama zilizorahisishwa karibu sawa China bara na Japani
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). picha
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). sauti
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kujifunza
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mwili
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). nukta
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). ngano
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mdudu
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kizee, kilichopita
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuweza, kukutana
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). elfu kumi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mwizi, kuiba
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). hazina
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). nchi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). dawa
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). jozi
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). mchana, siku
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kuja
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). njano
Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 468: attempt to index field 'scripts' (a boolean value). Lua error in Module:Unicode_data at line 293: attempt to index local 'data_module' (a boolean value). kata, eneo

KujisomeaEdit

Early works of historical interest

Viungo vya njeEdit

Historia na muundo wa alama za Kichina
Online dictionaries and character reference
Matumizi ya alama za Kichina kwa kompyuta
  • Unihan Database: Chinese, Japanese, and Korean references, readings, and meanings for all the Chinese and Chinese-derived characters in the Unicode character set
  • Daoulagad Han – Mobile OCR hanzi dictionary, OCR interface to the UniHan database