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Boko Haram ni kundi la Waislamu wenye itikadi kali kaskazini mwa Nigeria; lina mwelekeo wa kijihadi na kutumia mbinu za ugaidi.

JinaEdit

Jina "Boko Haram" linatokana na lugha ya Kihausa likimaanisha "vitabu ni haramu" yaani "elimu ya kimagharibi ni haramu au dhambi".

HistoriaEdit

Boko Haram ilianzishwa na Yusuf Mohamed mwaka 2002 na inalenga kuanzisha dola la Kiislamu katika Nigeria ambako sharia ni sheria ya pekee. [1][2]

Tangu mwaka 2010 kundi hilo linatumia jina rasmi la ‏جماعة أهل السنة للدعوة والجهاد‎, jamāʿat ahl as-sunna li-d-daʿwa wa-l-ǧihād, yaani "jumuiya ya watu wa Sunna kwa ajili ya uenezaji (wa Uislamu) na jihadi". [3]

Imekadiriwa ya kwamba mapigano yaliyoanzishwa na Boko Haram au kutekelezwa dhidi yake yamesababisha vifo vingi. Rais wa Nigeria Jonathan Goodluck alidai Mei 2014 kuwa kundi lilisababisha vifo vya watu 12,000 na wajeruhiwa kwa maisha 8,000. [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Baada ya kushambulia shule, vituo vya polisi, makanisa na ofisi za serikali kundi lilitoa tamko mwaka 2012 kuwa linawapa Wakristo wote nafasi ya siku 3 kuondoka kaskazini mwa Nigeria au watauawa. Tangu tangazo lile mashambulio yameongezeka. Hawashambulii Wakristo na mapolisi pekee lakini pia idadi kubwa ya Waislamu ambao ndio wakazi wengi kaskazini.

Mnamo Aprili 2014 kundi la Boko Haram likashambulia mji wa Chibok katika jimbo la Borno, likaweka moto na kuharibu nyumba 170 na kuingia shule ya sekondari walipokamata wasichana zaidi ya 200.

Tarehe 6 Mei 2014, wasichana wengine 8 walitekwa na watu wenye silaha wanaofikiriwa kuwa wa kundi hilohilo.[11][12] Kiongozi wa Boko Haram, Shekau alitisha kuwauza mabinti kama watumwa. [13]

Tarehe 12 Mei 2014 video ya Boko Haram ilidai kuwa mabinti wote waweongokea Uislamu na watashikwa hadi wafungwa wa Boko Haram waliomo mkononi mwa serikali watakapoachishwa na kuwekwa huru. .[14]

TanbihiEdit

  1. Olugbode, Michael. "Nigeria: We Are Responsible for Borno Killings, Says Boko Haram", All Africa, 2 February 2011. Retrieved on 31 January 2012. "The sect in posters written in Hausa and pasted across the length and breadth of Maiduguri Wednesday morning signed by the Warriors of Jamaatu Ahlis Sunna Liddaawati Wal Jihad led by Imam Abu Muhammed Abubakar Bi Muhammed a.k.a. Shehu claimed they embarked on the killings in Borno ‘in an effort to establish Sharia system of government in the country’." 
  2. "Nigeria policemen in court trial for Boko Haram killing", BBC News, 13 July 2011. 
  3. "Innermost thoughts of The Islamist group Boko Haram", Reporters Without Borders. 
  4. "Nigeria school attack claims 42 lives", The Australian, 6 July 2013. Retrieved on 6 July 2013. 
  5. "School attack kills 30 in northeast Nigeria", Newsday, 6 June 2013. Retrieved on 6 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013. 
  6. Allen, John L Jr (2013). The Catholic Church: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford University Press, 166–67. 
  7. Campbell, John (2013). Nigeria: Dancing on the Brink. Rowman & Littlefield, 139. ISBN 978-1-4422-2157-4. 
  8. Pernice, Massimo. "Nigeria’s war on terrorism: Combating Boko Haram", The World Outline, May 21, 2013. 
  9. Pernice, Massimo. "Spitting in the face of peace: Boko Haram’s continued aims", The World Outline, April 18, 2013. 
  10. May 17, 2014 (2014-05-17). Boko Haram has killed over 12,000 Nigerians, plans to take over country, Jonathan says - Premium Times Nigeria. Premiumtimesng.com. Iliwekwa mnamo 2014-06-04.
  11. "Police: Suspected Boko Haram Gunmen Kidnap 8 More Girls In Northeast Nigeria", Reuters, 6 May 2014. 
  12. Tharoor, Ishaan. "8 questions you want answered about Nigeria's missing schoolgirls", The Washington Post, 5 May 2014. 
  13. "Nigeria group threatens to sell kidnapped girls", The Washington Post, 5 May 2015. Archived from the original on 8 May 2014. 
  14. Lanre Ola. "Boko Haram offers to swap kidnapped Nigerian girls for prisoners", May 12, 2014.