Kinyume na tohara ya wavulana matabibu wanaona hasara nyingi katika desturi hiyo. Ukeketaji unasababisha wasichana wengi kufa na wengine wengi kupatwa na maumivu makali wakati wa hedhi, wa tendo la ndoa na wa kujifungua.
Kwa sababu hizo serikali nyingi za dunia zimeupiga marufuku.
Juhudi zimefanikiwa kwa kiasi fulani katika baadhi ya nchi.
|Kiwango kikubwa sana||Kiwango kikubwa||Kiwango cha wastani||Kiwango cha chini||Kiwango cha chini sana|
|Jamhuri ya Afrika ya Kati
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- Dorkenoo, Efua. "Cutting the Rose: Female Genital Mutilation, the Practice and its Prevention, Minority Rights Group, 1994.
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- Sembène, Ousmane. Moolaadé, 2004, a film about abandoning FGM.
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Habari za maisha ya watuEdit
- Ali, Ayaan Hirsi. Infidel: My Life, Simon & Schuster, 2007: Ali experiences FGM at the hands of her grandmother.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Flower, Harper Perennial, 1999: autobiographical novel.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Dawn, Little, Brown, 2003: Dirie's work as UN Special Ambassador against FGM.
- Dirie, Waris. Desert Children, Virago, 2007: FGM in Europe
- Kasinga, Fauziya, and Bashir, Layli Miller. Do They Hear You When You Cry, Delacorte Press, 1998.
- El Saadawi, Nawal. Woman at Point Zero, Zed Books, 1975.
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