Kombe la Dunia la FIFA

Kombe la Dunia la FIFA au Kombe la dunia la soka ni mchuano wa kimataifa wa mchezo wa soka kwa wanaume. Iliamuliwa 28 Mei 1928 na Shirikisho la Soka Duniani (FIFA) kwa msukumo wa rais wake Jules Rimet, ilikuwa wazi kwa timu zote za mashirikisho yanayotambuliwa na FIFA, wakiwemo wataalamu, wakijitofautisha katika hili na mashindano ya Olimpiki. mpira wa miguu, wakati huo uliotengwa kwa wastaafu.

Ufaransa, mabingwa wa dunia mwaka 2018

Inafanyika kwa mara ya kwanza mnamo 1930, huko Uruguay (bingwa wa Olimpiki 1924 na 1928), na kila baada ya miaka minne (isipokuwa mnamo 1942 na 1946 kwa sababu ya Vita Kuu ya Pili ya Dunia. Tangu toleo la pili, mnamo 1934, Kombe la Dunia limejumuisha awamu ya kufuzu kwa kanda za bara, ambayo kwa sasa imeandaliwa na kila shirikisho la bara, na awamu ya mwisho ambayo inaleta pamoja timu zilizofuzu (16 kutoka 1934 hadi 1978, 24 kutoka 1982 hadi 1994, 32 kutoka 1998) katika nchi moja au zaidi kwa takriban mwezi mmoja. Awamu hii ya mwisho kwa sasa inajumuisha raundi ya kwanza kwa makundi ambayo yanafuzu timu kumi na sita kwa awamu ya muondoano kutoka kwa hatua ya 16. Nchi mwenyeji wa awamu ya mwisho imeteuliwa na FIFA na inafuzu moja kwa moja.

Kati ya matoleo ishirini na moja yaliyoshindaniwa hadi 2018, ni mataifa manane tu ambayo tayari yameshinda taji angalau mara moja. Brazili, timu pekee iliyocheza katika hatua zote za mwisho za mashindano hayo, inashikilia rekodi ya kuwa na mataji matano ya dunia na kushinda haki ya kuhifadhi Kombe la Jules-Rimet mnamo 1970 baada ya ushindi wake wa 3 wa fainali katika mashindano hayo, na Pelé, mchezaji bingwa wa dunia mara tatu pekee. Italia na Ujerumani wana mataji manne. Uruguay, washindi nyumbani wa toleo la kwanza, Argentina na Ufaransa wameshinda Kombe mara mbili, Uingereza na Uhispania mara moja.

Mashindano ndilo tukio la michezo linalotazamwa zaidi kwenye televisheni duniani pamoja na Michezo ya Olimpiki na Kombe la Dunia la Kriketi. Kiuchumi, mashindano ni chanzo muhimu cha mapato kwa FIFA na yanaweza kuwa na athari chanya katika ukuaji wa sekta fulani za shughuli na kwa maendeleo ya nchi mwenyeji. Miundombinu, ikiwa ni pamoja na viwanja, hujengwa au kukarabatiwa katika hafla hii.

Historia

 
Jules Rimet aliunda Kombe la Dunia.

Kulikuwa na jaribio la FIFA kuandaa mashindano ya kimataifa ya kandanda kati ya nchi zilizo nje ya Olimpiki mnamo 1906 na hii ilifanyika Uswizi. Ilikuwa ni siku ya mapema sana kwa soka la kimataifa na historia rasmi ya FIFA inaeleza mashindano hayo kuwa yameshindwa. Mnamo 1914, FIFA ilikubali kutambua mashindano ya Olimpiki kama "mashindano ya kandanda ya ulimwengu kwa wastaafu", na ilichukua jukumu la kuandaa hafla hizo. Hii ilisababisha njia kwa mashindano ya kwanza ya kandanda ya kimataifa ya mabara, katika Olimpiki ya Majira ya 1920, iliyoshinda na Ubelgiji. Uruguay ilishinda mashindano hayo mnamo 1924 na 1928.

Historia ya ubingwa wa ulimwengu wa mpira wa miguu ilianza mnamo 1928, wakati rais wa FIFA, Jules Rimet, aliamua kuanzisha mashindano kwa timu za kitaifa ilipanga moja kwa moja bila ya Olimpiki. FIFA inaamua kuandaa Kombe la Dunia la FIFA la kwanza kama Uruguay, ambayo ilishinda medali za dhahabu katika kandanda kwenye Olimpiki ya Majira ya 1924 na Olimpiki ya Majira ya 1928 na mnamo 1930 inaadhimisha miaka mia moja ya uhuru.

Shukrani tu kwa kujitolea kwa Jules Rimet, iliwezekana kuhakikisha ushiriki wa timu 13, ambazo 4 tu za Uropa (Ufaransa, Ubelgiji, Yugoslavia na Romania) na zingine zinazowakilisha nchi za Amerika (pamoja na Uruguay pia zilikuwepo. Chile, Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay, Brazili, Peru, Mexiko na Marekani). Kwa vile idadi ya chini iliyowekwa kuwa 16 haikufikiwa na hakukuwa na raundi za kufuzu zilizochezwa kwa mara ya pekee katika historia. Uruguay ilishinda Argentina 4-2 mbele ya watazamaji 93,000 katika fainali iliyochezwa Montevideo.

Finali

 
Uruguay, mabingwa wa dunia mwaka 1930
 
Brazili, mabingwa wa dunia mwaka 1970. Ndiyo timu ya taifa iliyofanikiwa zaidi katika Kombe la Dunia la FIFA, ikiwa imetawazwa mshindi mara tano
 
Maradona akifunga dhidi ya Uingereza mwaka 1986
Mechi ilishinda wakati wa ziada
* Mechi ilishinda kwa mikwaju ya penalti
Orodha ya fainali za Kombe la Dunia la FIFA
Msimu Washindi Alama[1] Nafasi ya pili Uwanja wa fainali Nchi mwenyeji Refs
1930 Uruguay 4–2 Argentina Estadio Centenario Montevideo, Uruguay 68,346 [2][3]
1934 Italia 2–1 Chekoslovakia Stadio Nazionale PNF Rome, Italia 50,000 [4][5]
1938 Italia 4–2 Hungaria Stade Olympique de Colombes Colombes, Ufaransa 45,000 [6][7]
1950 Uruguay 2–1 Brazili Estadio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazili 173,850 [8][9]
1954 Ujerumani ya Magharibi 3–2 Hungaria Wankdorf Stadium Bern, Uswisi 60,000 [10][11]
1958 Brazili 5–2 Uswidi Råsunda Stadium Solna, Uswidi 51,800 [12][13]
1962 Brazili 3–1 Chekoslovakia Estadio Nacional Santiago, Chile 69,000 [14][15]
1966 Uingereza 4–2 Ujerumani ya Magharibi Wembley Stadium London, Uingereza 96,924 [16][17]
1970 Brazili 4–1 Italia Estadio Azteca Mexico, Mexiko 107,412 [18][19]
1974 Ujerumani ya Magharibi 2–1 Uholanzi Olympiastadion München, Ujerumani ya Magharibi 75,200 [20][21]
1978 Argentina 3–1 Uholanzi Estadio Monumental Buenos Aires, Argentina 71,483 [22][23]
1982 Italia 3–1 Ujerumani ya Magharibi Santiago Bernabéu Madrid, Hispania 90,000 [24][25]
1986 Argentina 3–2 Ujerumani ya Magharibi Estadio Azteca Mexico, Mexiko 114,600 [26][27]
1990 Ujerumani ya Magharibi 1–0 Argentina Stadio Olimpico Rome, Italia 73,603 [28][29]
1994 Brazili 0–0
(3–2 pen.)
Italia Rose Bowl Pasadena, Marekani 94,194 [30][31]
1998 Ufaransa 3–0 Brazili Stade de France Saint-Denis, Ufaransa 75,000 [32][33]
2002 Brazili 2–0 Ujerumani International Stadium Yokohama, Japani 69,029 [34][35]
2006 Italia 1–1
(5–3 pen.)
Ufaransa Olympiastadion Berlin, Ujerumani 69,000 [36][37]
2010 Hispania 1–0 Uholanzi Soccer City Johannesburg, Afrika Kusini 84,490 [38][39]
2014 Ujerumani 1–0 Argentina Estadio do Maracanã Rio de Janeiro, Brazili 74,738 [40][41]
2018 Ufaransa 4–2 Kroatia Luzhniki Stadium Moscow, Urusi 78,011 [42][43]

Nchi washindi

 
Pele akiwa juu baada ya kushinda Fainali ya Kombe la Dunia la 1970. Ndiye mchezaji pekee aliyeshinda Kombe la Dunia mara tatu.
 
Ujerumani ilinyanyua kombe la dunia mwaka 2014. Kwa jumla, Ujerumani imefika fainali ya Kombe la Dunia mara 8, mara nyingi zaidi kuliko nchi nyingine yoyote.
 
Italia imeshinda mataji manne na kutokea katika fainali nyingine mbili.
Kufuatana na nchi
Nafasi Nchi Mshindi
x
Mwaka Nafasi ya pili
x
Nafasi ya tatu
x
Nafasi ya nne
x
Fainali
x
Nusufainali
x
1 Brazili 5 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, 2002 2 2 2 7 11
2 Ujerumani / Ujerumani ya Magharibi 4 1954, 1974, 1990, 2014 4 4 1 8 13
3 Italia 4 1934, 1938, 1982, 2006 2 1 1 6 8
4 Argentina 2 1978, 1986 3 5 5
5 Ufaransa 2 1998, 2018 1 2 1 3 6
6 Uruguay 2 1930, 1950 3 1 5
7 Uingereza 1 1966 2 1 3
Hispania 1 2010 1 1 2
9 Uholanzi 3 1 1 3 5
10 Chekoslovakia / Ucheki 2 2 2
Hungaria 2 2 2
12 Uswidi 1 2 1 1 4
13 Kroatia 1 1 1 2
14 Poland 2 2
15 Austria 1 1 2
Ureno 1 1 2
Ubelgiji 1 1 2
18 Chile 1 1
Uturuki 1 1
Marekani 1 1
21 Yugoslavia / Serbia 2 2
22 Bulgaria 1 1
Umoja wa Kisovyeti / Urusi 1 1
Korea Kusini 1 1

Mfungaji bora

 
Eusébio aliifungia Ureno mabao tisa kwenye Kombe la Dunia la 1966.
 
Gerd Müller alifunga mabao kumi kwa Ujerumani ya Magharibi kwenye Kombe la Dunia la 1970.
Msimu Mchezaji Malengo
1930 Guillermo Stábile 8
1934 Oldrich Nejedlý 5
1938 Leônidas da Silva 7
1950 Ademir de Menezes 9
1954 Sándor Kocsis 11
1958 Just Fontaine 13
1962 Garrincha 4
Vavá
Leonel Sánchez
Flórián Albert
Drazan Jerkovic
Valentin Ivanov
1966 Eusébio 9
1970 Gerd Müller 10
1974 Grzegorz Lato 7
1978 Mario Kempes 6
1982 Paolo Rossi 6
1986 Gary Lineker 6
1990 Salvatore Schillaci 6
1994 Hristo Stoichkov 6
Oleg Salenko
1998 Davor Suker 6
2002 Ronaldo 8
2006 Miroslav Klose 5
2010 Thomas Müller 5
David Villa
Wesley Sneijder
Diego Forlán
2014 James Rodríguez 6
2018 Harry Kane 6

Tanbihi

  1. FIFA World Cup Finals since 1930. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2019-05-03. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  2. 1930 FIFA World Cup Uruguay. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2007-10-20. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  3. "World Cup history – Uruguay 1930", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  4. 1934 FIFA World Cup Italy. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-03-23. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  5. "World Cup history – Italy 1934", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  6. 1938 FIFA World Cup France. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-21. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  7. "World Cup history – France 1938", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. 
  8. 1950 FIFA World Cup Brazil. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2018-02-01. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  9. "World Cup history – Brazil 1950", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-05-26. 
  10. 1954 FIFA World Cup Switzerland. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2012-07-20. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  11. "World Cup history – Switzerland 1954", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. 
  12. 1958 FIFA World Cup Sweden. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-02-17. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  13. "World Cup history – Sweden 1958", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  14. 1962 FIFA World Cup Chile. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-02-17. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  15. "World Cup history – Chile 1962", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  16. 1966 FIFA World Cup England. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-03-25. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  17. "World Cup history – England 1966", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  18. 1970 FIFA World Cup Mexico. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-25. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  19. "World Cup history – Mexico 1970", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  20. 1974 FIFA World Cup Germany. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-26. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  21. "World Cup history – Germany 1974", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  22. 1978 FIFA World Cup Argentina. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-02-12. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  23. "World Cup history – Argentina 1978", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-13. 
  24. 1982 FIFA World Cup Spain. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-30. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  25. "World Cup history – Spain 1982", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  26. 1986 FIFA World Cup Mexico. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-29. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  27. "World Cup history – Mexico 1986", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-08-04. 
  28. 1990 FIFA World Cup Italy. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2013-11-15. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  29. "World Cup history – Italy 1990", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  30. 1994 FIFA World Cup USA. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-02-02. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  31. "World Cup history – USA 1994", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2013-01-14. 
  32. 1998 FIFA World Cup France. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2011-07-21. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  33. "World Cup history – France 1998", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  34. 2002 FIFA World Cup Korea/Japan. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2009-01-30. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  35. "World Cup history – Japan & South Korea 2002", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. Retrieved on 2022-08-16. Archived from the original on 2012-06-30. 
  36. 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2019-02-02. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  37. "Zidane off as Italy win World Cup", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation), 4 May 2006. 
  38. 2010 FIFA World Cup South Africa. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2019-01-09. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  39. "Netherlands 0–1 Spain (aet)", BBC Sport (British Broadcasting Corporation). 
  40. Estadio Do Maracana, Rio de Janeiro. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) (18 January 2012). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2018-12-12. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  41. McNulty, Phil. "Germany 1–0 Argentina", BBC Sport, BBC, 13 July 2014. 
  42. Formidable France secure second title. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) (15 July 2018). Jalada kutoka ya awali juu ya 2018-07-18. Iliwekwa mnamo 2022-08-16.
  43. More than half the world watched record-breaking 2018 World Cup. FIFA.com (Fédération Internationale de Football Association) (21 December 2018).

Viungo vya nje

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